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SDWAKD D. COl'K avi, ]. J. KINGSUtY. 

V " U «E XXVI. «„.&«. Garten. 






Oases Which Inflnente Topojuplue 

i] Changes, 

Lr.a ,.x/o Cos 

DITi Vim*... 


On ProbleTnaiit Ji-i.ris !■ 

'B™. ".■.■.■."" 


TIil- Shf!'.]>- .M..:.u-l:l ...I I'.t'.i, 


Ceremonial Circuit ol the CaidLnal fr 

■ii:k 1'Hikf.s 

The Ash-Oay HmE! SpLdct. C. M. 


Phenomena and Development of Feci 

::::hiti ..;. It 

!™"r"wft 28? 

Nol*s Upon [lie ATiaiomj and Hi™] 


(llluit.aied.l C L. rl»M<-j[ 


On the Habits and Afflnilii-t r,F ill. 

Q/MgM. (lllostialed.j E.D 
A llural M.mfcj of Honda, C. n. \k 


Nat,,ral Aii U lui;ieh. S. V. CLBVS.KI-.iH h 

m.d." .!.'.!! 


TV Two Schools ol Plant Phyiicloj) 

as at Present F.*ilfinc. in 

England, fc, L Gptjibv. 

The Zoology of [he Snafce Halm of 1 


Record ot North American 7-.!e. c ». 

311. 389. 7% 7M 

rlisroryof Ihe Moas, F. W. HVTtan,' 

■:l) F. A. EmbryoloGy, (lllustral 

Am..', .L-. ]„:.,„. 

:;.,!., Li /.colne 

litlcl 111 firis. F.a.iee.'llsSli. M 

. ]!S. sirs.. 
II. F. us,. 

The Co.ilenijK.tsrs- F-nlntlon ol Man 


Hen:,! KvoSutWa ... S!,.:i and ibe Lowe. Animals, 

.1 Ii.,|,iv.;T. 



Tin [jnlu.ildo- ..f %,.m Hiver. Ful 

Illinois, W. 


The Dficnlties „, it.e Ikrer.iisry Ti. 

:;;,:"" i'i:jn- 

1,-iJl. II. 1 


.::.:.,: (11. 



Wl.y the Mmkinj. Bird! Lefl New Je 

,.L.-.\ Lit 

clerical Heal 


wood. Ph. : 

Tlie Head nf mi E.v.hryi; A my;: . ■ :,, j . '.. ;-\. Kl'S-.-r.Vv.. 
Iiti^riinP; ■>< the Science and tit ihc Utpaittnent of ■i''-. '<. V C\f.: kv::kk. M. L» 

tribulwfl, W. E.T*Vjnp '. 

The ftabfem Of Wnri'm: HialM^f, G. W. ftEI.O Coniparnlivf V::y-\ -!■■,■•■ iif H-"-pji3i'cn r S. IE. i'.i. 

t&ilj ol 

Oiillm, Shtl".-l-t4i|« ..i" ilii *i. .'•.lui'E., !■:■:..:.: 

VhiE is :m Annulled Caimac."? £ 

C. Ntr 

Editorials.— The Address of i [eels or Stomach, vs. 

Brains, 235; Donation of General Isaac J. Wistar, 235; Mongoose in 
the West, 236; Correct out hange of Publish- 

ers, 237; Rational Nomenclature, 319; Reduction of Number and 
Classification of the Members of the National Academy of Sciences, 
319; Western State Univ. s, 396; University 

Building in Lincoln, Nebraska, 753 ; Meeting of the American Asso- 

cal Table at Naples, 834; Vertebrata of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
834; World's Congress Auxiliary of the Columbian Exposition, 930; 
Man's Powers of Observation, 931 ; The Reduction in the Appropria- 
tion to the United States Geological Survey, 930; Changes in the 
Courses of Study in the Grammar Schools of Massachusetts, 1014. 

Recent Books and Pamphlets.— 37, 144, 223, 321, 597, 502, 607, 835, 

NTLlTERATURE.-Reportofthe i >r 1887,39; But- 

ler's Catalogue of the Birds of Indiana, 40; K 

: »che andTopographische Anatomie des Hundes. Bearbei- 
tet von Ellenberger und Baum, | are of Parasites, 

231; Recent Zo< I ; Mennier's Les Methodes de 

M neralogie,328; TheWormsui I 
Loeb's Heliotropic _ Animals, 400; Cope's Homologies ol 

Study of an Oak Tree, 690; Flower's Study of the Hoi 
Fur of Animals, Lacroix-Dauliard, 692; EimerontheO, 
Muscular Tissue. 837; Beecher's Studies of the Brad 
On the Occurrence of Artesian and Other Undergrou- 
Texas, Eastern New Mexico and Indian Territory West of the «J7th 

Art, 936 ; Newell's Outline Lessons in B 

of Monkeys, 1019; Parker's Elementary Biology, 1021 ; -War' 

Thierleben, Kriechthiere und Lurche, 

Lessons in Botany, 937 ; Garner's" Speech 

Elementary Biology, 1021 ; Apgar's Trees 

Mule Book, 

Geology and Paleontology.— The Crystalline Cambrian Deposits in Massachu- 
setts, 156; The Fauna of the Armorician Sandstones, 15 6 : Relations 
of the Chemung-Catskill Group to the Lower Carboniferous 157 • 
Water-Bearing Horizons of Southern New Jersey, 157 ; Pr es of the 
London Geological Society for 1891, 158; Interval Between the Gla- 
cial Epochs, 158; Arkansas Geological Survey, 1890, 158 ; Geological 
Survey of Texas, 1890, 158 j Kj ; The Sirocco 

*f a , D'smtc. ■ brate Fossils at Samos, 243 ; 

Geologic Correlation by Means of Fossil Plants, 243; The Eocene of 
the United States, 330; A I Xanthidia, 333 • 

The North American Coal Supply, 409 ; ' 

France, 410: Bones and Other Mammalia, 

410; On the Correlation of Moraines with Raised Beaches of Lake 
Erie, 412; Glacial Move: - Tonga Islands, 

115 Fre^h-Water Diatomace us I) fr •, Hai ,-d Plains of Texas, 

i93; On the Separation and Study of the 
Heavy Accessories of Rock. . r tta at Roches- 

ter New \ or , *;.>5 ; < leoi r; )4; ThePacific 

I the Laramie, 
,56; The Elevation of Mount Orizaba or ( 

Glacial Catastrophe in Savoy, 938; The Iron Ores of the Lake Super- 

jlogy of Nicaragua, 939 ; O 
k on Sa ' 

on Geology and Paleontology, 940 ; Crook on Saurodonti :.. from Kan 
sas, 941 ; On the Permanent and Temporary Dentitions of Certain 
Three-Toed Horses, 942 ; American Devonian Fishes Found in Bel- 
gium. 1025; The Geology of Borneo, 1026; Phosphates and Marls of 
Alabama, 1026; Keves' Mississippi Section, 1027; Geology of the 
Crazy Mounts : ■% of New [ersev, TSUI, 1 028; 
A Hvena and Other Carnivora from Texas, 1028; Geological News, 
50, 159, 333, 416, 509, 845, 944 

Geography and Travels.— The Galapagos Islands, 41; North Greenland 
Expedition, 43; Labrador's Fauna and Flora, 43; Studies of the Gulf 
Stream, 44; Recent Australian Exploration, 237; The Peary North 
Greenland Expedition 

Mineralogy and Petrography.— Petrographical News, 52, 162, 244, 334, 416, 

515*, 613, 699, 770, 850 ; 

neous, 58. 340 516; Quartz and 
Feldspar IncI The Basalts of Cassel, 511 ; The 
RocksofPiedm. i teau. 51 1 : I D te the Andes, 512; The 
Porphyry of 1 1 I 3 ; Nova Scotian 
Gmelinite,514; The Basalt of Stempel, 610; The Crystalline Rocks 
of Tawmela, Finland, 611; The Eruptives of Cabo de-Gata, 696 ; A 
MeliliteRoc: 897; The Sanidinite Bombs of 
Menet and Monac, 697 ; Igneous Rocks from Montana, 698; Mount 
Heckla Liparites, 766; Bostonite and Monchiquite from Lake Cham- 
plain, 766; The Serpentine of the East Central Alps, 767 ; Thermo- 
metamorphum, 847 ; Two New Rocks, 849 ; Optical Anomalies, 849; 
The Geology of the Raise nite-Garnet Gran- 
ulite from the Tirolese Alps, 946; Tufaceous Slates from Wales, 947; 
Alteration Products of Diabase from Friedemdorf, 947 ; Camptonite 
Dykes in Maine, 948; Predazzites and Pencatites, 948 ; Josephinite, a 
New Nickel-Iron Alloy, 949; New Instruments 

Botany.— Notes on the Flora of Western South Dakota, 60, &H; Ferns of the 
Black Hills, 2 ma coliforme Dicks 

in Florida. 34 i ■■.■'•: Popular Botany, 344 ; New 

Studies in Fecundation, 424 ; Development of the Ovule in Grinddia 

Rochester Me tt< ra and Species, 

858 ; Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, 860 ; The Development of the 
Ovule of Aster and Solidago,954; Botanical Teachers and Text-Books, 

957 ; Development of the Floral Organs in Aster and Solidago 

Zoology— Protozoa, 64; Trematodes, 65, 778; Cestodes, 65; Nema- 

California,' 70; On the Presence of an Operculum in the Aspre- 
dinidre, 71 ; The Barn Owl n M n sou, 71 ; The Ruffled Grouse 
in Hudson, Ohio, 71; On Some Peculiarities in the Structure of the 
Cervical Vet The Armadillo in 

Texas, 72; The Arachnoid of the Brain, 73; The Nervous System of 
Echinoderms, 171; The Land Molluscan Fauna of British New 
Guinea, 172: The Pvcnogonid Eve, 172; Lateral Sense Organs of 
Elasmobranchs, 173 ; South American Siluroids, 173 ; The Spermato- 
phores of Diemyctvlus, 173; A New Species of Wandering Albatross, 
175 ; The Temperaiure of the Dog, 175; Zoological News, 177, 264, 

257; The Woi Fl ' shes from Chi . 

California/ST; Fresh Wat'er' Sponges ,^45 ;1>arS t esTf ^lmon" 
345; Anatomy of Stenostoma, 345; The Systematic Position of Orthel- 
Species of Panopseus, 346 ; Gamasid Mites and Ants, 347 ; Lepidoo- 
tera of Buffalo, 347 ; The Position of the Solenoconch*. 347 ; The 
Genera of Enteropneusta, 348; Extinct or Nearly Ext 
349 ; The Limpet's Strength „ Opinions Upon 

the Poisonous Nature of tne Bite of the Heloderma, 431 ; The Cervi- 
cal Vertebra of the Monoir, . . tion of the Rdn _ 
deer Into Alaska, 435 ; Nomenclature of Mammalian Molar Cus™ 
436; The Classification of the Anthromedusan Jelly-fishes 5 9 , 
Free-Swimming Sporocyst?. 52 

North America I , ep idoptera 521 : 

wo**"? C T^ U ? d ^ SCld! ' rgans of Sharks! 

522 ; Parallel Color-Pattern , v Gemis of B ' 

(Euderma),523; Human Rumination, 523; Temperature and I Color 

Hudson River, \mniota,780; Twisting of he 

Umbilical Cord, 781 ; Fortuitous Variation, 861 ; Structure of Calca- 
reous Sponges, 863 ; On Ed. r ., g65 Th 
Haemal Region of Echinodei and Snakes in 
India, 867; The Phylogeny of the Apteryx, 867; Ridgway on the 
Anatomy of Humming-Bir h :m ° n c occidia 
958; Recent « . , Western Can' 
ada,961; A New Species of Eutaenia from Western Pennsylvania" 
964; The Cervical Vertebra of Monotremata, 965; On Nedonema 
of the Fami 

mbr Vj*gy--V* the Development of Nereis dumerilii, 7 4 ; Development of 
the Lobster, ,7; Embryology of the American Alligator, 77; Epigene- 
sis or Evolution, 178; Regeneration of Lost Parts*, 180; EmbJySlogy 

l^Ji, w W i; Thyreoglossal 

Tract and the ia in Mar £ 266; 

^ r -H°"S nit? ; •-' iri 'an'oph 6 

■■:- ■, - .:;:.^' ,. ;; -' ■ v..'-'- 

Hie lajlinthe Unman 1' ■ .ins in the Limbs 

nd Blood Corpuscles 


n0 No a te C on S^P W V Emh ^^Y of a Nematode" 

* TO 1047 

Entomology. -T^ Ox Warble Fly, 78 ; Spontaneous Ignition of Carbon Bisu 
S 2 :Ul A 715; e Ltc: f^^ 

Robertson Cyanide Be, 

; Shufeldt on the Anat 

On the Significance of Sj^S^HST 

53 : A Spider Enemy of Oend . 
Biology of the I G?P>7 Moth, 446; Notes on 

Harvest-Spider. ,30; Recent Bulletins, 531 ; 

7 1 2 ; Color Preferences of the Carpet Beetle, 

its, 714; Dr. Linl 
:he Clover Mite, 715; Harv^ 

Seventh F 

Notes, 786; Protective Resemblance in Trombidiuro, 786; The South 
Dakota Insectary, 786; Wasps and Humming-Birds, 787; Recent 
Publications, 788, 873 ; Habits c 

)f Aphanogasterfulva Roger, 9 
linch Bugs in Ne\ " 

Horn Fly, 872; Chinch Bugs in New Hampshire, 872; 

Ammophila affinis, 873 ; Some Florida Spiders, 873 ; Entomology a 

Rochester, 874; Iowa Insects, 968 ; Dist: 

Encyrtime, 969; Directions for Collecting bisects, 970; Number o 

Microscopy.— Notes on Celloidin Technique, 354 ; 

Physiology.— The Functions of the Nervous System of the Myriopoda 

Archeology and Ethnology. — The International Congress of Anthropology and 
Prehistoric Archeology of Paris of 1889, 185; When will the Earth be 
Entirely Peopled? 187; Man and the Mylodon 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies, 83, 188, 274, 357, 448, 789, 879 

Scientific News, 101, 276, 358, 452, 535, 634, 717, 790, 886, 973 


Albite Schi.'tofilTOsa 

ISi.-i n.. 


: - - - 


American Devonian Fishes found 

i» Btrlsium 


1 ical Table at Na- 

Vmencan Microscopical Society.... 

\mcncan Morj. 





i of an Embryo... 



3H7 5S0 Basalt c 

r Stempel 610 

Bascanium constrictor Linn 744 

Bascanium flagelliforme Catoby... 745 
Baur, G , Cervical Vertebrae of the 

Monotremata 43-5 

Baur, G., Peculiarities in the Struc- 

The American Naturalist. 

Methodes de Synthese e 

„ era logie 

Bear River Foi 

and Ev 
Bessey, C. ; 

Bifurcated Anneli 
Biology of the Cha 
Biological Depart 

Brandt, Edwa: 

Budding in Hydroids 

Burial Mound of Flori. 

Biology at the Leland Stanford 

Biological Table at Nau'les ''.......''. 

Birds of Indiana, Catalogue of 


3 Method of Decalcifies 

Boston Society ol 

482 593 



ical Chan*, 
Caverns of Central Am, 
Cedroxylon ryedalense. 

Portage Co., O... 
lence Topograph- 

! Rochester Meeting... 
ins and Boulder Belts.! 

Ceremonial Cirt 



Cope, E. : 


Cope, E. 

Laramie.... 756 

Chemical Relatio 

Chinch Bugs in New » 
Chlorite Analyses V. 

Classification' of ti 
Claorhynchus trih 
Cleavage Cells.... 
Clevenger, S. V., 
Clymenia neapoli 
Cnemidophorus g 
Cnemidophorus te 

fiom Kansas.... 941 

; Correlation ol '"■' 

Beaches of Lake Erie., 
i Cottus beldingii 

C ^' ' i ■:.. 

Courses of Stud 
Cretaceous Flora'.! 


Creiacic Marine Curie 

Compound Asc 

Flysch in ! 
Conn, H. W., ! 

Conophyllum .. 

Crinoids from Piedmoi 

Crystalline Cambrian Deposit: 

The American Naturalist. 

\ARTERS of Canada.. 

Mollusca of Poi 

;Co., O.. 


in Aster and Solidago, 
Development of the Lobster 

Development of the Ovule o 

and Solidago 

Development of the Renal < 

;er Enemy of 

: Entomologists Assc 
i , ^34 , 3 l"6i "396," 753 ," "i 

Entomological Co 

10 branch Develo; 

Embryology of a Nematode. 

Embryology of Rotifers 

Embryonic Veins in the Lii 


772 MO Entomology, 

512 I oUS, 7112, 780, 871.. 

873 | Entomology at Rochester. 

1025 | Entwickluni 


j Earthquake in Jap 
Earthworms in Yoi 

Etching with Hydrofluoric Acid.... 

Etheostoma boreale 

Etheostoma giintheri 

Etheostoma nigrum 

Etheostoma quappella 

Etheostoma wrighti 



Eutaenia brachystomn 

Eutaenia proxima 

I dorsaiis'.'.'.'.'.".'..".'.'.'.'.'" 


Euzophera semifuneralis 


Evolution of the Moon 

Evolution in Science, Philosophy 

Ewaidl j! W"."."".".*.'*.".'.".*."."."."""'*."."" 

Experimental Embryology... 367 

Exploring Expedition of the Mu- 
seum of Natural History of 
New York 

Extinct Vertebrates 

Eycleshymer, A. C, Celloidin 

FASCIOLA americana 65 
Fasciola carnosa 65 

Fauna of the Armorician 


Fauna of the Blanco Epoch 

Fayalite 56 

Fecundation 103 

Fecundation and Development 


Ferns of the Black Hills. 


Fewkes, J. W., Ceremonial Circuit 
of the Cardinal Points 

Fibres of Sharpen . 

Field., G. W„ Review of Lemon's 
Morphology of the Vertebrate 
Uro-genitaf System 

FieM. G. W., The Problem of Ma- 
rine Biology 

I iariacervina 

Fishes from Western Canada 

962 ; beitet von EUenbeiger unc 

962 i Braun 

968 Fischer, M., Rules of Nomencla 

963 ' ture Adopted by the Interna 
260 tional Zoological C o n g r e s i 
778 held in Paris, France, 1889.. 
168 Fish Commission of the Unitec 
031 States, Report of for 1887 

964 Fishes from Chihuahua, Mexico.. 

748 Fishes of South America 

748 Flora of Western S. Dakota... 6< 

749 Florida Lake Basin 


353 Foran 

975 Fortuitous Variation 

Birds 160 

056 Fresh Water Fishes of South 

836 Fresh Water Sponges 

634 Frog Embryos 

580 Functions of the Nervous System 
of the Myriopoda 


348 pAGE, S. H.— The Comparative 
VJ Physiology of Respiration 

■ ■ ; 

960 Garnet 

156 '- Geography and Trav 

058 i Geomys bursarius 

., :. .- 

424 51.9. 741 


340 1891 

Geologic Correlation by Means of 
Fossil Plants 

84£ 988'......'. ! ! '. 

Geology of Borneo 

Geology of the Crazy Mountains- 
Geology of the Kaiserstuhlgebirge. 
Geology of the Massive Rocks of 

Germ -CeHs. 1 1.. °"^.. .'. . '... ..'.'.'.'.' 


xiv The A 

Gilbert, G. K., Evolution of the 


Gillette's Observations Upon Injur- 

Glacial Catastrophe in Savoy 

Glacial Epoch in Central Europe- 
Glacial Groove on Kelley island', 

Glacial Movements '""" 

Gmelinite from Nova Scotia 

Gneises of United States 

< l> -id ie .../.!y/////////.!V""."'".'."." 

Graber, Veit 

■ Graeff's Expedition to the Trop cs. 
Graeff's Geology of the Kaiser- 

Granitite from^Far'eoiie,' France'.'.'.'. 

Granites of United States 

Gregory, E. L., The Two Schools 
of Plant Physiology as at 
Present Existing in Germany 
and England 211 

Grindelia squarrosa 

Growth of the Ovum in the I v.l 

Gulf Stream Studies 

Gulland's Method of Paraffin Sec- 
tions to the Slide 

Gymnorhynchus reptans 

Gypsum Crystals 

Gypsy Moth 

Habits and Affinities of Notoryc- 
tes typhlops 

Haemal Region of Echino- 

Hsematobia serrata 79 

Haggar, G 

Heredity of Acqufa 

Halictus anomalous 

Halictu> ashmeadii 

Halictus cephalicus 


5 i S ;;;;; 

Halictus longiceps 

Halsted, B. D., Botany at 'the 
Rochester Meeting...... 

Haplc ■■ 

merican Naturalist. [Vo 

Harvest Spiders 32, 1 

Hassall, A., Recent Work on I 

Haug's Phloroglu 

Heredity and Germ Cells.. 

Heron, Roger, 
Herrick,C. L.. 
Herrick, C. L. 

;tology of 

the Prosencephalon of Teleosts 112 
Heterodon platyrhinus 747 

Hopkin's Seaside 
Hubernite Crystals 

.History of the Moas 361 

gneous Rocks from Mc 

mbedding Blastoderm c 
Collodion ., 

idiana Academy of Sciences, 92 1 

fusorial Earths of | 

sectarium of Illinois 

sectary in South Dakota 

insect Parasites 

Affecting Cabbage 

Iron Ores of San Paulo, 

JACKSON, R. T., Review of 
Beecher's Studies of the Brach- 

James, J. F„ On Problematic 

, J. S., On Recent Zoolog- 

ABRADOR Granite f 

Labrador's Fauna and Flora.. 

1 Laramie Formation 

715 I Lateral-Line of Shark* 

ST,'} Lateral Sen*e-On;ans of Elasino- 

961 j branchs ' 

Latonopsis occidentalis 

15 I Lautente 

249 Italy 

:!.;4 Lee, S. A., Report on an Expedi- 

96 tion to Labrador 

968 Lepidoptera 618 

o.'i Leucitouhviv-, of the Laacher-See 
699 Region 

Libbcv.W., Report . 

in the Gulf Stream 

.;! Lnit.n. K..o;i r-:ni<,/.. a ...._ 

.'I "'• ; ," iVthe Capping 

-~ : Linton, E., Notice of Trematode 

; Liobunum vittatum 

1 69 , LiopehisTeV a nans Dekav\V.V.V.'.'.'.'.'.'.' 



9 27 Birds Left New Jersey 


; I- 

Loroit's Method of I.i 
""1 I.uur,y.P.I. I- 

Science at Rochest 


973 Luzonite, 


340 ! Til ACROLINUS Augu^tirostris.. 
j IVl Mackay, Sir W3 

MacMillan, C., Citation of 
Authors of Genera and 

244 Species 




British Mai 

xvi The Americt 

Man's Powers of Observation 931 

Margarodite 951 

Marine Biological Laboratory, 

Wood's Hall 276 

. ;1 Lai or.,t<> ;. ., 71* I I(li;i 

Marshall, W.B.. Necturus macula'- 

. ..Development of th 
Floral Organs in Aster and 

Solidago 1032 

Mastodon augustidens 49 

Mastodonsaurus Jaeger 376 

McMurrich, Prof.. Definite vs. 

Meehan, T., Variation in Plants'.'.'.! S5 
Meionite 772 

Melanophlogite 771 


Melilite Rock from North America 697 

Melissodes palustns 973 

Mental Evolution in Man and the 

Lower Animals 482 593 

Chalicotheriodea 506 

ignis 943 

' 959 

Merriam, C. H., Zoology of the 

Snake Plains of Idaho 218 

Mesabi Iron Ore 1029 

Mesotype Group 615 

Mesozoic News 51, 161, 945 1030 

Metcalf, M. M., Development of 

Paludina vivipara 708 

Meteoric Iron 1 70 

Meteorites, Mexican »;<i3 

Methods of Decalcification 631 

Method of Killing Nematodes for 

Microtome Sections 972 

Mettacinnabarite 711I 771 




perirnu, fraterculus . ... 2 61 

Mineral Deposits of Leogang in 

w Sa , ,z i ur g TOO 

Mineral Resources of Canada 518 


i Mineralogical News, 55, 168, 247, 

337, ol5, 613, 699 770 

Notes 950 

Mineralogical Syntheses 58 516 

j Mineralogie of Banded Inclusions 

j Mineralogy of the Central Plateau 

of France 701 

! Mineralogy of Chilean Ore 848 

of Rocks from Lake 

" '•■ I -' . 
Mineralogy and Petrography, r>2, 
162,244,334,416, 510, 610, 
! 696,766,847 946 

1889, Report of 45 

Minot.C.S ]061 

j Missouri Geological Survey 754 

Geological Reason Whv 635 


'.lis 34 

Mongoose in the Wet... . "36 

rinta , 96] 

Monkeys ](l |«, 

Monotremata 72 965 

Moore. C. B., A Burial Mound of 

Florida jog 

Moore, C. B., Shell Heaps of the 
St. John's River, Hitherto 

Unexplored 912 

Moore, C. B., Supplementary In- 
vestigation at Tick Island 568 

Morgan, A. P., On Myriostoma 

coliforme Dicks 341 

Morphology of the Vertebrate Uro- 

-<• ni 438 

1 e Origin of Lungs, 

A Chapter in Evolution 975 


. i 
in Amphioxu- .. Ili59 

■■!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.!!!!!!!! s£ 

ms 359 

< -li forme Dicks, in 
Florida 341 

". ■ 

Sti| es 960 961 

NAGELI.WM., Karl von 101 
National Academy of Sci- 

Peary Nortk Greenland Expediti 


■■■••> Naturu/;*!. 

and Development of 

Fecundation 103 287 

Philadelphia Academy Natural Sci- 


Pineal Body in Ami 

Pinus nathorstii 

Pitticite , 

Pityophis s:;yi sayi.. 

Pseudomorph o 

Pseudosuchia *. 


Pycnogonid Eye 

. Pycnogonid Studies 


Pythonomorpha , 

Quartz and Feldsps 
sions in Diabase 

Quartz Cry.u 

Poisonous N«| 


Polyporus offici 
Polyspermy in 

Popular Botany 

Porocephalu* ; 

Raia batis 

Predates Genemm ' " 147 

P el i,toric Anthn p logy...'.'.'.'...!'' 

Indians Before the Congress... 

Pnze Dermatological Essay 

Prizes for the London Geological 

Problematic Organisms"!". .'.' 

Problem of Mann ■ 
Proceedings of St 


Reduction in the Appr 
the U. S. Geologic 



Relative IntciiMiv of the Conflict 

Between Organisms 

Reproduction in Sponges, Non- 

Reynosa Bed 1 


Rh\ .1 te \tte ted" by Gases!!!!!!!!! 

Rhvticla globosa 


Ridgway, R., Review of Shufeldt's 
Anatomy of the Humming- 
Birds and Swifts ] 

Ritter, W. E., Note on an Abnor- 
mal Polygordius Larva ] 

Rocks of Cape Verde Islands, 
Composition of 

Rock, from Muir Glacier, Alaska.. 

Rocks of the Piedmont Plateau.... 

Rocks of Southern Ohio 

Rocks of the Upper Eifel, Compo- 

Rosenbusch's Reply to Levy's Crit" 

Mas.-ive Rocks 


Ruffled Grouse in Ohio 

Rules of Nomenclature Adopted 
by the International Zoological 
Congress Held in Paris, 
France, 1889 


Rutile After Brookite 

Ryder, J. A., A Geometrical Rep- 
Intensity of the Conflict Be- 
tween Organisms 



San Francisco Botanical ' Club.!!'.'!! 

Scientific News, 101, 276, 358, 

Sc lei, .'-. oma 'a piostomum.'.'. . .'.'.'.'.' 

Scolwus ru-uloMis 

Scoi'ell, J. T., Elevation of Mount 


Seaside Laboratory o f Natural 

Separation and Studv of the Heavy 

Accessories of Rocks 

Serial Section Cutting 

Sertoli's ceii!!! ! !!!!!!!!!!! 

Sexual Glands in Mammals and in 

the Fowl 

Shell Heaps of the St. John's 

x!mire n of the Biteof the Hel 

omy of the Humming-Birds.. . 





Silicified Wood 

Silurian Fossils 

Silurian Trilobites 

Sirocco as a Di-u. 

Smith, J. B., Noctuidre of Boreal 


Snakes of Nebraska 

Societe Zoologique de France 

an Embryos 

Speech of Monkeys 

of Diemyctylus.... 


: Oeneis semidea.. 
Spina bifida and the Blastopore 

xx The Ameru 

Sponges 345 


Staten Island Natural Science Asso- 

ciation, 98, 190 450 


Literature of Para-ites. 231 

Stiles, C. W., Review of Linton's 

*iJfr^,"R, 1K , .„„...■•- i,,i7 

Nectonema a^iie Verrill 1037 

i '............. 75] 

Strata at Roches-, New Yo> , ,;<M 

Striped Harvest Spider f)or, 

Strode, W. S., The Unionid, of 

Spoon River, Illinois 495 

Strongylus convolutu, 960 

l -' 960 

Is 516 950 

Summer School of Science at St. 


Arrangement of the 
Families of Birds 1037 

TABULATION of Igneous 
S:"e;-p.;;:;z:"' ■•• *? 

\ m 

Talc from Madagascar....!... 7-0 

Tapionoma polita "" q-T 

Tatusia peba .'. -., 

Taylor, W. E., Catalogue of 'the ' 
Snakes of Nebraska with 
Notes on Their Habits and 

Te m ^-"; nd -^ v-r L ; P s: m 

Tempe?atu r re";"f'thel'; fil3 

Texas^Geological Su rvy,' 1889, Re" 
Texas Geologi'caV's U rvey,''lS9i').'.'.'.! lt'< 

n Naturalist. ryol. 3 

Texas Geological Survey. 1891 

Thelohan on Coccidia.. .' .'...'.".'.' 


Thlseodon ] ) adan.cus .. 756 

Thyreoglossal Tract a,. 1 J I . 

Thy>anures. Noith American 

Ii Wand 

Tile Fish ' 34c,' 

Titanic Iron ". '.. 

Tonalite Gneiss of the Acbmello 
To Re k ,o„ 

Trematode ParasiTesm' ' the"' Cray - 

fish I 

Trernito e, '. f)5 

Tremohte and Garnet in English 

Trilobites """" 

Trimerite .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. Z 

Trochocopus pale] 1 

; Mix .. ' 
.,: m 

TscliefTkin.t. \ 

Tufaceous Slates from Wale. 

Tufa of the Campagna, ItaU 

Tufts College....:.......... ' 

Tylden, H. J '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


Unionidae of Spoon River, 


■ -1 Aca.lfmv... 
University Building in Lincoln, 

Uranite Analyses 

U. S. Geological Survey.....'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'." 


V Vermiculite 

Vertebrata, 177, 350 781 
Vertebrata of the U. S. Geological 

ii'Samos "".".".'." 





WALDEYER'S Hydrochloric 
ide Method of Decalcifica- 

WollaVtoi e^ZV""r".V.V"702 

Wandering Albatross 

in Echinoderms... 

Ward, H. B ] 

Washington Bioloj 

274. ::.-,:. 4.->n,Ksii .' ] 

Washington National Geographic 

Wasp, and Hunnmng-Binisl"".!" 
Watase, S., On the Significance of 


Watase, S., Origin of the Sertol 's 

ceii r. 

Water- Bearing Horizons of South- 
ern New Jersey 

Webber, H. J., Phenomena and 
Development o f Fecunda- 
tion 103 

Webber, H. J., Y«< 

Wernerite Rocks 

Weed, C. M., The Striped Harvest 
Spider, aStudvin Variation... 

Weed, C. M., Ash-Gray Harvest 

Weed, C. M., Color Preferences of 
the Carpet Beetle 

Weed, C. M., Harvest Spider 

Weed, C. M., Notes on the Clover 

| Weed, C. At., Notes on Harvest 


Weed, C. M., Some Spiders from 

:■". Wee l l.( ; . l \L,"SiM',".iVV)f'tl^"Tlorn 

". tteeMl 1 

35 I Rochester Meeting... 


Peopled? ;. 

35 Wild Animals and Snai i 

<> Wilier, 11. II ] 

William,, G. II., Vol inic Rock, 
24 of Sou;]] " ; 

Wilson, E. B., The A 
12 duction of Twins and Multiple 

Embryos in Amphioxus ] 

?g [ VANTHIDIA in London Clays 
i2 A Xenotime 

YATES, L. G., Causes Which 
Influence Topographical 

'* i Changes 

* I Yucca Pollination 


Zigno, A. de 

52 , Zoology of the Snake Plains of 

al Text-Books 

I Zoology, I 

• MS,: 


*4.<iO per Year Foreign). 36 ete. per Top.v. 





Vol. XXVI. JANUARY, 1892. ~^~ No. 301. 




; of the Limit of Glaciation— Cretaceous Fossils from 

§The Shell- Bearing Mollusca of Portage 

; Boulder Trains and Boulder Belts— Geological News 

Ceremonial Circuit of the Cardinal Points. 

-GeneSr ^"^ " " : )3 


B tauy —Notes on the Flor.) of Western South 

Dakota go 

Z <iogy. "- ' estodes — 

Clarence M. Weed. 



- sites in the 


San Diego Cs nee of an 

n— Exploration"^ 


" - . . . ' : >■ ■■,.. ' 

§• Geology and Paleontology.— The Earthquake in 

fexas— The Arachnoid 

Geological Survey 

- of Pacific Coast 

:■■■ ■■ ■ " ;■ sv, . .. • -... 



Sta and 520 MINOR STBCPT 



During a recent visit to San Miguel, the most westerly of 
the so-called "Channel Islands," off the const near Santa Bar- 
bara, my attention was attracted to phases of the history of 
the island, which proved intensely interesting. 

The general trend of the coast of California is north-west 
and south-east, but at Point Conception, about 240 miles south- 
easterly from San Francisco, the direction changes to east and 
west, and this bend, with the chain of islands distant about 
25 miles, forms the Santa Barbara Channel, running parallel 
with the Santa Ynez Mountains. 

These islands are notable from their having furnished shel- 
ter to the ships of their discoverers, the old Spanish naviga- 
tors commanded by the Portuguese, Cabrillo, who died in about 
the year 1543, and whose body is supposed to have been buried 
on San Miguel. 

The islands east of San Miguel, are Santa Rosa ; Santa 
Cruz ; and the Anacapas. 

They are separated from each other by channels of from 
four to five miles in width ; they are of eruptive origin, 
and their areas are principally occupied by a range of low 
mountains running parallel with the Santa Ynez Mountains. 

and with the coast, forming the longer axis of each of the 
islands above named. 

The prevailing winds of the coast, except in January and 
December, come from the northwest, and form such a reliable 
meteorological feature as to be called " The Summer trade 
Winds." Back of the Coast Ranges of Mountains these winds 
are scarcely perceptible, except where there is a depression in 
the highlands upon the coast, where the sea breeze rushes in 
to fill the partial vacuum caused by the rising of the heated 
air of the valleys. In these instances the portion of the wind- 
force deflected from its general direction, follows up the line of 
the main valley and its tributaries, its force being rapidly 
diminished as it recedes from the main current. 

These deflections are apparent at the Golden Gate ; the 
Pajaro and Salinas rivers ; the Santa Ynez and Santa Clara 
Valleys, and various other points north and south. 

At Point Conception the mountains extend to the eoa^t and 
if the depression forming the Channel were ;i hen fed valley it 
would draw a large portion of the current of cold, f<>«--Iaden 
wind to replace its over-heated atmosphere The coed tem- 
perate, sea-filled Channel offering no such condition's the 
wind continues its course, without obstruction across the 
mouth of the Channel, a small portion only being deflected in 
an easterly direction. This follows the Santa Barbara ( 'hannel 
with rapidly decreasing force, and long before it reaches Santa 
Barbara it is represented by a gentle westerly bree/e of which 
sailing vessels take advantage in making their runs to and fro 

1892.] Cause* Which Influence Top<>graj>hic<i/ Changes. 3 

advent of the whites, the aboriginal tribes have become ex- 
tinct, and the introduction of sheep and cattle, to the pa>turage 

shells ot a snail peculiar to these island* (Helix ayrctiana 
), the bleaching bones of the aborigines, and the vast ac- 
lations of the refuse of their camps, together with the 
rf dead trees and shrubs, whose places in the soil appear 
ve been filled by concretionary columns of sandstone 
stand erect, sometimes projecting from two to four feet 
the present surface, like gravestones in a cemetery, 
ng how the soil in which they grew has been blown 
These again will be covered by sand dunes, which may 
tally become solid rock and puzzle geologists of future 

4 The American Naturalist. [January, 

northern extremity of the island ; over this point the wind 
sweeps with great force, carrying the sand mixed with frag- 
ments of shells, Helix ayresiana, marine shells and other debris 
from the rancherias, &c. 

The sand beach forming around Cuylers Harbor, above re- 
ferred to, is composed of sand with a large proportion of frag- 
ments of the land shell, and a small proportion of those of 
marine origin. 
Santa Barbara, California, 
August 16th, 1891. 

On Problematic Orynihm* 


For many years past the subject of the animal or vegetable 
nature of a large class of fossil bodies has been a matter of 
discussion between two schools of geologists. One of these 
considers as fucoids or alga? a certain group of forms whose 
members do not present any organic appearance, but which in 
the early days of their study were made to do duty as plants, 
and which consequently still pose as such. The other class 
refuses to recognize the fossils as the remains of plants, and 
point out the analogy they present to worm trails, worm bor- 
ings, animal tracks or marks of inorganic origin. These 
schools are represented on the fucoid-side by Saporta, Delgado 
and others, and on the opposite side by Nathorst, Dawson and 

The attention of the present writer was first attracted to 
these fossil forms by their abundance in rocks of Lower Silu- 
rian age in the vicinity of Cincinnati. Ohio, the geologists 
there universally regarding them as plants. During the sum- 
mer of 1884, while engaged in arranging the collections of the 
Cincinnati Society of Natural History many specimens were 
studied; and as supplementary thereto the markings made by 
various insect larvae, shells, or by running water upon the mud- 
flats of the Little Miami river. The result of these studies 
was a paper on the " Fucoids of the Cincinnati Group," pub- 
lished in the Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural 
History, in October 1884 and January 1885. In this paper 
some of these so-called fucoids were referred to inorganic 
causes ; many more to trails and burrows, and some few to 
graptolites. None were considered indubitable alga?. Some 
of the opinions in that paprr lvijuin t odi ration, but no addi- 
tional information has caused the opinion that they are not the 
remains of alga?, to be changed. 

The American Naturalist 

Two subjects of primary importance need to be discussed 
before any detailed examination of these problematic organ- 
isms can be made. These are: — I. — Absence of organic or 
carbonaceous matter. II. — Probability of the preservation of 

I. — Absence of organic or carbonaceous matter. 

The absence of organic* matter in the fossil bodies under 
consideration makes it difficult to decide in many cases what 
they really are. Their mode of occurrence is usually on the 
under side of the strata as objects in relief. They are mostly 
of indefinite and quite variable form, so it is scarcely possible 
to find any two alike in details. Not only are organic form 
and organic substance absent, but the beds in which the greater 
part of the bodies occur are strikingly deficient in organic re- 
mains of any other kind, and while these may be and are 
abundant in strata hot li above and below, the beds themselves 
are nearly barren of any but the problematic fossils. 

The absence of carbonaceous matter has been considered by 
some a strong argument against the vegetable nature of the 
remains; while the presence of it has, conversely, been re- 
garded as indicating an undoubted Vegetable origin. Bui on 
the one hand we know of organisms, of unquestioned animal 
origin, in which not a trace of organic matter is left, the im- 
pression or cast alone remaining ; and we likewise know of 
unquestioned vegetable remains which are also m the form of 
casts; but which are so perfectly preserved that even the deli- 
cate venation can be studied and described. 

On the other hand there are forms of animal origin, like the which there is abundant evidence of the presence 
of carbonaceous matter, just as there is in true plants, and sonic 
of the graptolites were originally referred to the vegetable 
kingdom on this account. So that it can sea reel v be con- 
sidered that the presence of carbonaceous matter makes the 

vegetable nature. But, when the absence of definite form, of 
carbonaceous matter, of other organisms in the same beds of 
rock, and their occurrence in demi-relief on the under side of 
the strata; when all these are taken into eonn-leration it can 

On Problematic Organ 
1 that the probability 


algre in a fossil state, much can be said. It will perhaps not 
be denied by any geologist, no matter to which one of the two 
schools he may belong, that alga' must have existed through- 
out all geological time, and that, too, often in the greatest 
abundance. This lias been insisted upon by Salter (Memoirs 
of Geological Survey of Great Britain, vol. 3, 1860): by Les- 
quereux in his various publications (2nd Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania, Report J : also Coal Flora, Report P; 13th An- 
nual Report Geological Survey of Indiana; Annual Report 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania for 1886, etc.), and by 
others. The presence of masses of graphite in the Laurentian 

say nothing of the mere fact that myriads of animal forms 
could not have existed without the presence of alga?, is suffi- 
cient proof that they once existed. Rut the questions are: 

preservation? Are all the forms that have been described as 
alga', really such? If not: to what can they be referred? 
What is their origin ? The answer to some of these questions 
is final as regards certain of the problematical organisms : but 
the answer to the first two general questions has certainly not 
yet been given. 

The opinion held by many students is frequently biased by 
the expressed opinion of the first observer or describer of a 

8 The American Naturalist. [January, 

fossil. It has frequently happened, therefore, that when a form 
has been described originally as a plant, this identification 
has been accepted by subsequent worker-, and only after many 
observations have been made and many treatises written, does 
the original opinion change. This is well shown in the case 
of Scolithus. Originally described as a plant, it was retained . 
for many years in the vegetable kingdom, and only after 
numerous investigators had examined it, was it definitely re- 
ferred to the animal world. 

To secure an answer to the query, " what are the chances for 
the preservation of. algse as fossils ?" It becomes necessary to 
observe what is going on in modern oceans and the ocean 
margins to-day. In all favorable localities seaweeds occur in 
wonderful profusion. Some varieties live only between tide 
marks; others only below tide and to a depth of 15 fathoms; 
others at still greater depths, the growth of these deeper water 
forms, however, being limited by the penetration of light, 
vegetation ceasing entirely at depths between 100 and 200 
fathoms. These plants occasionally form great masses in the 
eddies caused by oceanic currents, and cover many square 
miles of surface. This is the case with the Sargasso sea in 
mid Atlantic: the sea of kelp off the Falkland islands, and 
that off the coast of Japan. Some species are tough and 
leathery, and have thick stems and long fronds, some* of these 
reaching a length of 300 feet. Some are fine and feathery, 
branching so as to form innumerable minute divisions. Some 
are hardly more than masses of jelly ; and some are covered 
with a calcareous coating and are thus more or less hard and 

known commonly as Nulliporrs. 

The structural characters of the algse as a class, are strongly 
against their preservation under any sort of cover for any long 
period of time. The tissue is a mass of loosely united cells, 
often with scarcely more than sufficient coherence t«. hold to- 
gether; and even in the tough ami leatherv varieties, the cells 
have little consistence, are all of one character, and retain their 
form for only a short period when buried. The late Prof. Leo 
Lesquereux studied the possibilities of preservation of ahie, 

1892 .] On Problematic Organisms. 9 

and he reached the conclusion that marine plants are only 
rarely preserved in a fossil state. He based his deductions of 
past conditions upon present ones ; and lie noted that alga 1 are 
at the present time scarcely ever found in any good state of 
preservation. "The difference," he says, "between the woody 
or vascular tissue of land plants and the cellular compound of 
the marine or fresh-water alga, more filaments glued together, 
or imbedded in vegetable mucus or gelatine, explains at once 
whv the remains of fucoids are so rarely found petrified.' 
Further he says : "Nowhere have I been able to find any 
trace of a deposit of sea-weeds preserved from decomposition 
under any kind of superposed materials, sand, clay, etc. And, 
nevertheless in some of the countries visited, the shores in 
many localities are strewn with immense heaps of those plants 
thrown out by the waves. Marine vegetables, though they 
may appear of hard, leathery texture like most of the common 
species of Fucus, soon disintegrate, and pass into a gelatinous, 
half-fluid matter, which penetrates the sand, so that the lowest 
strata of these heaps when exposed to atmospheric action, do 
not generally preserve traces of their organism for more than 

While Lesquereux thus announces his positive belief, Mr. 
G. F. Matthew says that while the alga? buried in sand leave 
no trace, " in clay the result is different. In the Till and Leda 
Clays of the Acadian coast, which have considerable antiquity, 
the writer has seen Polysiphonias and other delicate sea-weeds 
as well preserved as the ferns and Asterophyllites of the shales 
of the Carboniferous system/' 

It is generally acknowledge.! that organic remains are more 
likely to be preserved in an area of subsidence than in one 
that is stationary or rising. Sediment is rapidly accumulated 
in the first, and animals living in the vicinity are likely to be 
preserved. It is also probable that animals living on or near 
the bottom of the ocean have a better chance of being entombed 
than those floating in the water, so that a certain depth of 
water and a comparatively rapid accumulation of sediment 
seem to be two necessary adjuncts for the preservation of or- 
ganisms in anything like abundance or perfection. The so- 

10 The American Naturalist. [January, 

called " Fucoids," and the problematical organisms in general 
are mostly found in strata whose appearance indicates disposi- 
tion in shallow water. Now this is in just the position where 
algaB might be expected to occur, but it is also the place where 
the chances of preservation are fewest. This seems to be con- 
clusively shown by the almost complete absence of true ani- 
mal remains from strata where the problematical organisms 
are most abundant. While fossils occur both above and below 
this horizon, and frequently in the greatest abundance, the 
actual layers where " Fucoids" are found are notorious for 
their barrenness. The fragments which are found attest the 
abrading power of the water and we again see the small chance 
cellular organisms would have of being preserved, when cal- 
careous bodies of animals are ground to fragments. 

On the other hand it should be remembered that shallow 
flats, exposed, it may be, to the air twice a <l ; ,v or even' 
ered with a slight depth of water, are admimblv situated 'to 
receive and retain impressions left by crawling animal 'forms 
Rain drop impressions, too, could be preserved? as well as mud 
cracks and the excavations made by rills of water on •, '.|„,, in- 
shore. These have all oecu red. Rain drop iinpre-ion< -un 
cracked earth, rill marks on the sla,re and the hum w^'i-m il' 
of worms and molluscs, are all known from various geological 
horizons. But true algae in the older rocks are rare indeed • 
and the most of those described as such take their place among 
the much discussed problematic organisms. The probabilities 
hat rue alga, are included among the long list of species re- 
ferred to as plants is almost infinitely small- while on the 
contrary the chances that what have been so considered are 
referable to tracks, trails or inorganic causea are almost in 
finitely great. Nathorst has pointed out that an alga? in sink- 
ing to the bottom of the water, if sufficiently solid to be ore- 
served, would not make a depression in the mini but rather an 
elevation. In reality the depression is what is found in the u 
of the stratum, while the elevation or cast occurs on the bottom 
of the next overlying stratum of rock. 

Shell-Bearing Mollu 


By Geo. W. 

The following pages are the resi 

Corbiculida? hut it exists in nearly all the genera. 

I have no doubt that species new to the county will yet he 

Margm-itaua Inldrethiana Lea, will he found in the south 
branch of the Mahoning in the township of DeerfieM. 

I think also that the Rissoids will be increased by the dis- 
covery of new forms. 

My thanks are due to S. M. Luther and Geo. J. Streator for 


Family ZoNl 
ienus Z&nties, 
don IhjnUna 

Zonites arbor cus Say. 

Common everywhere in woods and under logs. It is 
naturally an upland species, but it is often found in wet places. 
Zonitcs nitidus Mull. 

Not so common as the above but is often found in largo 
numbers in wet places, subject to occasional overflow. This 
is the largest of our Hyalinas. 

12 The American Naturalist. [January, 

Zonites viridulus Mencke. 

Wet and swampy grounds away from running streams. 
Not abundant. 
Zonites indebitatus Say. 

Habitat moist woods. Not gregarious or abundant. A dis- 
tinct and beautiful species. 
Zonitr* niiinisciiliis Binney. 

Rather rare. Damp old pastures around stumps and logs, 
sometimes in woods. I have found this species in four differ- 
ent localities but do not know how generally it is distributed. 
Zonitrs milium Morse. 

Habitat thick woods, in depressions among the moist leaves. 
Common, but not usually found in large numbers. The 
smallest of all our zonites. 
Zonites ferreus A To rse. 

A northern species very rare in this latitude. A few ex- 
amples have been collected by S. M. Luther and Geo. I. 
Streator in the vicinity of Garrettsville. I have compared it 
with specimens from Maine and have no doubt of its correct- 

Zonites exiguus Stimpson. 

I have collected this species in considerable numbers in an 
open marsh near my place, under sticks and old fence rails. 
Not very common. 

All of the above are found at Kent except ferreus. 
Section Conidus, Fitz. 
Zonites fulvus Drap. 

Moist places, and very common. 

Section Gastrodonta, Albers. 
Zonitt.s su^/n^ssii.s Say. 

This species is not uncommon but has not been collected in 
large numbers. It is found in different situations but gener- 

Zonites multidentatm Binn. 

Habitat same as the above. It is a very beautiful species 
and has been collected in large numbers by Luther and 
Streator near Garrettsville, rather common. 

1892.] Shell- Bearing Mollusca. 13 

Section Mesomphir, Rafinsqne. 
Zonites fuliginoms Griffith . 

Rather rare in this county so far as I have observed. On 
hill-sides in deep woods. 
Zonites ligurus Hay. 

Zonites inffrtertiix Binn. 

Quite rare and has no existence in this part of the count v. 
From Luther an. 1 Stivator. 

Genus Macrocydis Beck. 

Common. This genus has its greatest development in the 
Pacific States, hut it is the opinion of Mr. Hemphill, whose 
field of observation has been very extensive, that all of the 
recognized species of that region are simply varieties of con- 
cava. Specimens of concava from Kentucky are found to 
very closely resemble the large forms of vancouverensis from 
Oregon and "Washington. 

Family Helicidjs. 

P. tolitaria Say. 

Streator reports two localities where this species is found. I 
know of one. It is in woods on high ground in Hiram town- 
ship. The shells are small but high colored for the species 
which is usually rather dull. Gregarious. 
P. alternata Say. 

A very common and abundant species. 
P. perspective/, Say. 

Also very common in rotten wood. 
P. striatella Anthony. 

Rather common in wet places liable to overflow. It re- 
sembles the preceding in appearance but is quite different in 
its choice of location. 

14 The American Naturalist. [January, 

Section Microphysa Albers. 
M. pygmea Drap. 

damp leave-, but it requires close search to find it. 
Section Helicodiscus Morse. 

H. Imeatas Say. 

Under old logs, in limited quantity. 

Section Strobiln Morse. 

Very common in wet plae,<. 
S. monodon Hack. Var frnhrrnu. 

Common in woods. 

Section Triodopsis 
T. palliata Say. 

Rather common on heavy soils. A 
about Kent. Its habitat is about deca 
T. injiecta Say. 

Very rare in this county. More 
found two miles west of Akron a shell 
size like the new species T. rraigi,,', 
leads to the suspicion that craigini m; 
umbilicated variety of this species. 
T. tridentata Sav. 

18 mm. or more. 
Much like the above 

Shell-Bearing Mollusra. 
Section Valhmia Risso. 

V. jndchelkt Mx^l 

Common. A i 

nents. The cosh 

M. mvltilineatus Say. 
The large variety is r 

found. 1 ■;:■ 

Jl.drntifcra W. G. Binney. 

A single specimen reported from Hiram township by Mr. 
Luther. The determination may well be considered doubtful 
from the fact that there are so many forms of albolabri* that 
this single specimen may be a sport or abnormal. It is the 
opinion of some well informed conchologists that major, 
a-ohia. and sen:*;, and this species are only some of its varietal 
forms. It is certain that the dividing lines are hard to find. 

16 The American Naturalist. [j 

Family Achatixid.k. 
Genus Ferrusaacia Etisso. 

F. subcylindrica Linn. 

Not yet discovered in any numbers. A few isolated 
mens only have been collected. 

Family Pupid^e. 
Genus Pupa Lam. 
P. pentodon Say. 

Most or all of the specimens I have seen are what is k 
as P. curvidens Gld. I have no doubt that both forms 
in the county. It is extremely variable and 1 do not wit 
present knowledge regard the latter as a distinct specie 
is a common species and is found in localities very differt 
P. contracta Say. 

Common in wet places under decaying wood. 
P. corticaria Say. 

Inhabits bark of decaying logs as its name indi 
Quite rare here; I have only found six specimens in ten < 
Pupa edentula Drap.= Vertigo simplex Gould. 

Not common. Attached to decaying wood and \ 
leaves. Best time for collecting this species is late' in tin 
P. alticola Ing. is probably identical with this. 

Genus Vertigo Muller. 
V. bollesiana Morse. 

In swamps. Rare. 
V. ovata Say. 

Rather common in wet places on logs and sometimes st 
V. milium Gould. 

leates Undant ^ "*" ^^ ° n deca ? in g wood and ar 
Family Succixud.k. 
Genus Succinea Drap. 

S. ovalis Gould. 
Very common. 

e 11- I>e< i ring Mollusca. 


8. obKqua Sa; 

An abundant species attached to bits of deca 
localities like the preceding. 

Family Pom atiopsi i. .1; 
Genus Pomatiopsis. 
P. hipidaria Say. 

Common along the borders of streams subjec 
along with Z. nitida and Sucvinn, nrara. This 

Genus Limunn Lamark. 
L. columella Say. 

L. casta Lea. 

A much smaller shell. Habitat the same and thought 1 
be a variety of columella. 

18 The American Xaturulist. 

L. humilis Say. 

Much like the preceding only a little larger, common. 
L. caperata Say. 

A more robust species than the preceding but almost equally 
L. kirtlandiana Lea. 

There is much confusion about this species. The type was 
evidently only about half grown. The mature shell is quite 
common and it may prove to be only a slender form of the 
L. palustris Mull. 

I do not know that this species has been collected here but 
I think it has and I have no doubt of its existence in the 
L. reflexa Say. 

I have not seen it here but Mr. Streator reports it rather 
common at Garrettsville. 

Genus Bulinus Adanson. 
Iiidlnns hypnorum Linn. 

Not uncommon with habitat like the Limmeas in stagnant 

Genus Physa Drap. 
Physa heterostropha Say. 

If Mr. Say had placed everything under this head that he 
could not place elsewhere the result would be about what we 
find it; an extremely variable and abundant species. 
Physa sayi Tappan. 
Physa zordii Baird. 
Physa ancillaria Say. 

All found here and all may prove only varieties of hetero- 
stroplm. I have collected the latter in Stewart's Lake together 
with ancillaria and more than half were doubtful as to which 
species they belonged. I regard ancillaria as only a variety. 
Physa gyrina Say. 

Equally variable with heterostropha and almost as common. 

is.12.] Shell-Bearing Mollusca. 

Physa ampullaeea Gould. 

Rare. This seems distinet but is said to' 

Physa niagarensis Lea. 

Reported by Streator from Camp Creek i 
ville but I have not seen the shells. Shells t 

size of hctrroxtropha. Very uniform in size 
Genus Pfcmorta Guettaid. 
P. trivdvis Say. 

Common but docs not develop its full size 
P. bicarhiatus Say. 

Common. Also small. 
P. catupanulatus Say. 

Not uncommon. 
P. corpvlmtus Say. 

Doubtfully determined. 

Section Gyraulus Agass. 
P. aZ6ws Mull. 
P. defect us Say. 
P. pomta Say. 
P. c.mcntus Sav. 

All common. 

Section Segmentina Fleming 

20 The American Naturalid. 

G. <1< pngi* • 
Very con 

h;th„„lh, M, M ,ui„ Tan 

A. pallida Ilald. 
Tinker's Creek. 

M. integra Say 
if. decisa Sav. 

(has. T. Simpson t 

Museum entertains 
Melantho in the *1 

Shell-Bearing Mollusca. 

22 The American Naturalist. [January, 

A. plana Lea. 

Immense specimens of this species over eight inches long 
inhabit a small pond in Stratsboro township. 
A. imbecilis Say. 

Very rare here. One specimen from Lake Brady and one 
from a small pond in Franklin township. They have not the 
beautiful bluish green tint of Ohio river specimens. Recently 
Mr. Streator reports this species in considerable numbers from 
the Cuyahoga river in the north part of Hiram township. 

Genus Margaritana Schum. 
M. rugosa Lea. 

This robust and plentiful species in the larger streams is com- 
paratively rare here, but I have seen it in the Cuyahoga and 
it is probably found in Silver Creek and other tributaries of 
the Mahoning. 
M. complanata Lea. 

M. marginata Say. 

In Silver Creek and doubtless other branches of the Mahon- 
ing, but not very common. 

Genua Unio Retz. 

U. coccineus Lea. 

Silver Creek, Windham township. 
Unio gibbosus Barnes. 

Silver Creek, Windham township. Common. 
U. luteolus Lam. 

Common and abundant in all the larger streams. 
U. namtus Say. 

Common in many of the lakes and small streams and abun- 
dant in the Cuyahoga. 
U. pressus Lea. 

U. undulatus Barnes. 

Silver Creek, Windham and doubtles. ()t her tributaries of 
the Mahoning. 

U. occidens Lea. Branches of the Mahonine but not abun- 
dant. This form of occnlfm* is identi,-,' »•;.!, r < t ,l,m<nt,i* Lea. 

1892 .] Shell-Bearing Mollusca. 

Family Corbiculid^:. 
Genus Sphserium Scopoli. 
S. sulcatum Lam. 

Common at Kent. 
S. solidulum Prime. Kent. 

S. truncal 

«m Kinii-sl, 
There is s 

S. fabalis 


Fine sj 

S. msao u 
This sj 

Prime, h 
m Prime. 

& partem 


P. abditiv 

m Hald. 

: here in the Breakneck Creek. Fine large sped- 

The American N<<tur<i(i*t. 


formed in the K 

generally culled the Mokis 1 
ize in their ceremonial ob» 

;! The priests at Hual-pi strongly object to being called « M 
language means " dead." Theii 
Shi-nu-mo simply meaning people. The M 
Navajos, Ta-shab-shi-nu-mo, etc. I have not found a 
language, among (h , n „ot follow Bourk 

poss.ble origin of [here are many 

song sung by the Antelope priest, Tci no at the Snake Dam 
that he does not understand the meaning of the words 

ii i< e.i-v to recognize the ceremonial par: 

The visitor's [o.tion is ..'way- raise.! a :ca 

t portion surrounding 

26 The American Naturalist 

also of minor religious conceptions. I have found th 
- to run through many of their customs and beliefs. 1 
In a comparative study of the directional colors of th 
with those of other tribes we must remember that vell< 
responds not to north or west, speaking of the true <li 
but to northwest. The following colors corresj .on. 1 to t 
cardinal points, [calling to mind that the Hopi north i.« 
northwest,] north, yellow ; west, blue [represented .emu 
by malachite green*]; south, red; east, white The \\ 
translate their word kwi-ni-wi-ke for the first direction. 
is because they say their north is the same a< the An: 
but differs from it in direction. At Ha-no the colors! 
same except that yellow north, and blue we<t are 
changed; with them north is blue and we-t is vel 
among eastern Tewans according to Bandelier Ii 
follows I confine my remarks to the conception of cole 
directions used by the Ilopi of Ilual-pi. 

Whenever these. four colors are used symbolically tl 
used in the same order : yellow, blue, red and while 
ever offerings are made to the four cardinal point- tl 
made in the corresponding circuit north w ><t < il 
Let me cite a few examples of each which' mav ilh 
possibly establish, my position. 

tion of so-called medicine. When a priest pours the 

of which it is made into the terraced rectam-'uhu' b<>\\ 
paratory to placing the other ingredients [nit he poi 
fluid first on the north side, then on the west, then 

I:^T^ es ^ ^ m is sugses,ed by the proximitv of DeoD,es of ] 


- - " .:,;.'. : --v r.; ./: 

be Tusavan T™,nc -. V ! r . 

character of the mod ifican 

what Hopi mythological personage the T 

me * nt - M .a Dt material foi 


2.] Ceremonial Circuit of the Cardinal Poii 

nth and then on the east side of the howl. 

tion by Mr. A. H. Stephec 

:d with ihem will be considered 
i and the author. 

bration OS oV«Washi n g the' 

end (medicine), us 
y pellets which they wear tied to 

fthe Snake 

28 The American Naturalist. [j a 

The instructive ceremonies which take place on the m 
ing following a celebration known as the Xi-man kat-cl 
to which reference has already been nude, and which I ] 

of the law of the circuit . .H Z canlim.V^infT 'iHs^aistmi 
at this time for four persons, three of whom are dressed as: 
chi-nas, to stand facing the kih-va entrance at the four card 

epartureof kat-chi 

< in-)! it of t 

- : I ■'".-■■ : 

t place. The 

30 The American Naturalist. [January, 

The above are but a few of many examples which might be 
mentioned of ceremonies in which the circuit is followed. The 
evidence from the use of colors substantiates that already given 
above The priest of the Antelope Assemblage, in making 
the sand mosaic picture in the Mung-kib-va a few days 
before the Snake-Dance, first makes the yellow border, then 
the green, then the red and then the white. 1 The 
north line of the yellow is followed by the west of the same 
color, then the south and then the east. The same sequence 
of colors occurs when he outlines and makes the body of the 
semicircular clouds in the centre of the mosaic (dry painting). 
The lightning serpents of the four colors are made in the sairfe 
order of the colors. Colored disks on small bushes are thrown 
into the kib-va by the four persons who stand outside on the 
morning after the Ni-rnan-kat-china. First the yellow, then 
the green, then the red and then the white disks are thrown 
in in this observance.' 2 

In the construction of a pathway of sand and meal across 
the floor in the Flute Festival four materials are used which 
correspond with the cardinal points. They are laid on the 
floor in the sequence corresponding to the ceremonial circuit, 
north, west, south and east. 

Six bird effigies are laid along this line composed of sand, 
fine meal, coarse meal and corn pollen. These bird figures 

north is placed in position first, the others following the cere- 

*Wi-ki, the Antelope priest, is not always careful to folio 

the sand mosaic (dry painting), but that order is intended, and is 

: assemblage in the snake dance have the head and body of the white snake 
ed by a green border, the green snake with a white, the yellow with a red, and 
:d snake with a yell • necklaces of the 

-1892.] Ceremonial Circuit of the Cardinal Points. 31 

bly more than a coincidence that it is the same circuit which 
the snake and antelope priests take when they move about the 
place, and where the latter cany the snakes in their mouths. 
It is generally the same circuit adopted by some of the Kat- 
chi-nas when they turn in the dances, viz : opposite the motion 
of the hands of a watch. 1 

It is not possible in a short notice to develop the idea of a 
fixed ceremonial circuit which is rarely violated. To do so as 
I would wish, necessitates long descriptions of ceremonies, the 
names even of which are new to ethnological students. It is 
possible hereto hardly do more than make the barest state- 
ments, which will later be substantiated when the ceremonial 
events are minutely described. The custom of entering and 
leaving a kib-va, or of pa>sing the lire-place on a certain side 
is but one illustration of a law which finds expression through- 
out all the religious customs, secret and public, of the Tusayan 
Indians. It would be interesting to see whether other Ameri- 
can races have the same ceremonial circuit of the cardinal 
points. My reading has shown me that in some instances they 

■ Xutm-n/L* 


aENCE M. Weed, D. 8c. 

spider (Phalangium cinercum Wood) 
l of the northern United States, and 
tilv found about sheds and outbuild- 

ppears m our literature unt 
, p. 935), to the fact that thi 

species comes properly in the genus Phalangium 

(Bull. III. St. Lab. Nat Hist. vol. iii, p 

extended descriptions from specimens- collecte, 
Illinois and Southern Michigan. It was also Uriel 
in my paper on the Harvest-spiders of North An 
Amkki.'ax Xateuaust for October, 1,S!)I) (vol. 

r^ r 

I %</„>,,,! m,i einereum Woi 

1892.] The Ash- Gray Harvest-Spider. 

believed to belong to the present species. I ] 
the female engaged in oviposition, but the s 
ovipositor (Fig. ± h) indicates that the eggs { 
the ground, about half an inch below the s 
latitude of central Ohio there are apparently t 

the second, which is much the more numerous 
in September. 

species. It abounds especially in sheds, < 
neglected board piles, being rarely found, so fa 
ence goes, in the open field. Its color espet 

against such a back-ground. During the di 
quiet, but at dusk, and on cloudy da vs. it mo 
rapidly. It probably feeds upon' small flies ai 
that it finds durin- I!- nocturnal rambles. Tl 


The following descriptions have U-en drawn up from a long 
series of specimen- collected over a wide range of territory. 

Male (Fig. 1 ; Fig. 2, a, b, d, e)— Body, .5-68 mm. long ; 3-4 mm. wide. Palpi, 
4 mm. long. Legs, 1, 23-33 mm. ; II, 44-52 mm. ; III, 24-33 mm. ; IV, 31-42 mm. 

Dorsum ash-gray, with a slightly darker, sub-obsolete, wide, vase-shaped, central 
marking; in some specimens entirely obsolete ; with transverse series of small spinose 
tubercles behind the eye-eminence, one row on posterior border of cephalothorax, 
and one on each abdominal segment except last two, and a curved series in front of 
eye-eminence. These tubercles (Fig. 2, h) have whitish bases, and acute black 

the white portion, and reaching beyond the tip of the tubercle. In front of the eye 
eminence there are two longitudinal series of these tubercles of three each. Lateral 
borders of cephalothorax, subsmuate. Eye-eminence low, canaliculate, with a series- 

brownish-white, tips of claws black ; second joint and apical portion of first joint 
•furnished with short, black, stiff hairs. Palpi light brown, rather slender, first four 
joints with minute tubercles and short black hairs: none of the angles prolonged; 

including coxa . many somewhat quadrangular patches of a 

II and scattered blotches of chocolate brown. Trochanters 


The American Naturalist. 


light brown, with , 


les. Remaining joints of legs 


irnon br 

more or less annul 


with deeper and lighter shades ; angular 



Iheath of genital organ subcyli 

ned upward at nearly a right angle, and te 

ating w; 

Female (Fig. : 

-• f, 

*).— Body, 6-9 mm. long; 4-5 mm. wid< 

:. F 

'alpi 4 

long. Legs : 1,2 

mm. ; II, 39-52 mm ; III, 22-29 mm. ; IV, 

30-37 mm. 

: as follows : Body larger, rounder. Dorsum 

da.ker : 

urking more distinct. Tubercles on dorsu 

Le^s with ainulati 

»Dre distinct; trochanters without tubercles; 

; spi. 

less prominent at 

li ™ 

i tibia obsolete. Narrow quadrangular bi 

1 ucl e 


Like most members of its family the Ash-gray Harvest- 
spider varies greatly in the size of its body ami the length of 
its legs. To determine the extent of this variation, I collected 
at Columbus, Ohio, about the middle of September, 1889, a 
large number of adult specimens of both sexes, which were 
carefully measured by my assistant, Miss Freda Detmers. The 
results are shown in the tables on pages 35 and 36. 

These tables show a remarkable amount of variation on both 
sides of the line of average. It will be noted that the differ- 
ence between the greatest and least measurements averages 
about one-third the entire length of the latter in both sexes; 
and that only two cases occur in each table where the leg 
measurements are identical, viz: Xos. 5 and 13, and 7 and 
25 in Table I; and 16 and 20, and 23 and 25 in Table II. 

Dr. Wood states tlu 

northern New York. 

the following counties 

Illinois: Champaii 

Iowa: Storv (('. IV 

1892.] The Ash-Gray Harvest-Spider. 

Maine : Penobscot (F. L. Harvey). 
Michigan: Ingham (II. E. Weed). 
Nebraska: Lancaster (Lawrence Bruner). 
New York: Tompkins (J. II. Comstock: X 
Ohio: Butler, 1 September. lMii); Delaware 
1890£Erie,5 July, 1S90; Franklin. 4 Octobe: 

Madison, 21 July, 1890. 

South Dakota: Brookings (J. M. Aldrieb). 

Variation o 

Phalangium ci 


1. Male. 

Length of Legs. 

No. 'of 

Bo g dy.° 

vt~* p ; J Second 
First Pair. pair 




mm. mm. 



— - 






Body not meas'd. 






! 39 


















25 46 


30 ! 54 



28 1 49 27 



29 54 ' 29 
32 57 32 



:: :: :: 



31 I 55 31 

29 53 1 29 

28 51 1 28 




27 50 28 




27 49 28 




27 i 48 ! 27 
29 54 30 


26 6- 

29 55 30 

23 44 24 


33 59 33 

Difference! 1-8 

10 [ 11 1 9 


The American Naturalist. [Januar 

i of Phalangium cinereum. Table II. Female. 



of Legs. 


First Pair 











7- | 24 


7-2 22 










Body not meas'd. 























































Short? 6 ' 












Difference : 35 




Fig. 1. — Phalangium cinereum, male natural size (Origin; 
F. Detmers, del.) 

Fig. 2.— Phalangium cinereum, structural details : a, body . 
male, hack view ; b, eye eminence of male, side view ; d, palpi 
of male, side view ; e, claw of palpus of male, side view ; /, ma: 
illary lobe of second legs, of female ; h, apical joints of ov 
positor; i, dorsal tubercle of male— all nia<-nil'u>d (Origins 
F. Detmers, del.) 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. 


Ami. H. M.— On the Geology of Quebec City, Canada. 
Sec. Set., April, 1891. From the author. 

Bean,T. H._Description of a New Cottoid Fish. Extract 
Nat. Mas., Vol. XII. 

Bulletin of t 

i. V. s. 

f the American Chemical Soc, August, 1890. 
Bull. No. 13, Iowa Agricultural Exp. Station. From Herbert Osborn. 
Burnz, E. B.—One Duty of a Stenographer. Illiteracy ; The Remedy. 
Calvin, S.— Additional Notes on the Devonian Rocks of Buchanan Co., Iowa. 
Extract from Am. Geo/., Sept., 1891. From the author. 

Chamberlin, T. C— A Proposed System of Chronologic Cartography on a Physio- 
graphic Basis. Extract from Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 541^85. 

Circular Letter No. 1. Coal-Waste Commission, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 
Cope, E. D.— Syllabus of Lectures on Geology and Paleontology. Part 1. Geol- 
ogy, published Jan., 1891; Part II. Paleontology of the Vertebrata, published July 
8,1891. From the author. 
Crosby, W. O.— Physical History of the Boston Basin. From the author. 
Cummins, W. F.— Report on the Geology of Northwestern Texas. Second Annual 
Report Geol. Surv. Texas, 1890. From the author. 

Darton, N. H.— The Relations of the Traps of the Newark System in the New 
Jersey Region. Bull. No. 67, U. S. Geol. Survey. From the author. 

Davis, W. M.— The Geological Dates of Origin of Certain Topographic Forms 
on the Atlantic Slope of the United States. Extract from Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 
IL, pp. 545-586. 

Dawson, G. M.— On the Later Physiographical Geology of the Rocky Mountain 
Region in Canada, with Special Reference Jo Changes in Elevation and the History 
of the Glacial Period. Extract from Trans? Roy. Soc. Can., Vol. VIIL, Sec. 4, 1890. 
From the author. 

Dawson, W. J.— Carboniferous Fossils from Newfoundland. Extract from Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 529-540, Plates 21, 22. From the Society. 

Deperet, CH.—Paleozoologie— Reptiles, Amphibiens et Poissons. Extrait de 
I'Annuaire Geologique Universel. Tome V., 1888 ; Tome VI., 1889. 

Deperet, M.— Note sur le Pliocene et sur la Position Stratigraphique des Couches 
a Conegries de Theziers (Gard). Extrait de la Bull. Carte Geol. de la France, No. 
16, Tome II. From the author. 

Deperet, M., et F. LEENHARDT.,-Note sur la Decoverte de 1' Horizon du Mon- 
taignel, a Bulimus hopei dans le Bassin d'Apt. Extrait de la Bull. Carte Geol. de la 
France, No. 16, Tome II. From the authors. 

Drghicearin, M. M.— Carte Geologique de la Roumaine. From the author. 
Dudley, P. H., and J. Beaumont.— Observations on Termites of the Isthmus of 
Panama. Extract from Trans. New York Acad, of Sciences, Vol. VIIL, Feb., 1889. 
From the authors. 

Frazer, P.— The Warrior Coal-Field of Northern Alabama. Extract from Amer. 
Geol., May, 1891 . From the author. 

3o The American Naturalist [January, 

Gaudry, A.— Discours prononces aux funerailles de M. Edmond Hebert, le 8 
Avril, 1890. From the author. 

Hancock, J. L.— Anomalies in the Limbs of Aves. Extract from The North- Am. 
Practitioner, Sept., 1890. From the author. 

James, J. E.— Manual of the Paleontology of the Cincinnati Group. Extract 
from Journ. Cm. Soc. Nat. Hist., April, 1891. From the author. 

Jeude, Th. W. van Lidth de.— Note VIII. on a Collection of Snakes from 
Delhi. Extract from Leyden Museum, Vol. XII. Reptilia from the Malay Archi- 
pelago. Separatabdruck aus zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederlandische 
Ost Indien. Herausgeben von Dr. Max Werner. Heft 2. From the author. 

Jordan, D. S— Catalogue of Fishes collected at Port Castries, St. Lucia, by the 
Steamer Albatross, Nov., 1888. Extract from Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII. 

Kilian, W., and F. Leenhardt.— Note sur les Sables de la Vallee d'Apt. Extrait 
de la Bull. Carte Geol. de la France, No. 16, Tome II. From the author 

Langdon, D. W.-Variations in the Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata of Alabama. 
Extract from Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 587-606, Plate 23. From the Soci- 

Langley, S. P., and F. W. Verry.— On the Cheapest Form of Light. Extract * 
from Am.Journ. Science, Vol. XL., August, 1890. 

Lesquereux, L.-Remarks on Some Fossil Remains Considered as Peculiar Kinds 
of Marine Plants. Extract from Proc. U. S. Nat. Mux., Vol YIIT pp 5-12 

LEWts, T. H-Mou.hU of the MisM,M PP i; Mounds on the Red River of 
the North; Quartz-Workers of Little Falls. Extracts from the American Antiqua- 

Marcou, J. B.— The Bibliography of North American Paleontology in the year 

Geology and its Promise for the 
. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. III., No. 2— Encroach- 
rum, June, 1890.— The Flood-Plains of Rivers. 
f the Progress in Geology for the Years 1887, 

trict of the Little Colorado, Arizona, 
ishes of North America. Monographs of the 
XVI. From the author. 

Drepana arcuta. Hints on the Evolution of 
Certain Caterpillars. Extract from Proc. Boston 

ments of th< 


Reprint from Ft 


M Smith. Report, 


:. C. H 

Francisco M 

n Region and Di; 

Newberry, T. 

S.— Paleozoic F 

United States Geol 

. Survey, Vol. X^ 

, A. S.- 

-Life History oi 

the Bristles, 


and Tubercles o 

Soc. Nat. H 

»I. XXIV., 1890. 

Report of 

ational Executive 

Report fo, 

: the V( 

:ar 1890-91, pres 

tory of Yale University to the President and Fellows. 

Scott, W. B.-Notes on the Osteology and Systematic Posit 
Leidy. Extract from Proc. Phila. Acad. Sciences, July, 1889. 

Soixas and Cole, Profs.— The Origin of Certain Mart 

1892.] Recent Books and Pamjihlets. 30 

Spencer, J. W.-Post-Pleistocene Subsidence versus Glacial Dams. Extract from 
Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 465-476, Plate 19. From the author. 

Stejneger, L.— Description of a New Lizard from California. Extract from Proc 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XII. From the author. 

Stevenson, J. J.— Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the Geological 
Society, held at Washington, Dec. 29, 30, and 31, 1890. Extract from Bull. Geol. 
Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 607-662. 

Steere, J. B.— List of the Birds and Mammals Collected by the Steere Expedition 
to the Philippines, with Localities and Brief Descriptions of Supposed New S\ e- 

Stone, G. H.— Note on the Asphalium of Utah and Colorado. Extract from 
Am. Jcurn. Sci., Vol. XLIL, Aug., 1891. From the author. 

Studies from the Biological Laboratories of Owens College. Vol. II. 

White, C. A.-On Certain Mesozoic FofsIs from the Islands of St. Paul's and 
St. Peter's, in the Straits of Magellan. Extract from Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus.. \\,\. 
XIII.,pp. 13, 14. 

White, C. A. — On the Geology and Physiography of a Portion of Northwestern 
Utah and Wyoming. Extract from Ninth Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1887-83. 

WILDER, B. G.— Commentary upon Fissural Diagrams. Presented in connection 
with papers upon the Brains of a Philosopher (Chauncey Wright) and of a Chimpan- 
zee, to the Am. Neurol. Soc, June 11,1 890. From the author. 

WlNCHELL, N. H.— Eighteenth Annual Report of the Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Minnesota. From the Survey. 

WOOLMAN, L.— Geology of Artesian Wells at Atlantic City, N. J. Extract from 
Proc Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., March, 1890. From the author. 

Report of the U. S. Fish Commission for 1887.— This re- 
port is an illu-' - experienced I.»y these having- w<»rk 
to be done by the Government printing office in Washington. Were 
it not for the circulation of separate copies in advance, the scientific 
part of the report might I times. Xow that it is 
here, we can congratulate Hon. Commh-si ,.n< r Mad (unald, on the value 
of the work. An account of the fisheries of Lakes Erie, Huron and 
Michigan conies 6ret it is illustrated by several excellent cuts of 
important food fisheries. Descriptions of the Albatross and Grampus 
vessels of the commission follow, with itineraries of their latest voy- 
ages. These;: ated. Then follows a monograph of 
the species of Labridse of the seas of the Western Hemisphere, by 
Prof. D. S". Jordan, which is of the most thorough character, without 
going beyond the usual s\>teman< features. It is illustrated by num- 
erous excellent figures. The last essay is a long one by Prof. Linton, 

40 The American Naturalist. 


on Plathelminthic Entozoa observed by him in various species of North 
American fishes. Many remarkable forms are described among which 
are many novelties, not a few of which are referred to new genera. 
We give some of the illustrations from the Report, through the kind- 
ness of Col. MacDonald. 

A Catalogue of the Birds of Indiana.— By Amos W. Butler. 
This excellent catalogue of Indiana birds by this well-known student 
of the vertebrate fauna of that State is a welcome addition to the 

sented in condensed form the results of the author's observations 
covering the greater part of fourteen years. For a number of years 
these observations have been conducted as curator of Ornithology of 
the Indiana Academy of Science. In addition Mr. Butler has had the 
earnest co-operation of almost every naturalist in the State or who has 
studied within the State, prominent among whom may be mentioned 
Prof. J. A. Allen, Mr. Robert Ridgway, Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Prof. 
B. W. Evermann, Mr. Ruthven Deane, Mr. W. K. Coale, Dr. F. W. 
Langdon, Mr. E. R. Quick and a number of others, each of whom is 
duly credited for his contributions. This catalogue has been published 
in the Proceedings of the Indiana Horticultural Society for 1890, and 
the Society is to be congratulated upon its success in presenting so 
pleasing a publication. The list enumerates 305 species which have 
actually been found in Indiana, and gives a "Hypothetical list" of 79 
species "which have been taken in neighboring States or whose known 
range seems to include Indiana." The care exhibited in the prepara- 
tion of these lists is notable and considering the condensed form of the 
publication, the annotations are good and give much new information 
concerning the birds of the state. Following the introduction (which 
contains a brief account of the topography of the State, and a copy of 
the law "for the protection of Birds" passed by the last state legislature) 
is a "Bibliography of Indiana Ornithology." Next is given the Cata- 
logue which is illustrated by numerous cuts from Coues's "Key to North 
American Birds," then the hypothetical list, followed by a list of the 
persons who have assisted by contributions in the preparation of the 
Catalogue. In' conclusion is a carefully prepared index to the whole 
work. One can but wish that all publications of this kind were as 
convenient as this one, and that all of our States had a catalogue of 
their birds so well presented 

1892.] Geography and Travels. 41 

(general Notes. 


At the meeting of the Society of American Naturalists, held in 
Philadelphia, Dec. 30, 1891, reports from four exploring expeditions 
were read. The following abstracts of them appeared in the Philadel- 
phia Ledger soon after : 

The Galapagos Islands. 

Prof. George Baur, of Clark University, Worcester, Mass., presented 
his report on his expedition to the Galapagos Islands, in the South 
Pacific Ocean. 

The expedition left New York May 1, on the steamship City of 
Para, most of the funds for which having been provided by Mr. 
Stephen Salsbury, one of the trustees of Clark University, a contribu- 
tion from the Elizabeth Thompson Fund of Boston, Prof. H. F. 
Osborn and others. 

The expedition reached Chatham Island, one of the group, on June 
9th. Here they remained over two weeks, during which extensive 
collections were made. Great differences were noted in the climate 
between the upper and lower portion of the island. In the former it 
was nearly always damp, rain falling nearly every night and day ; 
while, in the latter, it was very agreeable, and rain seldom fell. 

On the 27th of June the expedition left Chatham Island, and 
reached Charles Island the next day. 

Before going on the expedition, Prof. G. Baur had announced the 
conclusion that the Galapagos Islands were, contrary to the general 
opinion, to be considered as continental ; that they developed through 
subsidence, and not through elevation by volcanic activity. This con- 
clusion led him to the establishment of the two following theses : 

First. Continental islands must have ft harmonic distribution of 
fauna and flora. 

Second. Oceanic islands must have a disharmonic distribution. 

From all that is known about the Galapagos Islands, it appears 
that the distribution was harmonic. 

Charles Island was the first taken for comparison, and here every- 
thing seemed quite different from Chatham. The hills were more 
rounded, and there was very little indication of more recent volcanic 
eruption. The rocks were more decomposed, but more dry than Chat- 
ham. The composition and aspect of the flora were different. Many 
of the large trees of the upper region of Chatham were totally absent. 

The composition of the fauna was also different. As in Chatham, the 
members of the expedition made large collections on Charles Island, 
and, as on that island, the birds were very tame, especially the small 

" Very often," said the Professor in his report, " the small birds 
alighted on my hat or gun when I kept quiet." 

As an illustration of how tame the birds were, Prof. Baur related 
the following : 

" I was watching a lizard, when a species of Buteo, alighted on a 
little bush about three feet from me. I had with me a small switch, 
and began to tickle him over the head, neck and body. This he 
seemed to like very much, not showing any fear whatever. After this 
I went to a small island a few yards away from the spot. I had 
hardly arrived there when the bird came over, alighted near me and 
allowed itself to be tickled again." 

The birds are restricted to the single islands, and on each of them 
are but few species of a genus, and the land-birds at least never seem 
to travel from one island to another. 

"Tortoises were extinct on Charles Island long ago. They are also 
extinct on Chatham, Barrington, Hood, and Jeans, on which islands 
they formerly existed. No tortoises were ever found on Tower and 

"On South Albemarle, where we remained nearly three weeks, we 
secured quite a number of specimens. Here the tortoise is still 

"The large and high islands of the group show the richest flora. In 
the flora were found the same differentiation on the different islands as 
in the fauna, so far as could be observed." 

The report concluded about as follows : 

"There cannot be any further doubt that the distribution of the 
flora and fauna of the Galapagos Islands is absolutely harmonious. 
It is this harmony in the distribution which has led me to the theory 
that the islands are continental and not oceanic. How could we explain 
by the theory of elevation, now generally accepted, harmonious distri- 
bution ? It is simply an impossibility to give any explanation on this 
theory. The theory of subsidence, however, makes every point clear 
at once. All islands were connected together at a former period. At 
this time the number of species must have been small. Through isola- 
tion into single islands, the peculiar specialization of the species which 
we found began — an originally single species was differentiated in many 

1892.] Geography and Travels. 43 

different forms. Every, or nearly every, island developed ttepecuHar 

" Now, after it has been shown that the Galapagos Islands are con- 
tinental islands, the question arises, How about other continental 
groups which are generally considered to-day of oceanic origin ? How 
about the Sandwich Islands and the others in the Pacific Ocean ? And 
how about the theory of the constancy of the ocean basins? Is this 
theory on a sound basis? I do not think so; and I am glad to say 
that this theory has been doubted recently by eminent geologists. 

" But geology seems to be unable to give a definite answer. Here biol- 
ogy came to help by a detailed study of the organisms of the different 
groups of islands and their geographical distribution. I think it will 
nearly always be possible to determine whether the groups have origi- 
nated through subsidence or through elevation. In the first case we 
will find harmony ; in the second case, disharmony. 
North Greenland Expedition. 

Prof. Heilprin followed with a report of the expedition sent out last 
June by the Academy of Natural Sciences to Greenland. He reviewed 
the journey from Disco to McCormack Bay, where Lieutenant Peary 
and his party were left. He described the town of Godhavn, and gave 
a vivid word-picture of the bleak coast of Greenland. He told min- 
utely the story of the struggle with the ice-pack in Melville Bay. and 
described the appearance of the great ice sheets and of the huge ice- 
bergs met with. He also gave a sketch of the place where Lieutenant 
Peary built his headquarters, and what he expected to accomplish. 
Prof. Heilprin also reported briefly on the valuable collections made, 
and of the otherwise successful results of the expedition. 
Labrador's Fauna and Flora. 

Prof. L. A. Lee, of Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me., made a report 
on the scientific expedition to Labrador last summer, under the title of 
"Scientific Results of the Bowdoin College Expedition to Labrador." 
The party consisted of nineteen persons, mostly graduates of the College, 
and left Rockland Me., on the 27th of last June, returning September 
24. Most of the time was spent on the coast of Labrador, between the 
Straits of Belle Isle and Hopedale, Latitude 55° 27' North. Much 
dredgino- was done along the coast, which brought to light abundant 
species of .molluscs and Crustacea, many of them new to the known 
fauna of the country. 

In the mouth of Hamilton Inlet a true deep-sea deposit wae foond 
in fifty fathoms of water, where the bottom consisted largely of the 

44 The American Naturalist. 

shells of arenaceous Foramenifera, like Hyperammina. The number 
of known species of fish was doubled, and specimens were secured of a 
remarkable deep-sea Plagyodus. In archaeology a very interesting 

discovery was made of the : 

: village, 

among the refuse of which were found many bone implei 
ments and carvings of ivory. 

The work of a sub-expedition, which rediscovered the grand falls, 
whose height was shown to be 316 feet, was briefly referred to. In 
closing, Prof. • Lee said that, while a great many additions to the 
fauna have been made by the large collections secured, there is still 
great opportunity for further investigation and exploration, and the 
members of the expedition consider the country a very important 

Studies of the Gulf Stream. 

The last report presented to the meeting was by Prof. William Lib- 
bey, Jr., of Princeton University, and it proved one of the most inter- 
esting and valuable of the series. It referred to the study, with 
the United States Fish Commission, of the currents in the Gulf Stream 
on portions of the Atlantic coast. The Professor said the work was 
conducted on a series of lines parallel to the coast of New Jersey, between 
Block Island and Nantucket. Along these lines, which were 150 miles 
in length, were made a series of stations, at which stations observations 
were made in temperature and densities ; also in currents ; and, at the 
same time, meteorological observations. All of these observations, he 
said, showed the peculiar relations of the Gulf Stream to the Labra- 
dor current. The position of the different curves of temperature were 
drawn after these observations were plotted. These curves of fifty 
degrees showed marks of the boundary of the intrusion of the Labra- 
dor current into the northern edge of the warmer waters. 

Then the fact was shown, continued Professor Libbey, that we were 
dealing with two different sets of currents— one a deep series, and the 
other a surface set; both being modified by the mechanical laws of 
their motion, by changes in velocity, temperature and density. But 
the surface currents were further modified by the direction, duration 
and velocity of the wind currents. 

The appearance of smaller, band-like currents upon the north-bound 
Gulf Stream, which were reversed in the direction of their motion after 
they had passed somewhat to the northward, was explained and offered 
as a reason for the appearance of schools of fishes at different points 
of the coast, since the warmer waters provide the proper conditions 

1892.] Geology and Paleobiology. 45 

for the growth and distribution of the fishes' food", by the bridging 
over of the cold current. 

The effect of the wind on the modification of the northern boundary 
of the Gulf Stream was pointed out, and it was shown that it had been 
moving towards the New Jersey coast at the rate of sixty miles per 
year. The pilot charts of the North Atlantic coast, in which were 
given the direction and velocities for the last three years, were exhibited 
to support this view. Further, the influence of these changes in the 
conditions in temperature and moisture upon our climate were pointed 
out and some explanations offered. 


The Earthquake in Japan.— In a recent letter to the New York 
Tribune, Mr. Kairiyama, a Japanese resident of New York, states he 
has received letters from Japan containing manv particulars of the 
terrible earthquake in that country, which took place October 28. The 
section chiefly afflicted was the great island of Hondo, which is the 
main island of the Japanese empire, embracing many provinces. The 
surface of the ground at the time of the disturbance was terribly 
shaken. No person could stand. Houses were instantly thrown down ; 
fire instantly raged, roasting the imprisoned victims. The shocks 
took place at intervals during four days, and varied from 100 to 600 
in different localities. Relief funds are being subscribed in this and 
other countries. 

The London Daily Graphic says : " Twenty-six thousand five hun- 
dred people were killed and wounded; 90,000 houses destroyed; 
200,000 people homeless. Not even the distance between them and us, 
which robs the facts of so much of their import, the 'figures of so 
much of their meaning, can deprive them of all. There are people 
starving, too ; and this is a tangible ill, which we may attempt to les- 
sen as well as to appreciate. An appeal has been made by the Japan- 
ese people to our charity. The disaster which has overtaken them is 
not within human power to foresee or to prevent; but some of the 
consequences it is only human to attempt to alleviate." 

The steamer China, which recently arrived at San Francisco from 
Hong Kong and Yokohama, reports that, while the steamer was 
between Hong Kong and Yokohama on the return trip to San Fran- 
cisco, an imposing sight was witnessed by the passengers and crew. 

The great earthquake at Yokohama had taken place a short time 
previous, and many of the islands in the Yellow Sea were in a state 

46 The American Naturalist [January, 

of volcanic disturbance. About seven o'clock on the evening of 
Nov. 3d, the China was pas&ing the Aleutian Islands, in Van Diemen's 
Straits, when, suddenly, the island of Suson seemed all ablaze, and 
flames and lava shot up a distance of 800 feet into the air. 

The steamer was twelve miles distant, and the spectacle, as seen from 
her decks, was grand. The night was dark, and the eruptions from 
the crater of the volcano took place at intervals of about fifty seconds. 
They were accompanied by detonations, which, in the distance, sounded 
like bombs exploding, and, after each discharge of molten lava and 
flames, the burning fragments descended like sparks from a gigantic 
Roman candle. 

The American bark Hesper, also lately arrived at San Francisco 
from Kobe, Japan, after an excellent passage of twenty-seven days, 
reports a graphic account of an experience with a submarine volcano, 
hot sea-water and sulphurous gases. 

Capt. Sodergren states that, about 6.30 A. M., on October 28, while 
lying at anchor in Kobe, the bark received a sudden shock that caused 
the masts to strain and crack. Some of the standing rigging snapped 
like a piece of twine, and all hands were thrown from their feet. The 
vessel pitched heavily, and caused one of the cross-trees to break from 
its fastenings and fall on deck. The waters became still an hour later, 
and the bark put to sea. 

Early on the morning of October 30, when about seventy-five miles 
off the Japan coast, the bark was almost thrown on her beam ends by 
the sudden eruption of a submarine volcano. The water became so 
hot that, when a sea was shipped on deck, the crew took to the rig- 
ging. The heat became so intense that the pitch in the deck was 
melted and the seams opened. 

" Great blasts of hot air, with a strong sulphurous smell," said the 
captain, " would come up from the breaking surface of the ocean and 
almost suffocate us for the moment. Then the membrane of the nos- 
trils became irritable, causing us all to have a fit of sneezing. This 
phenomenon lasted for several hours. I have had all I want of the 

Prof. Horace Briggs, of Buffalo, who was in Japan at the time of 
the earthquake, says immense crevices, from which hot mud and steam 
escaped, were to be seen in all directions.—- Scientific American, Dec. 19, 

The Report of the Minnesota Natural History Survey for 
1889, 1 an 8vo. of 234 pages, has, for its contents: Summary Statement 

1 The Geologii " i.nesota. Eighteenth annual 

1892.] Geology and Paleontology. 47 

for 1889 ; Report of Field Observations made in 1888, in 1889, N. H. 
Winchell ; American Opinion on the Older Rocks, A. Winchell ; Addi- 
tions to the Library of the Survey since 1884 ; List of Publications of 
the Survey. 

This report gives an idea of the progress that is being made in the 
intricate geology in the northeastern part of the State, and of the 
economic resources that are being developed there. Mr. N. H. Win- 
chell's field observations confirm the views set forth by Irving, Bon- 
ney and Lawson, and the conclusions published by the Minnesota 
Survey, to the effect that the Huronian System, as now defined and 
understood by the Canadian geological reports, really embraces two or 
three formations ; that one of them is the true Huronian of Murray ; 
another is the Kewatin of Dr. A. C. Lawson, containing the iron-ores 
at Tower, Minn.; and another is the series of crystalline schists which 
Dr. Winchell calls the Vermilion series. They are distinctly sepa- 
rated by lithology and unconformities that have been noted from Ver- 
mont to Minnesota, and can no longer be included under a single term. 

Report of the Geological Survey of Texas, I889. 1 — The 
first annual report of the Geological Survey of Texas is presented in 
8vo. form of 410 pages, with maps, sections and plates. The general 
reports of the State geologist and the several field geologists is followed 
by important papers on the economic geology of the State. Mr. Pen- 
rose reports on the iron ores of Eastern Texas, which necessarily 
includes an account of the general geology of the Gulf Tertiary. Mr. 
Hill discusses the economic uses of the Cretaceous rocks. Messrs. 
Cummins and Tarr are studying the problems of the coal, the gypsum 
and the salt, which are found in the Carboniferous period, and con- 
tribute papers on these subjects. Mr. Von Streeruwitz gives a prelimi- 
nary statement of the geology of Trans-Pecos Texas, with reference to 
mining interests, and Mr. Comstock a preliminary report on the cen- 
tral mineral region of Texas. Both of these papers contain valuable 
information concerning the older rocks of the State. 

Infusorial Earths of Pacific Coast.— In a recent paper (Am. 
Journ. ScL, Nov., 1891), Mr. A. M. Edwards has described seven new 
fluviatile, fossiliferous deposits from Oregon, California and Washing- 
ton, four of which are from the western side of the mountains, one 
from the gap, and one from the east ; proving that the fresh-water 

1 First Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Texas, 1889. E. T. Dumble, 

48 The American Naturalist. [January, 

deposits are not confined to the eastern slope, as Bailey had supposed. 
Mr. Edwards further states that the geological age of a fresh-water 
Diatomaceous strata cannot be determined by means of the microscope 
unless they are proved by other evidence to be of greater age than 
the present period. Enough is known of the habitat of certain species 
to make it easy to tell whether the deposit has been made in pond, 
lake, river, marsh, bay or ocean. 

On the Relationship of the Plistocene to the Pre-plisto- 
cene Formations of the Mississippi Basin South of the 
Limit of Glaciation.— In the American Journal of Science, May, 
1891, is published a paper, the joint production of Mr. T. C. Cham- 
berlin and Mr. R. D. Salisbury, on the relationship of the Loess and 
the Orange Sand south of the limit of glaciation. The deposits inves- 
tigated by the writers are included between the parallels of 35° and 
that of the northern limit of the Mississippi Basin. Throughout much 
of this territory the loess lies upon the glacial drift. It may be traced 
across the limit of the drift from north to south. The continuity is 
complete, and the character of the formation is the same on both sides 
of the line which marks the limit of ice advance. North of the limit, 
the evidence, in the judgment of the writers, is conclusive that the 
loess belongs to the closing stages of the first glacial epoch. If, there- 
fore, the age of the loess which covers the drift be first glacial, the age 
of that which lies south of the drift, in the area under discussion, is 
likewise first glacial. 

Between the relationship of the till north of the limit of glaciation 
and the relationship of the loess to the residuary earths of the Paleo- 
zoic rocks immediately outside the drift there is an important differ- 
ence. The presence of a weathered and highly-oxidized zone, subja- 
cent to the loess, south of the drift-limit, is as conspicuous as its absence 
to the north. This oxidized zone is the upper surface of the residuary 
earths, and clearly indicates the existence of a long interval between 
the loess and the residuary earths beneath. 

Beneath the loess, south of the limit of glaciation, lie the series of 
gravels and sands known as the Orange sands. It is a peculiarity of 
the distribution of loess, that elevations within the area of its occur- 
rence seem to be no obstacle to its presence. The same may be said of 
the gravel. From their relative position it U evident that the latter 
is the older of the two. That it is much older is shown (1 ) by a zone 
of oxidation between the loess and the < Grange sand ; (2) by :i marked 
unconformity when the loess covers a hill, indicatinir a long period ol 

ma macrolepuloluin Lt -,. 

1892.] Geology and Paleontology. 49 

pre-loessial erosion ; (3) by chemical changes in the sands and gravels, 
due to long exposure to atmospheric agencies. 

Further evidence is adduced to show that the Orange Sands cannot 
be referred to the first episode of the glacial epoch, nor to the interval 
between the twoglaciationsof the first glacial epoch — they are undoubt- 
edly pre-plistocene ; and the conclusion is given as follows: 

" In the light of the foregoing evidence, we find but one conclusion 
possible respecting the age of the Orange Sand. In six States, at least, 
it is true that, beneath the loess and above the Orange Sand, there is 
an old surface so deeply weathered and oxidized as to indicate a long 
period of exposure before the deposition of the loess Every- 
where below this horizon there is an absence of material which can be 
referred to a glacial origin; while, above this horizon, the loess and 
other fluvial deposits contain material of glacial derivation. This old 
surface we hold to be the dividing plane between the Plistocene and the 
Pre-plistocene formations." 

Cretaceous Fossils from Syria.— A bulletin of the American 
Museum of Natural History, issued December, 1891, contains observa- 
tions on some Cretaceous Fossils from the Beyrut district of Syria, in 
the collection of the Museum, with descriptions of some new species by 
E. P. Whitfield. A tabulated list shows that, of the 175 species, 93 are 
Lamellibranchiates and 82 are Gastropods, from six distinct beds of 
Cretaceous rocks, the lowest of which is above the zone of the (Metr- 
ites glandarius Lang., below which comes the Jurassic beds of Mejdel 

The Age of the Staked Plain of Texas.— Mr. II. T. Hill has 

stated that the superficial beds of this large area (10,000 square miles) 
are of Cenozoic age. Mr. W. T. Cummins states (First Annual Report 
of the Geological Survey of Texas) that they are of light-colored 
calcareous material, and he calls them the Blanco Canyon beds. Dr. 
E. T. Dunible, director of the Geological Survey of Texas, having 
sent me some vertebrate fossils from Blanco Canyon, I have deter- 
mined them as follows: A new species of Equus (E. simplicidens 
Cope) is associated with a Mastodon with molar teeth of the 21. ungus- 
tidens type, and a new species of laud tortoise, Testudo turgubi t ope. 
The association of the genus Equus with the Mastodon of the angus- 
tidens type has not been observed previously on this continent, the 
latter ceasing with the Loup Fork beds, and the former commencing 
with the Equus bed. The Blanco formation may thus be regarded as 

Mo. Bot. Garden, 


Boulder Trains and Boulder Belts.— Mr. T. C. Chamberlain 
recognizes two leading types of glacial boulders: (1) boulder trains, 
and (2) boulder belts. Boulder trains originate from knobs or promi- 
nences of rock which lay in the path of the glacial movement. They 
lie in the line of glacial movement, but not strictly parallel to it, hut 
rather in radiating lino-, and may lie called boulder tans. The boul- 
ders are usually of a single kind, growing smaller and more worn as 
traced away from the parent knob, and are mingled with the underly- 
ing drift. The boulder belts lie transverse to the direction of glacial 
movement, are composed of stones of different kinds, from distant 
sources, and do not mingle deeply with the underlying drift. These 
boulder belts coincide closely with terminal moraines, which suggests 
that they were deposited by the margin of the ice that formed the 
moraines.— Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I., 1889. 

Geological News.— General.— Elk Lake, discovered by Mr. 
Chambers, July 6, 1872, is officialy announced as the ultimate source 
of the Mississippi River.— Am. Geol, Nov., 1891) Accord- 
ing to J. C. Branner, Crowley's Ridge, in Eastern Arkansas, is not an 
upheaval, but is the result of an erosion along both sides of it. The 
ridge is capped with Tertiary, while the valleys, both east and west, 
are covered with material of a later date. (Report Geol. Surv. 
Ark., 1889.) Mr. Ellsworth CalPa studies of the geology of East- 
ern Arkansas have shown that divisions within this area must be based 
upon stratigraphic and petrographic, rather than upon paleontologic 
data. The paucity of fossil remains to preclude a classification based 
upon faunal contents. (Report Ark. Geol. Surv., 1889.) 

Paleozoic— Mr. G. F. Matthew is of the opinion that more than 
one horizon of life is represented in the assemblage of forms known as 
the Olenellus Fauna. This appears to be indicated by the fauna of 
Washington County, N. Y., the source of the Emmons types, which 
has been recently studied by Mr. Walcott. {Am. Geol, Nov., 1891- 

A series of papers on the Paleontology of the Ohio Valley, by J. 

F. James, is being published in the Journal of the ( 'in. So.-. AW. Hist., 
1891. The first one treats of Plants? and Protozoa. The other groups 

will be taken up in regular order. A study of the rocks at Point 

Pleasant, in Southern Ohio, leads Mr. James to the conclusion that 
there is no more reason for assigning them to the Trenton than there 

1892.] Geology and Paleontology. 51 

would be in making a similar disposition of the lowest beds at Cincin- 
nati. This is contrary to opinions hitherto held, as they have been 
generally referred to the Trenton. Mr. James considers them part of 
the series known as the Cincinnati group of Meek and Worthen, f„r 
which Walcott has proposed the name Cincinnati Shale and Lime- 
stone in the Hudson Terrane. Mr. James remarks, in this connection, 
that there is no good reason to say that the Trenton outcrops at the 
surface in any locality within the borders of Ohio. (Journ. Cin. Soc. 
Nat. Hist, July, 1891.) 

Mesozoic— M. Philippe Thomas report- valuable deposits of phos- 
phate of lime in the cretaceous marls of Tunis. The most important 
are located in the southwestern part of the high plateaus. (Rev. Set., 

Nov., 1891.) The left ramus of a mandible of Homoeomurus major 

was exhibited by Mr. Boulenger at a recent meeting of the London 
Zool. Soc. The specimen was taken from the Forest Marble in Wilt- 
shire. (Proceed. London Zool. Soc, Feb., 1891.) A recent paper 

by Mr. Lydekker, on L rtrta concludes as follows : 

"It appears from the recent researches of Dr. E. Fraas that the 
type of i". acutirostris Owen has smooth, carinated teeth like those of 
I. plaiydon, so that this species should be transferred to the Platyodont 
group, which it has been* proposed to raise to generic rank as Temno- 
dontosaurus. This leaves the name I. quadriscissus as the one best 
applicable to the other specimens catalogued as I. acutirostris. More- 
over, Dr. Fraas considers that /. zetlandicus Seeley is identical with 
quadriscissus ; and we are disposed to doubt the right of separating /. 
longirostris Jtiger (non Owen) from the same. Finally, we observe 
with satisfaction that Dr. Fraas is disposed to consider the American 
Baptanodon as inseparable from Opth<ihnos<nrni« of the English 
Oxford and Kimmeridge Clays, of which such a fine series has been 
recently acquired by the British museum." (Geol. Mag., July, 1891.) 

Cenozoic. — Mr. Crawford has collected a series of tacts which indi- 
cate that at least two or three mountain ranges in Nicaragua were 
deeply covered by ice during a glacial epoch contemporaneous with 
that which existed in the North American continent. (Am. Geol. 
Nov., 1891.)— According to R. E. Call the silicified woods of Eastern 
Arkansas are all of Tertiary age. They are silicified lignite, derived 
from the beds of Eocene clays that underlie the sands and gravels in 
which they commonly occur. (Am. Jour. Sci., Nov., 1891.) T. M. Bou- 
langer has described a new extinct turtle ( Testudo mierotpnpanuni), 

52 The A7nerican Naturalist. [January, 

.probably from Mauritius. Its principal distinctive features are the 
very small tympanic cavity and the backward prolongation of the 
palatines and vomers, the latter forming a suture with the basisphe- 

noid. (Proceeds. Lond. Zool. Soc, Jan., 1891.) Two species of 

Procoptodon are described and figured by Mr. Lydekker in the 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Nov., 1891. These fos- 
sils are two mandibular rami, and they were obtained from the clay- 
beds near Miall Creek, on the Northern frontier of New South Wales. 
They have been referred provisionally to P. rapha and P. goliah. 


Petrographical News. — The eruptive rocks of Velay, Haute 
Loire, France, in the order of their age are basalts, trachytes and tra- 
chytic phonolites, augite andesites, porphyrinic basalts, nepheline pho- 
nolites and nepheline basalts. Termier, 2 who describes them, gives but 
a few brief notes on each type. The younger phonolites form the lar- 
ger part of the hill. They contain aegerine in light-green porphyritic 
crystals, and in microlites. At the south-east of St. Pierre-Eynac are 
tertiary clay slates cut by dykes of phonolite, whose tiny veins pene- 
trate metamorphosed phases of the elastics, and are thus consequently 
regarded as the agents producing the alteration. The rocks represent- 
ing the first stage in the alteration consist of granitic debris, in which 
secondary opal has been deposited around the feldspar and quartz frag- 
ments. In some instances, in addition to the opal there have been 
formed also secondary quartz and calcite, the former as a fibrous rim 
around the grains. In more intensely changed phases, the slate is 
traversed by veins of phonolite, whose contact with the sedimentary 
rock is not visible, since on both sides of it the material of the phono- 
lite has thoroughly impregnated the slate. On the other hand the 
phonolite of the veins contains sphene, but no augite, while the normal 
rock contains an abundance of aegerine, but no sphene. In the final 
stage all the quartz of the slate has disappeared, and the rock is com- 
prised principally of opal, serpentine and clay (halloysite ?), with pleo- 
naste, colorless augite and hornblende as new products. The alteration 
is thus a alicification. In other, more rare cases, it is a feldspathiza- 
tion.— Hutch ings 3 has recently studied the material of which slates are 

1 Edited by Dr. W. S. Baj iterville Me 

2 Bull. d. Serv. ,1. 1. carte '(ii'o!. .■. I- ,- \,,. j;} ' 1S9( , 

3 Geological Magazine VII, 1890, p. 2>M and :{K;, aui II,. ]S!U p. 164. 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 53 

stones from near Seaton, England, north of Neweastle-on-Tyne. The 
harder shale layers arc composed mainly of mica, quartz, feldspar, 
zircon and other accessory minerals, as garnet, rutile, anataso, tourma- 
line, sphene and barite. The biotite is the first of these to iiiideriro 
change under the influence of weathering processes. In the case studied 
it has not changed to chlorite, but has become bleached and has yielded 
epidote. The quartz and feldspar are uniformly distributed throughout 
the mass, while the mica usually lies out its fiat surfaces in the bedding 
planes. In addition to the mineral grains already mentioned there i> 
present a sort of groundmass or paste, made up of indistinctly granular 
matter, with microlites of various kind- and a hugv amount of a fine 
micaceous substance, besides large plates of a secondary mica. In a 
fine grained portion of the deposit, the paste is qiute abundant and in 
it are numbers of minute rutile needles, flakes of ilmenite, some small 
perfect crystals of tourmaline and a considerable quantity of the secon- 

edges of the grains extend out between the surrounding minerals, and 
the plates are full of minute rutile needles. In the very finest grained, 
smoothest clay bands of the region, the paste forms the largest part of 
the mass, while the well marked clastic grains are few in number, the 
biotite having disappeared entirely. Kaolin was not certainly recog- 
nized in even the thinnest sections of fire-clay, the fine grained granular 
substance of which this clay principally consisrs, being mainly the paste 
described above. The abundance of rutile, that is so noticeable a feature 
of the clays examined, is supposed to have originated upon the decom- 
position of the biotites, and the muscovite (or sericite), by the alteration 
of the paste. This mineral gradually increases in quantity, and then 
under the influence of pressure is so orientated that a micaceous slate re- 
sults. The absence of biotite from most slates is thought to be due to the 
easy decomposability of the <ui>4ance; and its presence in the sediments 
from which some slates were formed is thought to be indicated by the 
large percentage of rutile and epidote in the latter. In his second con- 
tribution to the subject the author describes the results of a separation 
of the components of a fine clay by fractional levigation, and an ex- 
amination of the separated portions. He concludes from his study 
that nearly all the muscovite of slates, and all of the rutile bearing 
variety, is a secondary product, subsequent in origin to the deposition 
of the material from which the slates were formed.— The iron ores of 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, are found in two principal districts, the Jacuj irai _a 
and the Ipamena. In the first locality the ore, with a violet titaniferous 
pyroxene, forms a schistose rock, in which perofskite, apatite and a 

54 The American Naturalist. [January, 

zeolitized silicate are accessory constituents. As the amount of the ore 
increases, that of the other constituents decreases, until in some cases 
an almost pure magnetite results. By weathering the augite gives rise 
to mica in abundance. In some cases the pyroxene rock is found asso- 
ciated with layers in which magnetite and nepheline are the principal 
components. This Derby 1 believes to be genetically connected with the 
ore-bearing rocks, which i , and regards as eruptive. 

Much of the ore of the Ipanema district originally occured with acmite 
and apatite as segregations in an acmite syenite, which is now highly 
decomposed, so that the segregations are scattered like boulders 
over the ground. Fouque 2 has redetermined the minerals of the 
Santorin rocks and has discovered that his former determinations of 
some of them were erroneous. In the pumice of Acrotri, Isle of Thera, 
composed of g I material between, are little trans- 

parent crystals whose nature has heretofore been in doubt. A new 
examination proves them to be alunite. A quantity — separated and anal- 
yzed—gave: SO s =38#, Al,0,=37.3%; H a O=13.3; alkalies=11.4#. 
The blocks enclosed in the lava of 1866, formerly supposed to consist of 
wollastinite, famaU and melanite, are now known to contain in addition 
to these substances anhydrite. The interiors of the nodules are composed 
almost exclusively of anhydrite, with a little augite and other con- 
stituents of the enclosing rock, in which arc wollastnnite and melanite. 
— Four small boulders of nephrite from British Columbia have been ex- 
amined by Harrington. 3 Three were found near Lytton on the Fraser 
River, and the fourth in the upper part of the Lewes River, near the 
Alaskan boundary line. The composition of each is as follows : 
Si0 2 A1Q 2 FeO MnO CaO MgO Loss Sp. Gr. 

1. 55.32 2.42 5.35 .52 14.00 20.16 2.16 3.0278 

2. 56.98 .18 4.59 .17 12.99 22.38 2.64 3.003 

3. 56.54 .40 3.61 .16 13.64 22.77 2.92 3.01 

4. 56.96 .51 3.81 .53 13.29 22.41 2.91 3.007 
No. 3 contains pale hornblende crystals extinguishing at 8°-18°. 

—Derby 4 has discovered that xenotime is an almost universal consti- 
tuent of muscovite granites, and presumably of other acid potash rock?. 
Residues obtained by washing the powder of such rocks in a gold 
washer's pan nearly always yields xenotime and monazite. Eighty-six 
and two-thirds percentage of the undoubted muscovite granites, from 

1 Amer. Jour. Sci., Apr. 1891, p. 311. 

2 Bull. Soc. Franc, d Min., 1890, XIII, p. 245. 
3 Trans. Roy. Soc. Can. 1890, p. 61. 

"Amer. Jour. Sci., Apr., 1891, p. 308. 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 5,3 

Brazil, examined by Derby, disclosed the presence of this accvs>orv, 
which is thought by him to be as constant a constituent of those rock* 
as any mineral save zircon. Experiments made with granites from the 
United States seem to indicate the value of the pan as a petroirraplncal 

— The rare blue hornblende riebeckite i- reported by Cole' in three 
pebbles found in the drift of North England and of Wales, in addition 
to its occurrences in the microgranite of ftfynydd Mawr, where it was 
discovered by Harker and Bonney a few years ago. 

Mineralogical News. — General. — Since manv of the supposed 
paramorphs recent years to be due not to the mo- 

lecular rearrangement of material already existing, but rather to the solu- 
tion of some original substance and its replacement by a new deposition, 
Bauer 2 has re-examined the pseudomorphs of rut He after brookite from 
Magnet Cove, Ark., to determine whether or not the substance is a true 
paramorph. After studying many thin sections of the brookite, rutile, 
and intergrowths of the tw T o, he concludes that the latter are true para- 
morphs, the rutile originating in a molecular re-arrangement of the 
Ti0 2 . The rutile begins to form on the exterior of the brookite crys- 
tals, or along cracks in them, as needles penetrating the brookite sub- 
stance. The rutile pseudomorphs after anatase from Brazil, the Urals 
and other' localities, are also declared to be true paramorphs. The 
same author has also re-examined the Michel-levy ite of Lacroix, which. 
Dana declared to be barite, and finds that Dana's statement is correct 
The axial angle is large, but it cannot be measured, as the acute bisec- 
trix does not enter the field of view. The mineral differs from or- 
dinary barite only in the possession of a very perfect cleavage in the 
direction of one prismatic face. On the base it shows twinning striations 
resembling those of plagioclase. The twinning plane is the prismatic 
face parallel to which is the most perfect cleavage. The structural 
peculiarities of the Perkin's Mill barite are all due to this abnormal 
cleavage, which in turn is dependent upon the twinning, which is new 
to the mineral, and is probably the result of pressure. Measurements of 
druse crystals of the same substance yield the forms cha 
barite and the new plane A P^ with a: b: C-—.8152 : 1 : 1 
mineral associated with calcite and phillipsite as druses oi 

ean Naturalist. 

tephrite of Eulenberg in Bohemia, pronounced by Zepharovich 1 to be 
orthoclase, has been carefully investigated by Griinzer, 2 who thinks it 
more likely to be a zeolite. Its crvstahzation is probably tnclinw. 
though by the parallel growth of many individuals there is built up a 
form closely resembling that of orthoclase. — The minerals characterizing 
the hollow spherulites of the rhylit,- of ( Hade Creek/ Wyoming, and 
of Obsidian Cliff, in the Yellowstone National Park, like those found 
in other lithophysre, are thought to be the results of aqueo-igneous 
fusion upon the material of the acid lava. The most abundant mineral 
thus formed is quartz, whose crystals are either attached to the walls of the 
cavities, thus exposing only one termination, or are interlaced forming 
a network built up of crystals occasionally doubly-terminated. Both 
the rare -f f R and — f R are well developed, and also the equally 
rare forms ±f Pi. The next most noticeable mineral mfayalite, whose 
habit has already 4 been described. In some of the more irregular 
cavities at (Hade Creek are accumulations of very small sanidine crys- 
tals, hornblende and biotite, of which the latter is never found associated 
with fayalite.— The rhodizite from the Urals, which has been declared 
to be regular with oo aud 2 , is pyroelectric. The examination of it, 
extinction and its interference colors shows it to be pseudosymmetrical 
it being in reality monoclinic 5 with a : b: c:=.707 : 1 : 1. /3=90°. The 
dodecahedron becomes OP,— P, -fP and oo Poo" and the tetrahedron 
±0, P55- and oo P 2\ An interesting series of experiments made by the 
same mineralogist on jeremejewite lately described by Websky 6 shows it 
to consist of an interior hexagonal kernel, surrounded by two zones with 
some orthorhombic properties, and an external one, with the charac- 
teristics of the kernel. The density of the material in each zone is the 
same, and its reaction under pressure and temperature is similarly 
slight. The kernel and the peripheral zones are uniaxial and negative, 
while the other two zones are biaxial, the inner one possessing the lar- 
ger optical angle. The explanation of the phenomena offered by the 
author is to the effect that in the first stage of the mineral's growth it 
separated as an orthorhombic substance on the walls of the cavity- 
Upon this were deposited zones two and three, after which the cavity was 
filled by what is now the kernel. The optical anomalies of phacolite 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 57 

and ch'ibazite are ascribed to the same causes as those assigned to tin- 
anomalies of analcite. — Some doubt having been cast upon the correct- 
ness of Baumhauer's conclusion that nepheline btrapezohedrallv heni- 
hedral, the mineral from three bombs of Vesuvius has again been ex- 
amined. The figures produced on the oo P faces of crystals, upon etch- 
ing with HC1 and H F, are ■ imsymmetrical ; consequently their crys- 
talization is either pyramidal or trapezohedral hemihedral, and the 
forms are hemimorphic with respect to the vertical axis. 1 — Saltmair 
records tbe following as the composition of a melanite from Oberroth- 
well in tbe Kaiserstubl: 

Si0 2 Ti0 2 Zr0 2 A1 2 3 Fe 2 3 Mn 2 3 FeO CaO MgO Na 2 < ) K < ) Lou 
30.48 11.011.28 3.13 15.21 .28 3.84 30.19 2.28 1.65 .19 
It is interesting for tbe large percentage of titanium shown by it, and 
for the considerable quantity of zirconium, which 1ms heretofore never 
been found in any member of tbe garnet group. — After examining criti- 
cally more than fifty analyses of vemvianite, Kenngott 3 concludes that 
the composition of the mineral must be represented by a formula of two 
parts, like that of apatite. The silicate portion may be represented by 
4 (2 RO. Si0 2 ) + 2 EA, 3 Si0 2 [=4 R", SiO, + R'" 4 (SiO,),]. The 
composition of the non silicated portion is not yet known, but it prob- 
ably contains the hydroxide group, sodium, potassium, and sometimes 
fluorine, in varying proportions. — .4 Imogen' crystals from the Picde- 
Teyde, Teneriff are tabular in habit. They are negative and crys- 
talize monoclinically with a : e=l : .825. /5=97°34'.— Rose colored 
dodecahedral garnets from Xalostic, Mex., have been analyzed by De 
Landero. 5 Their density is 3.516 and hardness 7.5. Their composi- 
tion corresponding to (Ca Mg) ;i Al Fe) 2 (SiO,):,, is: 

Si0 2 A1 2 3 FeA CaO MgO MnOBaO Res. 

40.64 21.48 1.57 35.38 .75 tr. .17 

—Some good sections of pericline from the Pfitschthal, Tyrole, have 
been very carefully studied by Miinzig." Their optical properties in- 
dicate that the substance is not a pure albite, but that it is an inter- 
growth of oligoclase (ab-an) with albite. The former comprehends the 
larger part of the pericline crystals, tbe latter appearing in it as imall 
irregular flecks. Both feldspars are twinned according to the pericline 
law, with the albite apparently occupying pores in the oligoclase.— Des 
^aumhauer : Zeits. f. Kryst. XVIII, p. 611. 
2 Ib. p. 628. 
3 Neues. Jahrb. f. Min., etc., 1891 , I, p. 200. 

58 The American Naturalist. [.Januar* 

Cloizeaux 1 notes the similarity in habit between chalcopyrite crystals- 
from Cuba and those of the French Creek Mines in Chester Co., 2 Pa. 
A comparison of recent analyses of violan and anthochroite leads 
Igelstrom 3 to the conclusion that the two are identical. — In a recent 
brochure of the American Geological Society, Kunz 1 announces the 
discovery of small diamonds in the alluvial sands of Plum Creek, 
Pearce, Co., Wis., and the occurrence of fire opal in a vesicular basalt 
at Whelan, Washington. — Sandberger 5 has found pseudomorphs of 
markasite after pyrargyrite at Chanarcillo, Chile. 

Miscellaneous.— Syntheses.— Lorenz 6 has produced crystallized 
zinc sulphide by the sublimation of the amorphous salt in an atmospheie 
of ammonium chloride. The action is explained as taking place in two 
stages— first, the formation of zinc chloride and its sublimation, and sec- 
ondly , the action of sulphuretted hydrogen u pon this salt. By the action 
of dry H a S on the respective metals cry stalized troilite, millerite,wurtzite 
and greenockite were formed. The first is in little opaque tabular crys- 
tals, that are at first silver white and afterwards bronzy-yellow in color* 
According to Prof. Groth, they are probably hemimorphic. In addi- 
tion to the greenockite there were produced in the same operation other 
crystals that are seemingly cadmium sulphide.— Though the synthet- 
ical production of augite is not a difficult problem, that of hornblende 
has heretofore resisted the best efforts of mineralogists to effect it. 
Chrustschoff 7 has however lately succeeded in obtaining the mineral by 
heating in a glass tube, from which the air had been extracted, a mixture 
of dialysed colloidal silicic acid containing Sfc of SiO., and dialysed 
solutions of A1 2 3 , Fe (OH) s and Fe (OH) 2 , with lime water, freshly 
prepared Mg (OH) 2 suspended in water, and a few drops of sodium and 
potassium hydroxides. Upon heating these together for about three 
months at 550° the mixture became of a dirty-brownish-green color, 
when it was found to contain tiny hard grains of hornblende, analcite 
quartz, feldspar and diopside. The hornblende crystals were bounded 
by co P*T , PocT and oo P. Their extinction c A C=17°50'. Their 

JBull. Soc. Franc, d. Min., XIII, p. 335. 
2 Cf. American Naturalist, 1889, p. 528. 
3 Neues. Jahrb. f. Min., etc., 1890, II, p. 271. 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 59 

double refraction was negative and pleochroism strong. 2 V=82°, and 
composition : 

Si0 2 A1 2 3 Fe,0 3 FeO MgO CaO Na,0 K 2 Loss 
42.35 8.11 7.91 10.11 14.33 13.21 2.18 1.87 .91 
—Otto and Kloos 1 find perfect crystals of periclase on a nnifTel in 
which magnesium oxychloride has been heated. 

General. — The solubility of quite a number of minerals in pure water 
and in dilute salts has been carefully investigated by Doelteiv The sul- 
phides, sulpho-salts, oxides and silicates examined are slightly soluble in 
wuter, with the addition of sodium sulphide the solubility of the first 
two groups is increased while that of the oxides is increased by sodium 
fluoride. The' carbonate of sodium appears to produce but little effect 
upon these. The silicates are more readily soluble in carbonated water 
and in dilute solutions of sodium carbonate. Distilled water seems to 
act simply as a solvent upon all classes, whereas the other reagents 
produce more or less decomposition. Gold is dissolved to some extent 
in both the silicate and the carbonate of sodium at high temperatures. 
— Two instruments for the observation of the optical properties of min- 
erals at high temperatures are described by Klein, and a third by 
Fuess. 4 One is adapted for use on the microscope, where temperatures 
not greater than 450° are required. The second allows of observations 
at a bright red heat, the source of heat being electrical. The third is 
for use with gas. — Miers 5 gives a description of a simple and cheap, 
though quite accurate goniometer for student's use. Rinne' outlines an 
easy method of determining the character of the double refraction in 
uniaxial and biaxial crystals in converged light, based on the use of the 
gypsum plate. Practically the determination depends largely upon 
the colors of different segments of the microscopic field. It is espec- 
ially valuable in determining the sign of weakly doubly refracting 
substances. — The fifth part of Hintz's Handbuch der Mineralogie 7 
concludes the treatment of the mica group, and deals in the usual 
thorough manner with the chlorite and serpentine groups. 

'Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Gesell, 1891, p. 1488- 

2 Min. u. Petrog. Mitth. XI, 1890, p. 319. 

:; Xeues. Jahrb. f. Min., etc., 1890, I, p. 65. 

+ Ib. B. B., VII, p. 406. 

*Min. Magazine, IX, 43, p. 214- 

6 Neues. Jahrb. f. Min., etc., 1891, I, p. 21. 

7 Lei P zig 1891, p. 641-800. 

on Naturalist. 

Notes on The Flora of Western South Dakota.— The fol- 
lowing paper was read before the Botanical Seminary of the University 
of Nebraska by Professor T. A. Williams, of Brookings, S. D. 

The region west of the Missouri River may be divided into three 
quite distinct botanical districts. The Range, The Black Hills, and 
The Badlands. The first is much the largest, extending from the 
River on the North and East to The Badlands on the South and the 
Black Hills on the West. It is a broad stretch of prairie varying from 
level tableland to rolling prairie or in many places becoming quite 
rough and broken, especially along the streams which traverse the 
region at varying intervals. The second region comprises the high- 
land*, canons and mountains of the Black Hills country. The Badland 
region begins near the Mouth of Indian Creek on the Cheyenne River 
and extends southward skirting the Hills, reaching into Nebraska. 
The strip of country varies from ten to about thirty miles wide. The 
surface is very broken and the soil dry and sterile, excepting in some 
of the basins where a little poor water is found giving life to some 

My visit to these regions was made in August of the past year 
(1891). Not a very good time for collecting so far as the number of 
specimens is concerned, but nevertheless a time when one can form a 
fair idea of what the characteristic plants of the regions are. 

I shall not soon forget the impressions I received when, as we climbed 
the bluffs out of the narrow valley of the River at Ft. Pierre, the wide 
stretch of miles upon miles of dry prairie came to view. As far as the 
eye could reach nothing could be seen but that peculiar monotonous 
color of grass dried prematurely. Not a very inviting outlook for a 
botanist. Along the bluffs of the River we had made several finds and 
were beginning to hope that we should have a profitable trip, but at 
the sight of that dreary waste of sunburnt prairie our hopes fell. 
However our fears proved to be groundless, for as we soon learned 
things are not always " what they seem." The creeks, which occur 
here and there throughout the range, are veritable mines for the 
botanist. Very few of them contain running water at this time of the 
year. Usually they are nothing more than a chain of ponds, containing 
from a few inches to a few feet of water. These streams are a continual 
source of delight to the collector. They are usually separated a con- 

siderable distance by a stretch of dry prairie which f..rms a very etliv- 
tive barrier to an interchange of specie-, consequently each stream has 
a few plants that seem to be peculiar to its own territory, and the 
collector is continually running across new things. There are a few 
of the larger ponds that do not contain one or more species of Cham, 
Potamogeton, or some other of the water loving plants. 1 Uumnqdon 
hillii, P. pectinatus, and P. toiterasfolius, were common. P. flmtarn 
was found at Mitchell's Holes, but at no other place ; Sagittaria varia- 
bilis occurred in some of its various varieties throughout the entire 
region; Atriptex urgentea, Xa/ithium -aaadeuse, Solanum rod rat am. 
Euphorbia marginata, ll>liauthu$ animus and If. pdiolari* were 
common all along the trail from Pierre to Rapid City. At Ft. Pierre, 
Peno Hills, and Willow Springs Amorpha miernphylia was common 
along with A.fruticosa and A. eanescens. Our old friend Saponaria 
vaccaria was found at intervals along the entire way to the Black Hills, 
a good example of man's influence in the introduction and distribution 
of plants. Does not this give a hint as to how eastern species advance 
westward? I have noticed similar instances along the old freighting 
trail in Nebraska, which runs from Nebraska City to Denver. The 
principal grasses of the range are, Bautetom ■ <g -■■■'■Ira, B. hirsuta 
and more rarely B. racemosa, Buchloe dadyloides, (fast disappearing), 
Agropyrum glaucum, several species of < 'alamagmdi*. and Stipa comata, 
the last species replacing the common S. spartea of the eastern part of 
the State. At <rms by far the greater part of winter 

as well as the summer feed of the stock of the range. 

Spartina cynosuroides, several species of Ghjceria, Carex, and Scirpus 
grow along the streams and form no small part of the food of the stock 
during the drier seasons of the year. 

Oxytropus lambertii was common, many species of Astragalus were 
found in fruit but few in bloom. Plums and cherries were of frequent 
occurrence along the larger streams. One stream in particular has 
its banks lined with plum bushes for miles and miles and is called 
Plum Creek. Many people go thirty or forty miles to get the plums, 
many of which are very large and toothsome; Shepherdia argentea in 
both red and vellow-fruited forms occurs frum the Missouri River 
to the Black Hills. The fruit of some of the trees of this species is 
quite palatable. Not far from Plum Creek on a hillside I found 
Shrankia uncinata. The whole hillside was a mass of this plant and 
I procured some of the finest specimens of it that I have ever seen. 
While we were camped at Grindstone Buttes I collected my first speci- 
mens of Manilla vestita. It grew along the margin of a small pond ; 

62 The American Naturalist. [Juunoft 

many specimens were found where both of the so-called varieties of this 
species grew on one stem, one part of which grew on the bank and the 
other in the water. I thought I had made a great find but as I learned 
later this little plant is very common from the Buttes to the Black 
Hills, hardly a pond being free from it. 

On the summits of the Buttes we found Dalea aurea in considerable 
quantity but nowhere else did it occur. 

At Peno Hills, about 70 miles East of the Black Hills we found 
many old friends and many new ones. Along the stream which riwi 
in these hills were good sized trees of elm, boxelder, ash, ( [Fro. i inns 
nitidis and F. pubescens), hackberry, willow and the like. Here we 
also found Amelanchier alnifolia, Crataegus coccinea, I'ruuus vinjininnu 
P. americana and P. pumila. The fruit of both of the cherries was very 
fine, while some small bushes of sand-cherry were found bearing fruit 
as large and luscious as that of the ordinary cultivated cherries. On 
the North slope of one of the hills Juniperus sabina var proeumbens 
formed dense mats, especially along tie small draws that lead down 
from the hillside. The only willows collected in this region were 
Salix longifolia and 8. eordata var. vestita though I am certain that S. 
amygdaloides will be found also. 

There are quite a number of small streams between Pierre and the 
Cheyenne River that would be as well wooded as is this stream at 
Peno Hills if they could be protected from prairie fires. We saw main- 
fine groves of elm, ash, boxelder and cottonwood that had been killed 
by fires after the trees had grown to be two and three feet in diameter- 
The groves at Peno Hills are protected from the fires by means of the 
line of dry barren hills along the North and West and have become 
the pride of the whole region. 

At the Cheyenne River we found some interesting things ; coming 
down from the high uplands 'to the so-called second bottom we found 
Psoralea tenuiflora in abundance, for the first time. It reaches its 
finest development here, being much larger than I have ever seen it 
elsewhere. On the bluffs that border the narrow vallev grew Ipomoea 
leptophylla, several Oenotheras, Mentzcth onmtu M. nnd-t, Mnsenium 
teninjolium, Stankm plnunhi and Lu/titm* r >i,<'>(hi.< ('almost always 
accompanied by a fungus, probablv a i'lmiin which wa« very injurious 
to it.) 

Along the canons near Smith ville the silvery form of the red cedar 
was quite abundant, offering a marked contract to the common form. 
The buffalo berry, in both form-; wa> hlmitit'nl everywhere. Astralagus 
bixnfottii.i and its near relativ 1 L.n„L'> / ,„,, ■ .r,"-,.u ,.n -nine of the 



bluffs, on the west side of the river. The former was also found on 

the range and in the Badlands. 

On the bottoms, which are very sandy, we found Astragalus latiflorus 

and A. Jcentrophyta in abundance. Also Dalea alopecuroides, D. laxi- 
flora, Croton texensis, Artemisia canadensis, A. filifolia, Stipa comata, 

Oryzopsis cuspidatus, Munroa squarrosa, Euphorbia petaloidia and E. 

hexagona. The principal timber tree of the bottom is Popultu monili- 
fera while Shepherdia makes most of the thickest growth. Elm, ash, 
boxelder, willow, and hackberry tree occurred, but seldom in any great 
quantities at this place. 

Farther up the river these are more abundant. The cottonwood 
always predominates however. The trees of this species are seldom so 
high as those seen in Eastern Dakota or Nebraska, but are of a much 
more close or bushy growth, due doubtless to the fact that the winds 
often break out the tops, thus producing more branches. 
(Concluded in February Number.) 

Tfie American X'ittinu'i4. 

Protozoa. — A number of articles appear every month on the sub- 
ject of the malaria parasites, treating of their morphology, system and 
pathogenity. Without going into details of all the original publica- 
tions, the following may be taken as the most prominent views in re- 
gard to the parasites. Laveran, the original discoverer of the parasite 
which causes malaria, holds fast to the idea that only a single species 
of Protozoa is concerned in the disease and that the various forms, 
amoeba, crescent, etc., are only different stages in the development of 
this parasite (Du Paludisme et de son Hematozoaire, Paris, 280 p. 
6 Plates, 1891). Grassi andFeletti on the other hand admit two genera: 
Halmamoeba and Laverania, the former with three species: H. prat- 
cox, producing quotidian fever, H. vivax, producing simple or double 
tertiana and H. malaria producing simple, double or triple quar- 
tana ; Lavarania (the crescent) produces an irregular fever, (Central- 
blatt f. Bakt. u. Parasitenkunde IX, p. 430, 1891). Halmamoeba is 
supposed to correspond to Amoeba guttata and Laverania to A. radiata. 

parasites are classified as Rhizopods by these authoi 

Metschnikoff, L. Pfeiffer and others class them as Coccidia, whil 
argues that they must belong to the Gregarina, because an adult form is 
found free in the blood. In comparative Hamio-parasitology Celli and 
Sanfelici (Ueber die Parasiten des rothen Blutkorperchenim Menschen 
und in Thieren, Fortschritte der Medicin Bd. 9, 1891) draw the con- 
clusion that the endoglobular parasitism is more obligatory— and hence 
more highly developed in the Hsemogregarina of birds than in the 
blood parasites of cold blooded animals, since in the latter, the parasiu* 
thrive in the serum about as well as in the blood corpuscle. According 
to these authors, the blood parasites of the frog, on arriving at a cer- 
tain stage, either undergo sporulation, or develop into Drepanidium 
of Ray Lankester. 1 

R. Pfeiffer (L. Pfeiffer, Ueber diePathogene Protozoen) has recently 
made a very important discovery in regard to the development of 0* 
cidium. According to these authors, gymnospores can be developed in 
the growing Coccidium and serve to spread the infection to other cells. 
Kruse has come to the same conclusion, but independently from 
rteitter Kruse states the gymnospores can be formed at anytime 
during the development of the parasite. These naked spores evidently 
cannot spread the infection toother animal* t hi< work boing left to 
the other spores (Dauersporen) w! ; aown. 


Several author* 
not denying their 

that the portion of turtle's flesh given him for comparison, and sup- 
posed to be part of Danilewsky's original material, contained no Mi- 
crosporidia, but was full of minute air bubbles between the muscle- 
fibres. It seems hardly possible, however, that Danilewsky and L. 
Pfeiffer could have mistaken these air bubbles for parasites, yet neither 
Railliet, Balbiani or the reviewer could find any Microsporidia. The 
material came from L. Pfeiffer.— C. W. Stiles. 

Trematodes.— Hassall (American Veterinary Review, July 1891) 
describes the large liver-fluke found in American cattle as Fastiola 
carnosa; as this name is preoccupied he changes the name (Am. Vet. 
Rew. Sept.) to F. americana. [As yet it is impossible to say much in 
regard to this species. The animal is undoubtedly specifically different 
from D. hepaticum, but as I have stated in my Animal Report for 1891; 
bears very great resemblance to Bas-i'~ ZHstomum 1 1 ignum. Dr. Has- 
sall and I are at present at work upon this species and hope soon to 
-C. W. S.] 

Cestodes.— Dr. V. A. Moore recently presented a case of Eckino- 
coccus hydatid in a pig, before the Biological Society of Washington, 
D. C., and in the discussion which followed, Stiles spoke of two more 
unpublished cases in animals and one in man. Van Cott, of Brooklyn, 
has recently given a full account of this last case. It is high time, 
that the Health authorities in the various cities insist upon burning 
every organ infected with this hydatid, found in the slaughter-houses, 
and that more care is used in importing dogs (the final host of this tape 
worm,) from infected regions, if we wish to avoid an experience such as 
Australia has had for the past quarter of a century. 

Prof. Linton has recently published several valuable papers on the 
parasites of fish (Notes on the Entozoa of Marine Fishes of New Eng- 
land, I and II ; a contribution to the Life History of Dibothrium cor- 
diceps ; on two species of larval Dibothria from the Yellowstone Park ; 
all published by the U. S. Fish Commission and free to scientists). 
These papers will be found to be very valuable in determining the 
parasites of fish, as the descriptions are very complete. In reading 
the diagnoses, however, one should remember that Linton unintention- 
ally misused the word "lateral." In places where that word occurs. 
"dorsal" or "ventral" should be inserted. That Linton simply wrote 
lateral, by mistake, is proven by the fact that he speaks of the breadth 

06 The American Naturalist. [January, 

as the " lateral diameter." It is impossible to mention here all of the 
curious and interesting species Linton has described ; in several species 
of Dibothrium, for instance, the uterus empties dorsally, a point about 
which one would be inclined to be very sceptical, were it not that Lin- 
ton gives drawings of the animals and exact measurements of the 
apertures. In one of his papers Prof. Linton determines the white 
pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchus) as the final host of Dibothrium 
cordiceps Leidy, the larval stage of which is found in the trout (Salmo 
mykisi) of the Yellowstone Park. The reviewer must differ from Prof. 
Linton in the interpretation of cysts in which these larvse are found 
Linton interpreted them as blastocysts, but the histology described by 
the author gives more the impression that they are connective tissue 
and since the Keviewer has examined some specimens kindly sent to 
him by Prof. Linton to determine this question, he does not hesitate to 
slate that we have connective tissue cysts of the host before us, instead 
of blastocysts. This point is very important, for were it a blastocyst as 
Prof. Linton thought, this species would form an exception in the family 
Bothriocephalidse, for the blastocyst would of course be homologous to 
the cysticercus of Tseniidse and the head would form in much the same 
manner. As it is, not the cyst, but the enclosed larva, is the homologon 
of the cysticercus. 

The family Taeniidae has been undergoing considerable revision at the 
hands of the noted French zoologist, R. Blanchard. In a work (112 pp.) 
entitled Histoire zoologique et medicale des Teniides du genre Hymeno- 
lepis, Paris, 1891, Blanchard separates all these tape worms from the ge- 
nus Taenia, which have three testes in each segment, with genital pores on 
the left border (for further particulars of the diagnosis, see the original). 
Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta are of particular interest since 
they occur in man, and H. murina (according to Grassi identical with 
H. nana), since Grassi has shown that in this form we have a remarkable 
exception to the rule of development of the Tseniidae, in that E. 
murina develops indirectly but without change of host. The following 
is a synopsis of the species admitted by Blanchard to the genus 
Hymenolepis. (See Table on pages 67 and 68.) 

In his notices Helminthologiques (Mem. de la Soc. Zool. de France, 
1891, p. 420-480) Blanchard separates those members of the genus 
Taenia which have armed suckers into three new genera. 1, Echino- 
cotyle R. Bl., '91. Rostellum with 10 large hooks, each sucker with a 
circle of spines on the edge and a longitudinal row in the middle, etc- 
2, Davainea R. Bl. and Railliet '91, Rostellum or infundibuluna W»* 
double row of hooks, each sucker surrounded with several circular 
rows of hooks. Corpuscles made up of conglomerations of eggs are 

I H. nana von Siebold 

5yn. Taenia nana 
Sieb. (nee. P. J. v. 
neden, 1861.) 
T. aegyptiaca ] 

harz., 1852. 
Diplaeanthus nai 
_ Weinland, 1858. 
t R. Leuckart, 

My ox us qt 


jardin, 1845. 
4 - H. furcata Stieda 
_ 1862. 
5. H. imcinata Stieda 

«• H. Mala 

r, 1845 - 

»• H. pistillum Dui.. 

1845. J 

«■ H. tiara Duj., 1845. 
y - H. ermacei Gmelin, 

%n. Halysis 

Zeder, 1803. 

Taenia tripunctata 

israun, 1810. 

T. compacta Rudol 
, Pi», 1810. 
] 0- H-badU 

M. rattus 

Cr. leucodon 
Cr. aranea 

Taenia baeillaris Dies- 

inft 1851, proparte. ,. „■,««« 
«■ H J. acuta Rud, 1819. V . noctula 
fe yn- T. obtusata P. vJ 

Ben. 1872. nee. Rud.| 
12 rS • • Chilonycteris rv 

'-• H. deeipu.-ns Dies., ginosa 

I8o °- SMolossus perotis 

Cercystis(Bl.)Uro- Silpha 
cvstis (v. Lin- 


Staphylocystis bil- 




|Vesperugo ^erotina 

Larva. Secondary Host. 
Cercocystis(Grassi) Same as primary 
host, vi; 

is;Tenebrio molit 


. v'iiiot 


68 The American Naturalist. [January. 

Unarmed Hymenolepis, i. e. Adult without hooks. 

H. relicta Zschokke,IMus decumanus |Cercocystis ! Asopia farina! 

1 >.v\ 

Rinl., M. decuraanus 

ivn. Taenia diminuta; 
Eud., 1819. 
T. leptocephala Crep- 

lin, 1825. 
T. flavopunctata 

Weinland, 1858. 
T. varesina Erm 

Parona, 1884. 
T. minima Grassi, 

M. musculo* 

M. alexandrii 

IScaurus stnatus 

scattered through the parenchym. Most of the species of this group 
are parasites of birds, D. {Taenia) madagascariensis however is para- 
sitic in man. 3, Ophryocotyle Friis, 1869. Rostrum absent, infundi- 
bulum present, its border armed with several rows of small hooks. 
Several transverse rows of hooks on the suckers. 

Thesubfamile Anoplocephalinae R. Bl., '91, cont in tie nai ed 
Taenia? found in herbivorous animals, segments wider than long, egg 
with pyriform apparatus, 3 genera. 1, Bertia, R. Bl., '91, genital 
pores irregularly alternate, etc., 2 species, found in primate anthro- 
poides, (Mem. cit. p. 186-196). 2, Moniezia, R. Bl., '91, two genital 
pores to each segment, etc., (Bui. cit. p. 444) contains 11 species many 
of which are important to economic zoology: M. {Taenia) expansa 
and M. {T.) denticulata of sheep and cattle, etc. 3, Anoplocephala 
Em. BL, 1868, sexual pores unilateral, etc., contains 2 species: A. 
{Taenia) mamillana and A. {T.) perfoliata of the horse, etc. 

In the same publication R. Blanchard treats more minutely several 
species of the genus Moniezia found in rodents and gives some shorter 
observations on various Distomes.— C. W. Stiles. 

Nematodes.— Willach (Arch. f. w. u. pr. Thierheilkunde, 1891, p. 
340-346) describes a new and dangerous parasite, found in nodules of the 
colon of Maeacus cynomolgus. This helminth, which receives the name 
of Sclerostoma apiostomum, proved fatal in two out of three cases ex- 
amined. Stiles (Sur la Dent des Embryons d'Ascaris ; Bull. d. 1. Soc. 
Zool. d. France, 1891, p. 162) claims that the so-called "boring tooth" 
found in embryos of Ascaris lumbricoides is composed of three part?, 
each of which corresponds to a lip of the adult Ascaris.— C ^ • '- 

1S02.] Zoology. 60 

Notice of Trematode Parasites in the Crayfish.— Prof. 

Charles A. Davis, of Alma, Michigan, has submitted to me tor 
identification several cysts from the common crayfish, which prove 

the genus Distomum and are evidently -pecitieallv identical \viih~the 
specimen described and figured bv K. Kanisav Wri-dit in volume 
XVIII f the American Xa-itkaust, pp. 42!>— 4:in. Vrof. Wri-hfs 
description is based on a single specimen which he obtained from a 
cyst in the ovary of a crayfish. He referred it to the species DlMumnin 
nodidonan Zcder. This species has been found in the cercaria sta-e 
in Paludina impura by Von Linstovv. In the adult stage it is found 
free in the intestinal canal of several European fresh-water fell < Terca. 
Esox, Etc.,) and encysted on the outer surface of the intestine of one 

The specimens for the most part appear to be a little younger than 
Prof. Wright's specimens, but the larger ones agree with it in every 
.essential particular. The largest specimen observed, measured, when 
freed from its capsule and straightened out, 04mm. in length. The 
diameter of the head was 04mm. when seen in ventral view. The 
neck was 03mm. in diameter. The body was contracted until it was 
nearly circular in outline and measured Cr6mm. in breadth. The head 
bears six papillary appendages. Two of these are latei il one 1 t 
triangular in shape and project from the anterior edges of the sucker. 
In the largest specimen observed these measured about 0-2mm. in 
length. The other four papillae lie on the antero-dorsal side of the 
head. They are flattish, bluntly-rounded, 04mm. broad and 0-lomni. 
in length. The oral sucker is considerably larger than the ventral. 
The former is about 0'3mm. by 0*2mm. in its two diameters, the antero- 
posterior diameter being the longer. The latter is 02mm. in its 
transverse diameter and a little less than this in its antero-posterior 
diameter. In another specimen the anterior sucker was 0*36mm. long 
and 0"3inm. broad, and the ventral 0-2mm. long and 0"24mm. broad. 
The testes are about 0'2mm. in length. The anterior end of some of 
the smaller specimens appears to be invaginated. 

The cysts are globular. Each specimen when freed from its con- 
nective-tissue shell, is found to be enclosed in a thin pellicle. The 
diameter of the pellicular cysts is, in most cases, about 0'5mm. 

Prof. Wright states in the article alluded to above, that the struc- 
ture of the mouth sucker of his specimen is not entirely in accordance 
with Von Linstow's description. While my specimens agree so closely 
with Prof. Wright's that I have no hesitation in regarding them as 

7" The American Naturalist. [January 

identical, I do not find it so easy to refer them to D. nodulosum, as 
described by Von Linstow, Archiv f. Naturg., 1873, XXXIX, where 
the larval stage from Paludina impura and the adult from Perca flu- 
viatilis are figured. The same difficulty is experienced when they are 
compared with Olsson's account, Bidrag till Skand. Helm., pp. 23— 
24. Taf. IV. fig. 51, where a side view of the head of an adultis 

The cysts were found " about the heart, intestine and other organs 
in the hinder part of the thoracic region." They were collected in 
December 1891. 

It cannot be concluded, from the specimens at hand, that the cray- 
fish is a proper intermediate host of this parasite, although the consid- 
erable number of cysts and the different degrees of development of 
their contents make the inference not altogether improbable that they 
are genuine guests and not strangers which have strayed into an 
unusual host.— Edwin Linton, Washington and Jeffervm ('oiler, 
Washington, Pa., Dee. 31, 1891. 

Branchiostoma elongatum Sundevall at San Diego, Cal- 
ifornia.— In 1868 Cooper described three specimens of a Branchios- 
toma which he obtained near La Playa in San Diego Bay in 10 
fathoms of water. Since then Branchiostoma has not again been 
recorded from the Pacific Coast of America. Last Summer on visiting 
a dredge which was at work in San Diego Bay near Ballast Point 
about a hundred specimens were obtained. On subsequent visits to 
the dredge Mr. L. C. Bragg found them in greater or less abundance. 

lhe specimens were all large, some of them reaching 31 in. in length. 
But very lew of them were sexually mature July 1st. Surface skim- 
ming never brought the eggs or larv*. There i 

nged as follows : 45 to atrial pore ; 16 from 
atrial pore to anus ; 9 behind anus. 

The sp e C ie S may be identical ^ BrancMostoma el tum Sunde . 
vail from the coast of Peru, as Dr. Jordan has suggested. The formula 
49+ I 18+lT Ver ' ^ myOCOmmaS iu the Peruvian specimens being 

To those engaged in teaching it may be of interest to know that 
specimens of this Amphioxus may be obtained of Mr. L. C. Bragg, 
Coronado Beech, California^. H. Eigenmann, Bloomington, 

On the Presence of an Operculum in the Aspredinidae.— 
In our "Revision of the South American JNematoguathi n (p. 9) we 
defined the Bunocephalidae=Aspredinida3 as having no opercle. In 
this we followed Cope, who separated the Aspredinidae from the 
remaining Nematognathi by their lack of an opercle. 

We have lately obtained a specimen of Aspredo aspredo Limm-us 
from the Museum of Comparative Zoology and have re-examined this 
point. The closer inspection has demonstrated the presence of a 
minute operculum attached to the upper posterior border of the 
expanded hyomandibular. It is movable in moist preparations but 
becomes immovably fixed with drying, which may have led to the 
original statement. The interopercle is about as large as the opercle 
and apparently immovably joint (1 to the hyoinan.lihuhir and preopercle. 
Briihls " Osteologisches aus dem Pariser Pflanzengarten " 1856, contains 
the only figures published of the skull of Aspredo. Since these figures 
are inexact in several respects I add a figure of the dorsal aspect of 
the skull, etc. of Aspredo aspredo.— C. H. Eigenmanx. 

The Barn Owl in Minnesota.— Three barn owls, Strix pratin- 
cole, were recently taken from a hollow tree near Waterville, Minne- 
sota and are still alive and in possession of Chas. A. Gray of that 
place. The fact is interesting since barn owls are scarcely ever found 
this far north. 

Mr. Gray says, " The birds are as healthy and strong as when I got 
them. They dislike cats and dogs and make a hissing noise when 
these animals are near. When alone at night they make the same 
noise with a gurgling sound. When I talk to them they sway their 
bodies back and forth like some wild animals in cages. They live on 
rabbits and birds, are very tame and like to be petted as much as 

As is often the case, these birds have excited considerable curiosity 
and photographs have been taken and sent to several places. 

— U. O. Cox. 

The Ruffed Grouse in Hudson, Ohio.— This is a small village 
with an area of two and a half square miles and a population of 
about 1200. 

Three years ago in September a Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) 
was observed in the central part of the village feeding upon grapes on 
a vine covering the top of an apple tree. By common consent, care 
was taken that it should not be disturbed or frightened. It remained 

72 The American Naturalist [January, 

during the fall and winter, most of the time in the same block. It 
has returned each fall and remained until spring, and is now with 
us. It forages about the dwellings ; feeding on the vines of the bar- 
berry, ampelopsis etc. ; picking the white clover on the lawns and 
towards spring feeding on the buds of the apple trees. There are a 
few houses around which it delights to forage, where its tracks in the 
snow are to be seen at daylight and where it is often seen by day. It 
moves about with the characteristic caution of the wild bird, but has 
lost much of its timidity, as one can approach within 10 or 12 feet of 
it without disturbing it. Our hopes that it would return some fall 
with a mate have not been realized. The familiarity of the returning 
bird with its old favorite haunts, establishes its identity. 

— M. C. Read. 

On some Peculiarities in the Structure of the Cervical 
Vertebrae in the existing Monotremata.— For a long time I 
have been acquainted with the peculiar fact that the cervical vertebrae 
of Ornithorhynchus and Echidna are devoid of prse and postzyga- 
pophyses. In these forms therefore the cervical vertebras are only con- 
nected with each other by the centra of the vertebras and not by the 
arches. I do not know whether this condition is mentioned by Gervais, 
in his Osteographie des Monotremes, 1877, this work being not at 
hand. But. since it is not noticed by Flower and Lydeker in their 
work, An Introduction to the study of Mammals, Living and Extinct, 
London 1891, nor in Flower's Osteology of Mammals, I should like 
to call the attention to it. I have observed this peculiarity in all the 
living forms of the Monotremata: Ornithorhynchus, Echidna, Pro- 
echidna, and it is very interesting to see that the same condition is 
found in two families so completely separated. I do not remember a 
similar case among any of the higher vertebrates.— G. Baur, Clark 
University, Worcester, Mass., Jan. 11, 1892. 

The Armadillo (Tatusia peba) in Texas.— It may be of interest 
to some of your readers to know that the Armadillo, which has been 
supposed to occur in Texas only in the extreme south-west, is grad- 
ually ranging eastward. 

During the past Summer a specimen was taken within a few miles 
of Austin and is now in our museum. Several have been seen on 
Onion Creek just south of here and they are quite numerous on the 
Navidad river in Lavaca County east of the ninety-seventh degree of 
longitude.— E. T. Dumble, State Geologist. 

The Arachnoid of the Brain.— In the N. Y. Medical 
Aug. 15, 1891, Dr. F. W. Langdon publishes some new observations 
on the Arachnoid of the Brain which are summarized as follow*. 

"1. The arachnoid membrane is a true shut sac, similar in structure 
and function to the serous membrane of the other great cavities. Its 
parietal layer is easily separable from the dura at the vertex in the 
foetus and young infant, but practically inseparable in this region in 
the adults. At the base of the skull it is demonstrable as a separate 
membrane even in the adult. To assert that the parietal layer of the 
arachnoid is absent, because its subepithelial connective tissue has 
fused at the vertex with the dura (connective tissue) is as incorrect as 
to describe the great omentum as one layer of peritoneum, because its 
original four layers have become matted and adherent." 

"2. The arachnoid cavity communicates freely with the subarach- 
noid space, by means of two foramina situated in the visceral arach- 
noid, one on either side of the medulla. For these I would propose 
the name ' lunulate foramina,' from their crescentic or lunulated edges, 
produced by the attachments of fibrous bands which cross the open- 
ings transversely. Subsequent observations, in two instances, confirm 
the presence of the 'lunulate foramina.' In one of these, the basilar 
process of the occipital and the sphenoid body were cut away from the 
base and the dura removed, so as to show the foramina in situ ; thus 
excluding the possibility of their artificial production during the 
extraction of the brain." 


On the Development of Nereis dumerilii.- — Though this is 
but the first part of a contribution to the development of Annelids, to 
be followed by an account of the formation of the organs, yet the 
untimely death of the author makes it almost necessary to regard the 
present contribution as complete. 

The very interesting series of forms discovered by Claparede in this 
single species, N dumerilii, have been again studied by the present 
author, who believes their interrelations to be the following : 

A small Nereis 12-15 mm. long in an immature state may have 
two quite different fates. It maf transform in September and Octo- 
ber into a pelagic Heteronereis, becoming sexually mature in Febru- 
ary and March, and depositing pelagic eggs that contain little yolk 
and develop with a metamorphosis ; it may grow to a length of 
15-30 mm. and then become sexually mature as a Nereis laying eggs 
in tubes in April to July, which eggs contain much yolk and develop 
without a metamorphosis ; or still growing, in June and July become a 
Heteronereis 55-65 mm. long that lays eggs in tube, with little yolk 
and probably developing with a metamorphosis. 

There are thus two Heteronereis states, a little one with pelagic hab- 
its and metamorphosis and a large one without any pelagic life, and 
unknown, probably, indirect development. There are two Nereis 
states, one small and immature, the other large and either on the road 
to the large Heteronereis state or becoming a sexual Nereis with a 
direct development. It is this last large sexual Nereis that is treated 
of in the present article. 

Obviously much yet remains to be done here by one having control 
of aquaria for long periods, as it is still unknown what may be the 
causes leading to the acquirement of these various states or whether 
there is any regular sequence or alternation in their occurrence. This 
could be done upon the common, equally polymorphic, Nereis of our 

In all forms of Nereis dumerilii the sexes are separate. In the 
large Nereis state studied, the females readily lay the eggs in transpar- 
ent tubes (secreted by the parapodial and other epidermal glands) 

Edited by Dr. T. H. Morgan, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Pi*? r '7 C ' V ' Wistin g hausen in Mitth. Zool. Sta. Neapcl. 10, July, 1891, pp. 41-72- 

1892.] Embryology. 75 

when kept in aquaria with ulva, which they eat. The male enters the 
tube only to fertilize the eggs as they are laid. From the tubes the 
eggs may be removed with care from holes cut in the side ; but the 
female must not be disturbed, as the undulatory movements of its h<>d\ 
within the tube are necessary in supplying the eggs with fresh water. 

When no male is present the females abandon the tubes ami lay the 
eggs at random in the water, where they do not develop. 

No time limits can be set to the processes of development, as tin v 
vary so exceedingly at different temperatures. It is interesting to note 
that the author finds the Winter season very unfavorable, since a large 
proportion of the eggs then develop abnormally in the laboratory, but 
not outside. This would seem another illustration of the advantage 
derived from a climate in which air and water are of about the same 
temperature. At Messina the egg^ are laid, in aquaria, between eleven 
and twelve in the morning regularly, this being a decided exception to 
the many cases in which the night time is the laying period. 

In the investigation both surface views and sections were made use 
of, the former either alive or stained in Kleinenberg's hematoxylin 
after hardening in picro-sulphuric, while the section material was 
hardened in Fol's modification of Flemming's fluid. 

The author's summary of results obtained is about as follows: Cleav- 
age is total and unequal ; four blastomeres bud off four micromeres 
called encephaloblasts, as they give rise to the cephalic ganglia and all 
the sense organs of the head. The largest of the four micromeres 
buds off two large cells called somatoblasts, as they form all the body 
except the mid gut and the epidermis. The three oth 
equal in size, bud off each two small cells, and these , 
take no part in the formation of organs, but merely form the epider- 
mis and the larval prototroch. 

The embryo arises from two quite separate masses, the one, the trunk 
arising from the two somatoblasts, the other, the head, formed by the 
four encephaloblasts. These two elements subsequently unite. The 
embryo is hatched with three pairs of functional parapodia, the devel- 
opment being thus direct. 

Without the aid of the author's figures it is difficult to explain 
many of the points of interest in the paper, not all of which are 
included in the above summary. 

The large amount of yolk present remains in four masses, the mic- 
romeres, which are epibolically overgrown by a very thin layer of 
nucleated protoplasm furnished by the cells budded off from the mic- 

The American Naturalist. [j nuary, 

;, namely the four encephaloblasts, two somatoblasts and six 

These four micromeres form the digestive tract, the other cells the 
ecto- and mesoblasts. The four yolk masses at first have but one 
nucleus each, but subsequently by what seems amitotic division, new 
nuclei, accompanied by a little protoplasm, arise in the yolk and 
envelops it in such a way as to preserve the original lines of cleav- 
age between the four masses. These come to lie around, not in, the 
digestive tract, the yolk being still in four masses in the latest 

The persistence of these cleavage planes of the micromeres enables 
one to refer them to the subsequent planes of the animal. 

The animal pole is anterior, and the first two meridianal planes 
result in the formation of two smaller central cells and a small and a 
larger dorsal cell, the larger cell being on the left of the animal. 

Without entering into the author's comparison between the phe- 
nomena found in this Nereis and those recently discovered in other 
Polychsetse, Oligochsetse and leeches we must refer to the way in which 
the two somatoblasts give rise to the trunk as it bears upon the ques- 
tion of " teloblasts." The first formed somatoblast divides into four 
cells in a transverse row, and these again divide to form a parallel 
row from which other cells bud off, making twelve in four longitudinal 
rows, two on each side the median plane. The division of the second 
somatoblast results in the formation of three transverse series, of which 
the upper is composed of five or six larger cells that seem to give off 
the other cells in longitudinal rows. These six larger cells sink in 
and as myoblasts form the musculature, while all the other descendants 
of the somatoblasts form nervous system, seta3 sacs, etc. 

Obviously all these cells represent the "ventral plate" found by 
Wilson in a Heteronereis, while the two somatoblasts are identical 
with the " primary toloblasts," though Wistinghausen seems to avoid 
the use of the term teloblast as long as there are no long lines of cells 
leading directly from a mother cell to the formed organ. 

The prototroch forms but a rudimentary simple band of ciliated cells 
rotating the embryo. The anus would appear to arise at the point of 
closure of the blastopore. The formation of organs in the trunk, on 
the surface of a spherical mass of yolk has much to recall stages in 
the embyology of an arthropod. Finally the head and trunk organs 
unite when the oesophageal commissures are formed by growths from 
both foundations. 

1892.] Embryology. 

The embryo elongates and hatches in an imperfect state wii 
pairs of setigerous parapodia, partly formed fourth somite, h 
tail, anal and cephalic tentacles. 

A just estimate of the paper can be formed only with the 
ance of the full account of the American species Studied l»y 
From the preliminary account it seems that, allowing for th 
ences due to a direct and an indirect development and the di 
offered by an opaque as opposed to a transparent object ; the c 
ogy of these two species of Nereis has very much in common, s 
ening the theoretical conclusions that may be drawn from eit 
rendering of little use the previous imperfect studies of the sa 

Development of the Lobster. 1 — Mr. H. C. Bumpus publishes 
a contribution to the Embryology of the American Lobster. Many 
females seem to be impregnated with spermatozoa long before they are 
able to deposit eggs, which cannot take place until a year if not two 
years later. The author has discovered in the female a receptive 
apparatus for the spermatozoa. " This organ lies at the posterior end 
of the sternum of the female lobster, resting between the bases of the 
IV and V pairs of thoracic appendages." 

The eggs are deposited (on abdomen) in July and August, and 
develop rapidly so long as the water is relatively warm. Certain pre- 
cocious eggs may exceptionally hatch before winter. This is not the 
rule, for ordinarily the eggs hatch between the middle of May and the 
middle of July of the following year. 

The nucleus of the egg divides and re-divides before the protoplasm 
(and yolk) of the egg shows any traces of division. When nuclear 
division has taken place about three time elevations and furrows appefl r 
on the surface, at first only at the animal pole. 

Later the lower pole is divided and all the furrows extend deeper 
into the yolk, "though there is shown a central mass of yolk that 
remains undivided." On the third or fourth day after oviposition 
the Gastrula is formed. 

The rest of the paper deals with the later stages of development. 

Embryology of the American Alligator.— Dr. 8. F. Clark 

publishes in the September number of the Journal of Morphology 3 a 
paper on the habits and embryology of the American Alligator. The 

78 The American Naturalist. [January, 

first part of the paper deals with the author's visits to Florida and his 
own and others' observations on the habits of the alligator. 

The times of laying lie between June 9th and 17th, " while it is 
probable their eggs are occasionally laid somewhat later. I doubt if 
they are ever laid much before the 9th." 

The nest is very large and is built by the female, and it is probable 
that the same nest may be used more than once but not more than 
once each year. 

In counting lots of eggs the number averaged twenty-eight each. 
Fine plates accompany the paper giving the superficial structure of 
the stages of development. Unfortunately none of the internal 
changes are given, and the text is a very brief description of the fifty- 

The author's purpose is to furnish a general account or outline of 
the forming of the alligator as seen in external features. 

" I have been led to do this by reason of the entire lack of any 
embryological knowledge of the alligator group, and on account of 
there still being something to be desired in the way of a set of general 
figures illustrating the development of a reptile." 

The Ox Warble Fly.— The Journal of Comparative Medicine 
and Veterinary Archives for June, 1891, contains an article by Dr. 
Cooper Curtis upon the " Oxwarble in the United States." Dr. Curtis 
reviews the literature of the subject and shows that what American 
writers have thought to be Hypoderma bovis, is really H. lineata. 
Larvse of this insect having been found in the oesophagus, under the 
pleura near the eleventh rib, and in the subcutaneous tissue of the 
back, led Dr. Curtis to conclude that the life history of this insect is 
not as has been supposed ; i. e. that the eggs are laid along the backs 
of cattle, and upon hatching, the young larva? bore into the skin. If 
no larvse or " wolves " are found in the backs of cattle until January, 
it is probable that the eggs are taken into the mouth and the larvse go 
from the oesophagus to the back.— Howard Evarts Weed, Miss- 
issippi Agricultural College. 

Spontaneous Ignition of Carbon Bisulphide.— According to 
a recent issue of the Scientific American Supplement, Dr. Max Popel 
Conducted by Prof. C. M. Weed, Hanover, N r . II. 

1892 -J Entomology. 79 

recorded a case in which carbon bisulphide mixed with air was 
ignited by an arm of the pipe through which it was passing being 
unscrewed. Dr. Popel has also found that "mixtures of carbon 
bisulphide and air readily ignite when brought into contact with iron 
pipes through which steam at | atmosphere (135°— 145° C.)is passing 
the less carbon bisulphide there is in the mixture the higher is its 
ignition point, and the sharper the explosion." This substance is now 
extensively used to clear mills of insects, and the caution is common 
to see that no fire in any form reaches the rooms where it is in use. 
The facts above given emphasize the necessity not only of cautioning 
against fire, but also against the presence of steam or hot water pipes; 
and perhaps also against makinj 

A Collection of Exotic Insects.— I recently had the pleasure 

of look 

nagnificent collection of exotic insects, owned by Mr. 

John D. Locke, of Haverhill, New Hampshire; and was surprised to 
find so rare a lot of insects known to very few entomologists. The 
collection was purchased by Mr. Locke, who is an enthusiastic natur- 
alist, a few years ago in Vienna, of the widow of a Professor Schneider, 
the latter having spent a life-time in getting it together. The collection 
consists chiefly of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, and contains specimens 
from all over the world. Many of the butterflies, moths and beetles 
are of gigantic size : e. g., the Atlas moth from India, which measures 
9x6| inches ; Erebus agropyrus from South America which measures 
10 inches across the wings; Phaomagigas, a "lantern fly" which is 10 
inches long, and the mammoth Goliath beetles which must be seen to 
be appreciated. Fortunately the collection is in good hands, and is 
carefully gone over at stated intervals and kept free from pests and 
dust— Clarence M. Weed. 

Entomological Notes.— The Horn Fly (Htematobia serrata) 
according to a recent report from Mr. H. E. Weed, of Mississippi, has 
appeared in that state in sufficient numbers to attract the attention of 
farmers. It seems destined to spread widely and rapidly. 

Professor A. J. Cook is to spend the Winter in California. 

In a recent Nature we find this item: "Every one interested 
hi the scientific aspects of agriculture was sorry to hear that Mis? 
Ormerod had felt it necessary to resign her position as consulting 
entomologist of the Royal Agricultural Society. It is much to be 
regretted that misunderstandings should have led to the severance of 
nth the Society with which she has so long been hon- 

80 The American Naturalist. [January 

orably associated. Fortunately her work as an entomologist is not t< 
be interrupted, and she will continue to place her knowledge at th< 
service of agriculturists." 

The newspapers report that a large manufacturing building a 
Springfield, Illinois, has been riddled by an insect borer, apparently i 
11 beetle. 


A New Method of Using Celloidin for Serial Section 
Cutting. — The following has several features which recommend it as 
preferable to the ordinary methods of section cutting. — It allows a 
perfect orientation ; the entire object is visible during the process of 
cutting; yolk-bearing eggs offer no serious difficulty; sections of large 
area and of unusual thinness are easily secured ; crimping and curling 
during the process of clearing are avoided and the sections may be 

The object is first stained in Mo, dehydrated, infiltrated with thin, 
medium and thick celloidin or collodion, (Squibbs Flexible Collodion 
rendered thick by evaporation is excellent) and finally placed in a 
paper tray filled with the thick collodion. In a few moments a film 
will form over the exposed surface of the collodion, when the paper 
tray with its contents is thrown into a jar of strong chloroform, in 
which after a few hours, the collodion becomes quite hard. Thus far 
we have been following only the more ordinary methods. 

The tray is now taken from the chloroform and, after the paper has 
been removed from the hardened block, the collodion with its enclosed 
object is placed in a vial of white oil of thyme, or some other similar 
oil. If the block of collodion is not large, in a few hours it will 
become as clear as glass, the stained object appearing as if suspended 
in a transparent fluid. 

For the process of orienting, the block of collodion may now be 
taken from the oil, placed in a watch crystal and, after covering with 
the oil of thyme, examined with a lens or, if more desirable, with a 
compound microscope. The side of the block that is to be attached to 
the object holder of the minotome is now selected, wiped dry of the oil 
and immersed for a moment in ether and then smeared with thick 
collodion. The object holder, a block of wood rather than cork, is 

'Edited by C. O. Whitman, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 




smeared in the same way and the two collodionized surfaces are brought 
together. The holder and collodion block are now immersed for a few 
minutes in chloroform, or long enough for them to become firmly 

The preparation is now screwed between the jaws of the olject- 
carrier of the rainotome and covered, by means of a camel's hair brush, 
with oil of thyme. The minotome knife is flooded with the same oil. 
The oil, which thus takes the place of alcohol usually used, has the 
advantage because of its lubricating property, of not only permitting 
thin sections to be cut, but its slow evaporation allows one to leave his 
work at anytime for minutes or even hours without the object being 

After a few sections have been cut from the block of collodion, the 
relative position of the plane of the knife to the axis of the object can 
be definitely established. I have had no difficulty in orienting small 
Arthropod embryos by simply examining the object and plane of cut- 
ting at this time with a compound microscope. The segments, appen- 
dages and even nuclei being as clearly shown as if mounted in balsam. 

The object, satisfactorily oriented, is now cut and the sections at 
once transferred to the slides, covered with balsam and mounted, or, 
if they are not immediately needed, they may be kept indefinitely in a 
vial of the oil. 

If the sections are to be arranged 'in series,' they are simply placed 
upon a slide one after the other, care being taken not to flood the 
slide with oil but to keep it quite dry. After the sections are arraD ged, 
the slide is tilted up to allow the excess of oil to drain away, fifteen 
minutes generally being sufficient. Balsam is now placed on the 
sections and a warm cover is allowed to gently foil over the series, no 
section of which ought to leave its place. 

The above method is especially useful in the preparation of larger 
yolk-bearing eggs.— H. C. Bumpus, Brown University, Prov., h. 1., 
Dec, 14, 1891. 

Imbedding Blastoderm of Chick in Collodion.^-For sec- 
tioning, blastoderms should be dehydrated, either before or after 
staining, as is thought best, and immediately transferred to a tnm 
solution of collodion 2 (2 per cent.,) after which they are placed in a 

'Gage & Hopkins, Proc. Am. Soc. Microscopist, 1890, pA* n ^ ^ fe 

The An 

■ Naturalist. 

thick solution of collodion (5 per cent.) and then arranged for imbed- 
ding and sectioning. To accomplish this, the following procedure has 
been found useful : 

With a camel's hair brush transfer the blastoderm from 95 per cent, 
alcohol to a paper box. It is better to fill this box partly full of 
alchohol (95 per cent.) before transferring the blastoderm to it, as the 
alcohol partially floats the blastoderm and thus facilitates its removal 
the blastoderm is safely in the box, 
i dropper (do not try to pour it off, other- 
irl up) and carefully pour in enough thin 
collodion to cover the blastoderm to the 
depth of about I cm. The box is now 
placed in a tightly covered jar to pre- 
vent too rapid evaporation and the 
consequent solidification of the collodion. 
After the blastoderm has remained a 
sufficient length of time (from one to 
three or more hours, depending on the 
size of the blastoderm) in the thin solu- 
tion, the collodion is removed with a 
dropper, and the thick solution poured 
on. After infiltrating sufficiently with 
thick collodion, 2 to 10 hours, open the 
jar and allow a film to form on the 
surface of the collodion, then fill the 
paper box with alcohol (60 to 80 per 
cent.) and allow it to remain until the 
collodion becomes firm and tough ; two 
to four hours is usually sufficient. Now 
with a sharp knife a square or rectang- 
ular piece of collodion including the 
blastoderm is cut out and arranged on 
the cork in any position desired; the 
position under the liquid (L), ako- block is fastened to the cork, as any 
hoi or chloroform, while the collo- ordinary tissue, by simply pouring over 
d.onxs hardening. ^ ^.^ ^^^ ^^ j g harde ned 

by immersing in alcohol (60 to 80 per cent.) for from 5 to 15 hours. . 
For holding the corks under the alcohol the following apparatus 
i economical and convenient than the method of 

collodion, of 

(P) Plaster of Paris dis 

hich the embryo (E) 
; pushed down upon 

cork (C), , 

has been found 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 
sights to the corks. The apparatus , 

rt-uv. so :l- 


form a 

rt of head. 


e tacks 

re then arrac 


n rows 

some shalh 

w ,! 

di. ]>iv- 

ouslv oiled. 



aster of P 


Fig. II. Ether was 
vapor upon collodion or celloidin 

them to the slide. The tube of calcium chloride pla 

(Ca CI 2) is for dehydrating the ether vapor, around them to form a 

layer 1 J to 2 cm. deep. When this hardens, the tacks are firmly held 
in an upright position, and all that remains to be done is to place the 
plaster disc in the bottom of the glass jar. 

To use the apparatus, fill it partly full of alcohol (60 to 80 per 
cent.). As the specimens are imbedded on the corks, transfer them 
to this jar, sticking each cork upon a tack. 


Society of Naturalists— Met in Philadelphia, 

descriptions of three important expeditions which went out 
The morning session was given up to the reading of four 
'• Definite vs. Fortuitous Variation in Animals and Plants." 
Thomas Meehan, Professor J. P. McMurrich, Professor J. A. 

84 The American Naturalist. [January, 

Professor E. D. Cope each read papers on their separate specialties in 
reference to the subject under discussion. The meeting was called ( to 
order on the 29th, by the President, Professor Rice, and the report of 
the Treasurer of the society was approved. Among the other 
items in the Treasurer's report was Si 00 as a subscription to the 
"American table" at the Naples Zoological Station. Professor H. F. 
Osborn, of Princeton, introduced Professor Charles W. Stiles, of 
Washington, that the latter might describe the present status of the 
Naples Station. 

Professor Stiles told of the excellent work done at Naples, where a 
laboratory has been erected, which is now a centre of investigation 
for naturalists all over the world. Here the most eminent scien- 
tists of all nations assemble to exchange views and study the life that 
teems in the Bay of Naples. Almost every nation in the world has 
made a subscription to the station in the form of an endowment for a 
" table," at which the distinguished scholars may study. The United 
States was represented for three years through the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, but for many years there has been no American table, and those 
American students who visit the Biological Station do so as a courtesy 
from foreign nations. The cost of a table is $500 a year. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science has 
made a donation of $100, which, with the present donation and one or 
two other gifts from colleges, will greatly aid the work, so that an 
American table will almost certainly be maintained in 1892. 

Looking toward the future maintenance of this table, the Executive 
Committee recommended that the society memorialize the Smithsonian 
Institution, recommending that the Institution assume the responsibility 
of maintaining an American table at the Naples Zoological Station in 
future years. This recommendation was adopted. 

The following members were elected; George V. McLanthalen, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology : Henry B. Ward, Harvard 
College ; Charles W. Stiles, Department of Agriculture, Washington ; 
George W. Fuller,- Biologist, Massachusetts Board of Health; J. E. 
Ives, Philadelphia Academy ; Robert P. Bigelow, JohnsHopkinsUniver- 
sity; Alexander H. Philip, Princeton College; Charles Freeman 
William McClure, Princeton College ; William A. Setchell, Yale Col- 
lege; Joel A. Allen, American Museum of Natural History, New 
York ; Henry A. Fernald, State College of Pennsylvania. 

The Committee on Nominations recommended the following officers, 
who were unanimously elected: President, H. Fairfield Osborn, Co- 
lumbia College; Vice-Presidents, Samuel F.Clarke, Williams College; 

1892 -] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 85 

Oeorge Baur, Clark University ; "William H. Dal 1, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution ; Secretary, Thomas H. Morgan, Bryn Mawr ( ollege : Treasurer. 
William T. Sedwick, Massachusetts Institute of Technology : Members 
of the Executive Committee, J. Playfair McMurrieh, University of 
Cincinnati; W. P. Wilson, University of Pennsylvania. 

The papers of the session were then read in succession, a general dis- 
cussion following. The subject under discussion was " Definite versus 
Fortuitous Variation." The subject is important to the naturalist as 
pointing out the method in which species are formed, whether u the re- 
sult of definite or of purely accidental causes. The first paper was by 
Professor Thomas Meehan, and considered the question in reference to 

Prof. Meehan's Address. — Professor Thomas Meehan remarked, 
in opening the discussion, that he was unable to get a distinct concep- 
tion of definite as opposed to fortuitous variation, but would consider 
those variations definite that came in expected order and exerted no 
surprise, and those as fortuitous that were unexpected and unusual, as 
if influenced by some irregular law, dependent on accidental conditions. 

A large number of American trees, he explained, had closely related 
species in the north of Europe. The American chestnut, he said, had 
for a relative the Spanish chestnut. It had smaller nuts, smaller twigs 
and buds, wider internodes, thinner and less serrate leaves, and changed 
to a bright color in fall. The two, it was assumed by evolutionists, had 
the same origin, only some accident, some fortuitous circumstance, led 
to the variation. Strange to say, all the other trees varied from their 
allies in just the same particulars. Could such a regular series of vari- 
tions be due to fortuity ? What is more remarkable, this departure 
from the primitive parent must have been ages ago, yet through the 
long centuries, and over thousands of miles of varying conditions, the 
distinct character of these variations has remained the same. 

Reference was then made to a large number of variations known in 
gardens as cut-leaved kinds, blood-leaved, weeping trees, and sports 
like the nectarine from the peach, and garden roses from the sporting 
branches— the parents as being under exactly similar conditions, as one 
great difficulty in believing environment, as generally understood, could 
have had much influence in producing them. Popular language called 
these incidents, and science fortuitous, but the element of change must 
have existed in the organized protoplasm of the single cell, and it was 
difficult to conceive of any external influence that could act on this sin- 
gle cell and not on those surrounding it. 

86 The American Naturalist. [January, 

Water plants, with the varying characteristics in proportion to their 
growth on land or in water, were referred to, rather as hereditary powers 
of adaptation than as acquired ones. Carnivorous plants and parasitic 
plants were referred to in the same connection. 

Professor Meehan urged, however, that there were very strong facts 
in favor of fortuitous variation, as there must necessarily be, to draw 
so strong a support of that view from eminent men. A comparison of 
some trees of the Rocky Mountains with identical species on the 
Pacific was made. They undoubtedly had a common origin within 
comparatively recent times, and the elevation following the upheaval 
of the Rockies, was assumed to be the fortuitous circumstance in- 
fluencing the change. Some of these had wandered so far apart as to 
be regarded in some cases as distinct species. The hardiness of mag- 
nolias, sweet gums and others, from Northern seed, as against seeds of 
Southern trees, was also touched on. On the other hand, annual plants 
would not resist frost. The same white frost killed foliage in these as 
probably did long ages ago. 

Heredity was then taken up and the point made that, no matter how 
originating, all variation was hereditary when once introduced. In 
this respect there was no difference between what was recognized as a 
good species or a mere variety. 

Concluding, he said : "To my mind it would be unjust to ignore the 
separate existence of either fortuitous or definite variations. We 
have not the remotest conception how either of these forces operate on 
protoplasm. They may eventually be found but varied manifestations 
of the same power ; but while we are arguing as we are to-day, arguing 
on the separate nature of these two forces, we must concede consider- 
able power to both, with by far the larger influence, to my mind, to 
definite variation." 

Invertebrate Animals.— Professor McMurrich followed with the 
discussion of the question with reference to invertebrate animals. He 
compared the question not inaptly to the rolling of a spheroidal body 
having a larger number of facets over a hard surface. If the ball was 
uniformly balanced it was a matter of "chance" that is to say, of a 
large number of causes which could not be determined or analyzed as 
to which facet it would stop at. If, however, the ball was weighted it 
would stop definitely on a single facet, or one close to the one selected. 

"At present," he said, "there are no extensive observations recorded 
on the question under discussion, although there are certain special 
cases which seem to bear more or less directly upon it. The most 

1892.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 87 

noteworthy of these is the series of observations made b\ - 
witsch, on the effect of the degree of saltness of the water in which 
certain animals live upon the form of the body. The form experi- 
mented upon was a rather lowly organized crustacean, known m Artt- 
mia salina, which normally lives in water of a moderate decree of sa- 
linity. By gradually increasing the saltness of the water, in the cour-e 
of several generations, the animals assumed the characteristic- ..f an 
entirely different species, known as A. muhlhatiscnii. By gradually 
diluting the moderately salt water with fresh water until it become! 
practically fresh, the A. salina gradually assumed structural eharacier- 
istics which rendered it necessary to refer the forms thus obtained to an 
entirely different genus, Branchipus. Here we have, apparently, a 
very good case of the production of definite variations of form under 
the influence of external conditions. 

A further study of the results, however, brought out some facts which 
diminish the value of these observations for our present purposes. It 
was shown that A. salina resembled an immature form of Branchi- 
pus, while A. niuhlhao.iehii represents a stage which is passed over 
in the immature life of both Branchipus and A. salina. In other 
words, the effect of the salinity of the water was not to produce definite 
variations of the body form, but to produce an acceleration of the ma- 
turity of the reproductive elements, so that in the water of the greatest 
degree of saltness the animals became mature, while the body form was 
still in a larval condition. 

A few cases have, however, come under my observation which have 
bearing on the subject. Among the Isopod Crustacea of our coast is a 
form, Jaera, which presents a great variety of coloration ; all the varia- 
tions may however, be reduced to two types, one in which the coloration 
is uniformly distributed, and the other in which the pigment is arranged 
in transverse bands. Within these limits the variations are innumer- 
able, but still the variations may be considered definite. A similar vari- 
ability within definite limits has been described in another Isopod. In 
certain sea anemones, as well as in certain caterpillars, the color ap- 
peared to be due to environment purely. 

Comparison of processes of variation to vicarious substitutions 
which occur in the more complicated silicates of the mineral worM was 
made. The number of substitutions is limited, but within these limits 
the amount of variation is practically indefinite, if not infinity 

Vbetebkated Animals.— Professor Allen next spoke on " \ ana- 
tions in Vertebrated Animals. He confined his paper to variations 

88 The American Naturalist [January, 

which occur in mammals and birds, as those which occur in the lower 
forms — reptiles and fishes — are less well known. He said that a rather 
wide range of individual variation is recognized as inherent in all ani- 
mals. These variations, however, are usually confined within rather 
narrow constant limits, any considerable excess beyond the normal 
range coming into the category of sports and are popularly termed for- 
tuitous. A step further gives malformations and monsti osities. Such 
extreme departures from the normal, while more rare, are probably no 
more fortuitous than those less marked. The only difference was that 
the immediate cause was hard to discover. 

He illustrated this point by a number of examples, in which changes 
were plainly due to geographical and climatic forces. As a result 
biologists had accepted certain generalizations which might be stated 
as follows : 

First. Baird's law of geographical variation in size, which, 
announced in 1865, still held its own. It asserted that there was a 
constant increase in the size of individuals of the same 'species from 
the south northward, and from the lowlands toward the higher eleva- 

Second. The frequent increase in size of peripheral parts, as the 
tail, beak and claws of birds, took place from the north southward or 
inversely to the increase and general size. 

Third. A general deepening of the coloration took place from the 
north southward in North America, east of the plains, together with a 
reduction of white markings and white areas, and a corresponding 
increase of dark markings and dark areas and a gradual increase in 
the intensity of iridescent tints in species thus marked. 

Fourth. The loss of color over the interior in both mammals and 
birds having a continental distribution is marked. 

Fifth. There is an extreme intensification of color over the heavy 
rainfall district of the Northwest coast. 

The failure of verification of the first law led to its modification to 
the following formulas, first published in 1876, which has stood the 
test of subsequent investigation : 

First. The maximum physical development of the individual is 
attained where the conditions of environment are most favorable to 
the life of the species. 

Second. The largest species of a group (genus, sub-family or family, 
as the case might be) are found where the group to which they sev- 
erally belong reaches its highest development, or where it has what 
may be termed its centre of distribution. 

Third. The most typical or most generalized representatives of a 
group are found also near its centre of distribution, outlying form- 
being generally more or less aberrant or specialised. 

Many examples from animal and bird lite wore adduced, the most 
striking being that of the family of hares, which inhabits the whole of 
the United States. In conclusion the Professor said : 

"While climatic variations are obviously definite, and while t In- 
direct action of external conditions exerts a powerful influence in 
moulding at least the superficial characters, these alone go but a little 
way toward accounting for the profounder modifications that distin- 
guish the higher groups. Fore\ai{I t poefltbl to conceive 
that any amount of climatic variations could transform a song spar- 
row or a robin into a woodpecker or the reverse ; in fact, make a wood- 
pecker out of any other form of bird. Here functional evolution- 
change in habits, use or disuse of parts— must come strongly into play. 
and, to a less degree, food, isolation, interbreeding the struggle for 
existence, etc. The modification of organs, as the bill, the wings and 
tail, in birds, is, in my opinion, the result of definite variation, due to 

"The use to which an organ is put and its structure have evidently 
the relation of cause and effect. Modification of structure follow and 
are produced by change of habit. * * * As already intimated, 
my own studies have given no evidence of evolution through fortui- 
tous variation ; the evidence is all in the other direction. I cannot 
even conceive of the evolution of a new form through an accidental 
variation, since the individual in which it appears must iiecessaril y 
pair with a normal individual, and can thus transmit the new varia- 
tion only in a lessened degree to its offspring, to be again diluted in the 
next generation .through precisely similar contingencies, and so on 
until the original deviation is obliterated." 

Fossil VERTEBRATA.-Professor Cope spoke on the subject from 
his standpoint. 

He discussed the evidence as to the nature of variation as presented 
by the extinct vertebrata. He remarked that one difficulty attends 
this branch of the subject in the circumstance that we do not gener- 
ally possess enough perfect specimens of any one species of extinct 
- ' — i been. Thus 
; in this case we cannot prove that many variati< 

vertebrate to make sure ot what its variation. 

it is that in this case we cannot prov< - **! b f™ 

character; but it D 

5 that the brauch of the I 

90 The American Naturalist. [January, 

been direct. It is only necessary to call attention to the leading facts, 
now well known, thanks largely to the investigations of Americans, of 
the evolution of the vertebrate skeleton. 

He commenced with the highest class, the mammalia, where the 
evidence is very complete. Such is the simple fact if mum rical digital 
reduction from five in the lower ungulates through the numbers four 
and three to one, as in the horse ; or to four and two, as in the ox and 
deer. Then carrying the line of variation towards the central parts 
of the skeleton, Professor Cope described the articulation of the limbs. 
The development of keels on the metacarpals was mentioned ; then 
the development of facets on the radius at the wrist. Next, the devel- 
opment of the tongue and groove articulation between the radius and 
ulna proximally, and next the same in the humerus and radius at the 
elbow. The successive reduction of the ulna was mentioned. The 
hind limb was next considered, and the progressive process of devel- 
opment was described. The intervertebral articulations were then dis- 
cussed, and their successive modifications in the artiodactyla described. 

These characters all indicate a direct variation of individuals in 
the direction of perfect mechanical contrivances in the skeleton. 

Professor Cope then referred to the presence of the same phenome- 
non in the dentition of mammalia. He dwelt especially on the evolu- 
tion of the sectorial teeth of carnivorous forms, from the tritubercular 
upper molar and tuberculosectorial inferior molar. 

The successive variations seen in the reptilian skeleton were then 
referred to. The development of fins from ambulatory limbs in the 
Ichthyosauria ; next of upright walking types, like the birds, in the 
Dinosauria, with the pelvic bones thrown back to sustain the weight 
of the viscera in the same position. Next the evolution of the modern 
types of lizards and snakes by the development in the length of the 
suspensoria of the lower jaw to enlarge the gape for swallowing ; and 
second, in the loss of the capitular articulations of the ribs, due to the 
support of the weight on the ground, just as occurs in the Plesiosau- 
rian reptiles and in the whales, where the body is supported by the 

Professor Cope stated that his conclusion from these and many other 
similar facts was that the origin of such variations had not been pro- 
miscuous or fortuitous, but direct, and in consequence of the operation 
of a definite cause. That cause he believed to be growth energy (of 
which we know little or nothing), directed by the mechanical rela- 
tions between the animal and its e 

1892.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 91 

He stated that this relation determined the forms of the bones and 
the muscles which moved them. These determined the general 
arrangement of the viscera and of the circulatory system which ap- 
plies nutrition. Behind all other systems, however, lies the nervous 
system, the director of motion, and this was serially and raccearirelj 
developed under the influence of use, which developed Intelligence Old 
of simple sensibility and memory. 

Following Professor Cope's paper there waa a and protracted 
discussion upon all, participated in by a majority of the inemU r^ 
present. Most of the arguments were iarorable to definite variation, 
though the other branch of the topic had a few supporters. For over 
an hour the discussion was kept up, becoming more interesting with 
every new phase or branch of the subject presented. 

Those who took part in the discussion were Professors George Ma- 
closkie, H. W. Conn, J. A. Ryder, George Baur, C. B. Davenport, J. 
T. Rothrock, H. F. Osborn, H. P. Bowditcb, J. I\ McMurnVh, J. 
A. Allen, E. D. Cope, W. P. Wilson, T. H. Morgan, R. P. Bigdow, 
C. W. Stiles, William Libbey, Jr., E. A. Andrews. 

Prof. Macloskie, speaking on the mechanical growth, argued that 
the place where the bones really grow is not where they rub together 
but another part. Also, that it is an important thing that the environ- 
ment may retard growth while the reproductive parts are active, and 
in this way changes may occur on account of the environment. 

Prof. Osborn did not think that the evidence was conclusive, for, 
taking into consideration all cases of the kind, there are some excep- 
tions to the principle that bear strongly against it. 

Two points were made by Prof. Conn. First, on the tendency of 
aquatic beetle larva? to assume similar forms, in spite of the wide differ- 
ence and relations of the adults; and second, that in the discussion 
nothing had been said about indirect or congenital variations. 

Professor McMurrich brought out more fully the points of his 
paper, showing that all variations which are transmitted must pass 
through the germ cells; that the egg must carry the variation. Also 
that there is such a thin- "i" 11 , which does not need 

to be transmitted. 

The second annual meeting of the American Morphological 
Society was held at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
December 28th and 29th. The attendance was good, and much interest 
was manifested in the proceedings of the Society. The following are 
the titles of the papers read : R. P. Bigelow, On the development of 
sense-organs of the Guinea Corn-blubber (Cassiopea); E. D. Cope. On 

92 The American Naturalist. [January, 

the degeneracy of the scapular and pelvic arches in the Lacertilia; 
E. B. Wilson, The relation between bilateral symmetry and the cleav- 
age of the ovum ; H. F. Osborn, The dentition of Palseonictis, Am- 
blyctonus and Oxysenas ; J. P. McMurrich, On the early development 
of the marine Isopod Jsera ; G. Baur, On variation in the genus Tro- 
pidurus ; C. W. Stiles, On Spiroptera scutata Muller : H. F. Osborn, 
The Evolution of the mammalian molars to and from the tritubercu- 
Iate type ; H. B. Ward, Some notes on Nectonema. 

The officers for the current year are : President, Professor C. 0. 
Whitman ; Vice-President, Professor H. F. Osborn ; Secretary-Treas- 
urer, Professor J. P. McMurrich ; Members, with the preceding, of the 
Executive Committee, Professors E. L. Mark and T. H. Morgan. 

The Indiana Academy of Science held its seventh annual 
session in the capitol at Indianapolis, December 30 and 31, 1891. The 
president of this meeting was Prof. O. P. Hay, Butler University, Irving- 
ton, Ind. The unusual number of 98 papers were entered, requiring 
the Academy to meet, except Wednesday morning and night, in two 
sections ; one devoted to Zoology, Botany and Geology, the other to 
Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry. Wednesday night President 
Hay delivered the customary address on "The present state of the 
Theory of Organic Evolution." The officers for next year are as 
follows : 

President, J. L. Campbell, Crawfordsville, Ind. 
Vice-Presidents, J. C. Arthur, Lafayette, Ind., W. A. Noyes ( 
Terre Haute, Ind. 

Secretary, A. W. Butler, Brook ville, Ind. 
Treasurer, C. A. Waldo, Greencastle, Ind. 

Auditors, P. S. Baker, Greencastle, Ind. W. W. Norman, Green- 
castle, Ind. 

Curators : — 

Botany, J. M. Coulter, 
Ichthyology, C H. Eigenmann, 
Geology, S. S. Gorby, 
Ornithology, A. W. Butler, 
Herpetology, O. P. Hay. 
Entomology, F. M. Webster, 
Mammalogy, E. R. Quick. 
The summer meeting of the Academy will be held by invitation of 
the faculty of Earlham College, at Richmond, Ind., in May next. At 
the same time and place will be held the meeting of the Mathematical 

1892.] Proceedings of Scientific 

sections of the State College Association am 

The following papers were read : — 
Some suggestions to Teachers of Science 

High Schools 

Notes on Numerical Radices, 

The Kankakee and pure water for North* 

Biological Surveys 

The distribution of tropical forms in P 

Unused Forest Resources 

Preliminary Notes on the Geology of Dearbor 

Jefferson County Cystidians (; c<>. ( • Huhhanl 

Hudson River fossils of Jefferson county. Ind Geo. C. Hubbard 

The Upper limit of the Lower Silurian at Madison, Ind. 

Variations in the Dynamical Conditions during the deposit 

Rock beds at Richmond, Ind., By title Joseph Moore 

The relation of the Keokuk groups of Montgomery county, 

with the typical locality C. S. Beachler 

Comments on the description of species C. S. Beachler 

On a deposit of Vertebrate fossils in Colorado Amos W. Butler 

Topographical evidence of a great and sudden diminution of 

the ancient water supply of the Wabash river, By 

title J - T - Cam P be11 

Source of supplv to Medial morains probably from the bottom 

of the Glacial Channel, By title J- T. Campbell 

Notes on a Kansas species of Buckeye W. A. Xellerman 

On the occurrence of certain Western Plants, near Columbus, 

Ohio ; ^> ' V 

Preliminary notes on the genus of Hoffmanseggia b. M. Jnsnei 

Preliminary notes on the Flora of Henry county, Ind., By 

title T.B. Redding and Mrs. Rosa Redding Mikels 

A «*"*" . .Geo. C. Hubbard 

A new Microtome * " • , ,- av Af, tm 

Notes on the Organogeny of the Composite, By title At. W . martin 

Notes on the development of the Archegonium and FertUiza- 

tion in Tsuga canadensis and Finns sylvestris DM. Mottier 

Strange development of Stomata upon Carya alba caused £y 

94 The American Naturalist [January, 

The Flora of Mt. Orizaba H. E. Seaton 

An apparatus for determining the periodicity of Root Pres- 
sure M. B. Thomas 

Condensation of Acetophenone with Ketols, by means of dilute 

Potassium Cyanide Alex. Smith 

Condensation of Acetone with Benzoin, by means of dilute 

Potassium Cyanide Alex. Smith 

Pyrone and Pyridone derivatives from Benzoyl-acetone Alex. Smith 

Carbonic Acid in the Urine T. C. Van Nuys andR.E. Lyons 

Results of Estimations of Chlorine in Mineral Waters, by 

Volhardt's Method Sherman Davis 

The Sugar Beet in Indiana H. A. Huston 

Forms of Nitrogen for Wheat H. A. Huston 

A Copper Ammonium Oxide P. S. Baker 

Di-benzyl carbinamine W. A.Noyes 

The Character of Well Waters in a thickly populated area, W. A. Noyes 
Laboratory and Field Work on the Phosphate of Alumina, 

H. A. Huston 

Recent Archaeological discoveries in southern Ohio, 

Warren K.Moorehead 

Photographing certain natural objects without a camera, 

W. A. Kellerman 

Recent methods for the determination of Phosphoric Acid, 


The digestibility of the Pentose Carbohydrates, By title 

The action of Phenyl-lmlrazin on Furfurol, By title W. E. Stone 

A Graphical Solution for Equations of Higher Degree, for 

both Real and Imaginary Roots A. S. Hathaway 

On some Theorems of Integrations in Quaternions A. S. Hathaway 

The Section of the Anchor Ring W. V.Brown 

A note on the Early History of ^Potential Functions, A. S. Hathaway 

Some Geometrical Propositions C. A. Waldo 

Some suggested changes in Notation R- L- Green 

An adjustment for the Control Magnet on a Mirror Galva- 
nometer J. P. Naylor 

A combined Wheatstone's Bridge and Potentiometer J. P. Na ) rlor 

Hysteresis Curves for Mitis and other cast iron, J. E. Moore 

and E. M. Tingley 

Heating of a Dielectric in a Condenser. Preliminary note 

Albert P. Carman 

1892.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 96 

Science and the Columbia Exposition J. L. Campbell 

Exploration of Mt. Orizaba J. T. Scovell 

Entomologizing in Mexico W. S. Blatchhy 

Distribution of certain Forest Trees, By title Stanley Coulter 

Cleistogamy in Polygonium, By title Stanley Coulter 

The Cactus Flora of the Southwest, By title W. II. Evan- 

Method.-; observed in Archaeological research, By title, 

The Prehistoric Earthworks ,,f Ik-nrv county, Ind., By title 

T.B. Redding 

A review of the Holconotidre A. H. I'livy 

Some additions to the State Flora from Putnam county 

L M. Doderw. 1 

Connecting forms anion-' the t'ungi E. M. I iider\vo<wi 

On LeConte's Terrapins, Emys concinna and E. Horidana, By 

title () - V - H:1 - v 

The Eggs and Young of certain snakes, By title 0. P. Hay 

Observations on the Turtles of the genus Malehleniys By 

title O.P.Hay 

The Gryllidaj of Indiana W. S. Blatehley 

The outlook in the warfare against infection, By title, Theodore Potter 

Our present knowledge concerning the Green Triton, 0. P. Hay 

The proper systematic name of the Prairie Rattlesnake O. P. Hay 

The Blind Crayfishes of Indiana W.P.Hay 

Remarkson the Crustaceans of Indiana W. P. Hay 

NotesonElapsfulvus A. J. Bigney 

Some observations on Heloderma suspectum 'jP^tST?. 

Some observations on Photomicrography.. 

Disease of the Sugar Beet Root 

Buffalo Gnats (Simulium) in Indiana and Illinois F. M. We 

The development of the Viviparous fishes of California, By 

title.... CarlH.Eigen, 

Recent additions to the Icthyological Fauna of California, By 

t ; t l P Carl IE Ei-eni 

On Indiana Shrews 

Some observations on Indiana Birds 

Notes on Indiana Birds 

The scales of Lepidoptera 

The ^geria of Central Ohio £•£ ^ . 

Some Insects of Tasmania '."'' ^\,' ^' , 

Early published references to injurious Insects, By title, F. M. W ebst 

: E. Goldei 

R. Wes. McBride 
..Amos W. Butler 
M. B.Thomas 

96 The American Naturalist. [January, 

The continuity of the Germ Plasm in Vertebrates, By title 

Carl H. Eigenmann 

Biological Stations, By title Carl H. Eigenmann 

The Eyes of Blind Fishes, By title Carl H. Eigenmann 

On the presence of an Operculum in the Aspredinidae, By title 

Carl H. Eigenmann 

Notes on Indiana Arididae. Description of one new species 

.; W. S. Blatchley 

The relation of Neucleaplasm to Cytoplasm in the Segmenting 

Egg, By title C. H. Eigenmann, K.L.Green 

Plant Zones of Arizona, By title D. T. McDougal 

Kelation of available Enzym in the Seed to Growth of the 

- Plant J- C. Arthur 

The potato Tuber as a means of Transmitting Energy, J. C. Arthur 
Contributions to a knowledge of the grain Toxoptera (Toxop- 

tera graminum) By title F.M.Webster 

The Second Annual Meeting of the Nebraska Academy 
of Sciences, was held at the University of Nebraska, commencing 
Thursday, December 31, 1891. The following papers were read : The 
President's Address : Specialization in Science. (Dr. Kingsley being 
absent, the address was read by Dr. C. E. Bessey). The Slime Moulds 
of Crete, A. T. Bell ; The Evolution of Oxygen by Plants, A. F. 
Woods; Additions to the Flora of Nebraska, Prof. G. D. Swezey ; The 
Flora of the Black Hills. Dr. C. E. Bessey; Metabolism, Dr. H. B. 
Lowry ; A Bacterial Disease of Corn, H. B. Duncanson ; Notes on the 
Flora of the Artesian Well at Lincoln, J. R. Schofield. The officers 
for '92 are : President, Dr. Charles E. Bessey, Uni. Nebr., Lincoln ; 
Vice-President, Prof. G. D. Swezey, Doane College, Crete ; Secretary, 
W. Edgar Taylor, State Normal School, Peru ; Custodian, Lawrence 
Bruner, Uni. Nebr., Lincoln ; Trustees, E. T. Hartley, Lincoln and Dr. 
H. B. Lowry, Lincoln. W. E. Taylor, Sec'y. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences.— The sixth annual session was held 
December 29, 30, 1891 at Des Moines, Iowa. The following papers 
were read : 

Prof. C. C. Nutting— Address, "Systematic Zoology in Colleges." 

Miss Minnie Howe—" Some Experiments for the Purpose of Deter- 
mining the Active Principles of Bread Making." 

J. E. Todd— "Striation of Rocks by River Ice." " Further Notes 
on the Great Central Plain of the Mississippi." 

1892.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 97 

L. H. Pammel—" Bacteria of Milks," with exhibitions of culture*. 
"Report of Committee on State Flora. - ' "Phonological Not**." 

" Experiments in Prevention of Corn Smut." 

Dr. W.B.Niles— "The Action of Disinfectants on Nutrient Media." 
Herbert Osborn— "The Orthopterous Fauna of Iowa." " Notes 00 

Certain Iowa Diptera." 

F. M. Witter— " Notice of an Arrow Point from the Lam in the 
City of Muscatine." "The Gas Wells near Letts, Iowa." 

G. E. Patrick— "Can Fat be Fed into Milk? i. e. Can the Compo- 
sition of Milk be Modified by Variations in the Kind of Food?" 
" Sugar Beets in Iowa." 

R. E. Call— "An Abnormal Hyoid Bone in the Human Subject," 
with exhibition of specimen. 

Herbert Osborn and H. A. Gossard — ** Notes on Lift History of 
Agallia sanguinolenta." 

Charles R. Keyes— " Geological Structure and Relations of the 
Coal-Bearing Strata of Central Iowa." Brick and Other ( lays i >f I tea 
Moines." "Aluminum in Iowa." 

Prof. E. Haworth— (1) "Melanite from Missouri." (2) " Limonite 
pseudomorphous after Calcite." (3) " Prismatic Sandstone from Mad- 
ison County, Missouri." 

Prof. H. L. Bruner— " Aboriginal Rock Mortar." 

Prof. J. L. Tilton— " A Three Legged Snowbird." 

Prof. Calvin— "Distinctions between Acervularia davidsonii and A. 
profunda." , , , . „ 

Prof. S. E. Meek—" Fish Fauna of Arkansas and Iowa compared. 

Prof. T. H. McBride— " Slime Moulds of Iowa." 

Prof. R. E. Call— "The present Status of Artesian Well investigation 
in Iowa." 

Prof. C. C. Nutting— " Report of Committee on State Fauna. 

The following Officers for 1892 were elected. 

President, C. C. Nutting, Iowa City. First Vice President, L. H. 

Pammel, Ames. Second Vice President, E. Haworth, Oika! a. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Herbert Osborn, Ames. Executive Conned, 
The Officers, and J. E. Todd, Tabor, F. M. Witter, Muscatine, R. E. 
Call, Des Moines. 

98 The American Naturalist. [January, 

Natural Science Association of Staten Island.— October 10th, 
1891. — Informal meeting. 

The following paper, by Mr. Chas. W. Leng, was read : 

Notes of the tribe Hispini. The habits of certain species of Chry- 
somelidse, members of the tribe Hispini, were first made known by Dr. 
Harris in the year 1835, in the Boston Journal of Natural History 
(vol. i. pp. 141-147) and were restated in his " Insects Injurious to 
Vegetation" (p. 120). These species are : 

Microrhopala vittata Fab., living on Golden Rod. Odontota rubra 
Web., living on Apple, etc. Odontota dorsalis Thunb. living on 
Locust. They all occur in this neighborhood as do several other 
species belonging to the tribe, but according to Mr. Wm. Beuteu- 
muller's "Catalogue of Transformations" (Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc. 
VII. pp. 1-52) no further record has been made of their habits. 

I am now able to add some notes on our Staten Island species and 
especially on the larva? of Odontota scapularis Oliv. 

Frequently in the woods, there grows freely a trailing vine of the 
Pulse family, identified for me by Mr. W. T. Davis as Phaseolus hel- 
volus (or in the last edition of Gray's Manual Strophostylus peduncu- 
laris Ell.) Its leaves are often marred by white blotches, the parts 
affected consisting only of the colorless epidermis of the leaf, its sub- 
stance having heen devoured by the larva of the Odontota. In early 
June the beetles are found upon these plants in copulation or perhaps 
the female in the act of ovipositing. The eggs are irregular, rough, 
black masses, about one millimeter in diameter and are attached to 
the under side of the leaf, usually singlyr The larvae are oblong, flat- 
tened, somewhat cuneiform in outline, soft and of a whitish color 
except the head which is piceous and corneous. They are, of course, 
minute when first hatched, but continue to grow larger, always living 
within the leaf and enlarging the white blotch as they eat, until by 
September they have attained a length of one-fourth inch. The pupal 
stage is probably of short duration. The beetle is black, roughly 
sculptured, and has the humeral angles reddish. It is, from an ignor- 
ance of its habits perhaps, accounted rare by some collectors, but in 
the woods of Middletown and in Britton's woods, where its food plant 
grows freely, it is during June one of the abundant insects, and late 

Microrhopala vittata, living on Golden Rod, oviposits and perfects 
its transformation earlier than the Odontata and frequently three or 
four larvse inhabit the same leaf. Solidago canadensis is especially 

1S92.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. '.' 

favored by this beetle ami early in August the lower leaves will I 
found browned and entirely eaten, and in the pocket formed bj tl 
separation of their two surfaces after the larva- have eaten away tli 
interior are the freshly hatched beetles. From that dat 
brood lives on the plants and eats the leaves into >ieve-like form.-, an 
now in October, the tops also appear to be attacked. They :m du-,-1 
imbricated and the beetles are nestling in the narrow en vices. 

Several other species of the tribe live on Btaten Island, but 1 ai 
yet ignorant of their food plants. 

Mr. Arthur Hollick called attention to the gratifying manner i 
which the law relating to the protection of song birds was hem 
enforced in the country. During the past two weeks at least thr. 
gunners had been arrested and heavily lined. On < '< ' 
Gustav Merle, of New York, was arrested ami lined 8140 by du-th 
Augustus Acker. He was caught with twenty-three dead birds m h 
possession, which Mr. Hollick assisted in identifying 
high-holders (Colaptes auratus),2 yellow-bellied wood-peckers V'. 
rapicus varius), 9 hermit thrushes (Tardus jxdhisii >, :> cat birds Mim < 
carolinensis), and 1 titmouse (Parus atricapiilus). 

December 12th, 1891.— Informal meeting. 

Mr. L. P. Gratacap, showed a thin section of the coarse trap toe 
from Lambert's Lane, mentioned in the proceedings of dime 1M. 1>«J 
and read the following further memorandum in connection with it : 

This coarse trap, previously alluded to as possibly containing hype 
sthene has been since examined microscopically and found to be atri 
diorite, made up of hornblende, plagioclase, feldspar and quarts, wit 
traces of serpentization, due to alteration. It does not contain hype 
sthene. In hand specimens it is markedly different from the usii; 
fine grained, compact trap from the Graniteville quarries and won! 
not form as good a stone for road making and other economic uses ; 
does the latter. 

Mr. Gratacap also presented the following view- m regard to tl 
trap dike and its possible influence on the water supply of the ,vgi..i 

The trap dike on our island, which expands into a widened an 
at the Elm Park quarrv, passes from that point south-we.-u-riv m 
narrowed ridire, scarcely ohservabh beneath tin mantle of drift whi< 
covers it until at Graniteville it again is distended into a dome-lil 
nucleus, which extends to the east-ward to the Church road 
Krumm'a tavern, where the trap rock is only some seven feet or le 
below the surface. From this point it sinks and is found again on tj 

100 The American Naturalist. [January, 

surface south of Lambert's Lane, where the road ascends its somewhat 
steeply sloping sides. Now the question seems an interesting one 
whether the springs on the north-west side of the trap ridge may not 
be regarded as flowing from heads of water in New Jersey, as the trap 
dike would seem to preclude the derivation of their supply from the 
water shed of the hilly parts of the Island. The low flat lands 
enclosed in the curved arm of the trap, which, as is well known, 
stretches out into Long Neck, is mainly a sandy region and I think 
does not possess the arrangement of impervious drift clay and water- 
bearing gravels noticeable in our water-bearing district. Just a few 
rods from Graniteville, on the Old Place road, there rises a spring 
which seems to come up on the eastern wall of the trap, and at Lam- 
bert's Lane, where the coarse trap rock crops out on the surface, a 
spring comes up on the west side of the trap. Do these two springs 
acquire the hydrostatic pressure which makes them spring from differ- 
ent quarters, and in each case is the wall of trap the cause of their 
rising where they do ? Furthermore the ridge south of Long Neck, 
and separated from the latter by a shallow hollow, up which an arm 
of the Fresh Kills extends, so exactly imitates the low, rounded and 
long dome-like back of Long Neck itself and so suggests that there is a 
bifurcation of the trap ridge, or a parallel vent at this point, and if so 
the wells of the Crystal Water Works, at the end of this ridge, are 
also separated from the water shed of the Island by a trap wall and 
may represent a water source situated in New Jersey. Springs are 
found on either side of this suppositional second (?) trap flow and it 
may form a deep-seated barrier between two different areas of water 
drainage, the area north and west of it belonging to New Jersey, the 
area south or east of it probably insular. 

Mr. Arthur Hollick called attention to the fact that in a paper 
entitled " A Few Words About Our Water Supply," published in the 
Staten Island Magazine for August 1888, the relation of the trap dike 
to the water supply was commented upon in the following words : " I 
can well remember the mystery which was supposed to be inseparable 
from the source of the springs [east of the trap ridge] * * * * s° me 
persons even went as far as the Orange Mountains in New Jersey to 
account for them, utterly ignoring the fact that the immense trap dike, 
which begins at the Palisades, forms Bergen Neck, crosses the Kills 
and extends through our Island from Port Richmond to Linoleumville, 
entirely cuts them off from this source." 

Mr. Hollick remarked that it was a matter of considerable interest 
to find that two observe- had arrived indrnon-hntlv at practically 

1892.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 

the same conclusions in regard to the trap dike as a barrier befcw 
different water sheds. 

Pieces of a drift bowlder of Lower Helderberg limestone, found 
Arrochar, was shown by Mr. Gratacap, in which the following fin 
were identified: Meristina arcuate Hall; Spirifera mueropleum ( 
rad; Strophodonta beckii Hall; Strophomena rfumboidoH* Wl 
Orthis subcarinata Hall; Eatonia medial* Vanuxeni ; Oatammwm < 
cava Hall; C. imbricata Hall; and Gosselettia myti t imer a Com 
The last five not previously reported from the Island Also porti 
of a similar bowlder from the shore of Tottenville, containing Ten 
ulites gyracanthus Eaton, and Fisluliporaf sp.?, both new to 

A note from Mr. Ira K. Morris was read, in which he stated t 
the sketch of old Richmond County Hall, from which WM prepa 
the cut printed in the proceedings of September 12th. 1891, was m 
in September 1890. The building has since been entirely torn do 


— Dr. Wilhelm Karl von Nageli, the late keeper of the Botanical 
Museum and Garden in Munich, who died recently in hi- seventy- 
fourth year, was a Swiss by birth. He was for some years Professor 
of Botany at the University of Zurich, but in 1857 was invited by 
King Maximilian II to the post which he so long occupied. He was 
a many-sided man, a great mathematician and microseopist, as he 
showed in his Das Mikroskop. His contributions to Alpine botany 
are numerous. The post darwinian form of the doctrine of Evolu- 
tion found an energetic opponent in Nageli. The Swiss papers 
give a long list of his works. His study throughout life, as be Mid, 
was to understand the " very least of the very little." 

— C. W. Stiles has been elected to the Societe de Biologic Pan- to 
the vacancy caused by the death of Prof. Leidy (Membre correspond- 
ent etranger). it* V ' 

— Theconipunv-niurryiii" limestmn m, K- ', ;. I-iand Lake Lne, 
has presented to the Western Reserve Historical Society ot Cleveland. 
a portion of the remarkable glacial grooves at that locality. 1 rot .. 
F Wright of Oberlin writes to the Cleveland Leader as follows: 

The direction of these grooves is a little south of west, corresponding 
to that of the axis of the lake. This is nearly at right angles to the 

102 The American Naturalist. [January, 

course of the ice scratches on the summit of the watershed south of 
this, between the lake and the Ohio River. The reason for this change 
of direction can readily be seen by a little attention to the physical 
geography. The high lands to the south of the lake rise about seven 
hundred feet above it. When the ice period was at its climax, and 
overran these high lands, it took its natural course at right angles to 
the terminal moraine, and il< w .1 si.uth-ea>t, according to the direction 
indicated by the scratches on the summit. But when the supply of 
ice was not sufficient to overrun the high lands, the obstruction in 
front turned the course, and the result was a motion towards Toledo 
and the Maumee Valley, where, in the vicinity of Fort Wayne, an 
extensive terminal moraine was formed. The grooves on the islands 
near Sandusky were produced during that stage in the recession of the 
great ice-sheet. 

The groove preserved is only a small portion of what still exists. 
But it would be too much to ask to have more given by the company. 
As it is, the public spirit shown by the directors, gathered from Boston 
to Duluth, has rarely been equaled by a similar corporation. Quarry- 
ing has already proceeded nearly all around this specimen, and soon 
the monument preserved will be a monument indeed; the groove 
being left to cap a pedestal about thirty feet high, and conspicuous 
from every side. About one-half the surface will be cleared of debris, 
so as to show fifty feet of the length of the groove, while the other half 
will remain as it is, beneath its protective covering of pebbles, gravel, 
sand, and mud, which acted as the graving tools in the firm grasp of 
ice. In this condition it is to be presented to the Western Reserve 
Historical Society of Cleveland to remain for the admiration and 
instruction of all future generations. I trust the citizens of the vicin- 
ity will appreciate the noble gift enough to occasionally visit the place 
and receive the deep impression? it is so well calculated to make. 

&L00 per Year. $4.60 per Tear (Foreign). 35 cts. pc 






XXVI. FEBRUARY, 1892. No. 302. 


)F Fecundation. j Geological Survey, 1890 — Geological Survey of 

H.J. Webber. I neral— Paleozoic 

Petrography. — Petrographical 

Teleosts ; (Ulus- 
C. L. Herrick. 

A AM M AL, Notoryctes typklops; ( 1 I 


f Florida. Spermato 

Clarence Bloonifield Moore. 129 

Dog— Zoological 

^ TURE 147 ! Embryos 

d Paleontology. — The Crystalline Development of the Renal Organ 

«"="'=> '" M.'-acl.usetts— The Fauna Archeology and Ethnology.— 1 




518 and 520 MINOR STREET 

__ ■ ■ j.hia, Post Office a 



Vol. XXVI. February, 1892. 302 


selection. If then, t 

ifter a 

certain peri 



would become extii 

ict un 

less means 

: are pro 

vided for 


Of certain organ] 

lowever, w 


death will occur. < 

)n the< 


[• the Proi 

o/.oji and ] 

bly Protophyta. (111 


«ms.) it 1 

M ^'r'l! , 

mined by investurai 

■ion tb 

at there is 

no norm; 

•" ' ..' 

and consequently t 


lg, death. 

They a 

re aecordi 

Wcismann, inmior 

tal, « 

, far as 


death is 

cerned. Xeverthelc 

ss hei 





hich the 1 

Protozoa : 




Is are prov 

uled tort 

he reprodi 

1 A lecture delivered De 

cember ) 

l6, 1891, before 

: a meeting , 

>f the Alumni 

ation of the St. Louis Medi 

ca! Colic 

g e - 

104 The American Naturalist. [February, 

The first and simplest reproduction is a simple, almost 
mechanical fission or breaking apart of a naked mass of pro- 
toplasm, which is nevertheless an organized being, as seen in the 
fission of the swarm spores of Myxomycetes, in other Protozoa 
and Protophyta. The body of the organism, after a lengthened 
period of growth, readies a size where the proportion of the 
surface to the bulk is not sufficient to provide suitable nourish- 
ment for its continued growth. Thus a division or multiplica- 
tion of the body is necessitated to provide greater surface for 

In a thorough consideration of these facts, we come to see 
how intimately growth and reproduction are associated, 
growth being nothing more than a protoplasmic and usually 
cellular reproduction. We are very apt to think of cell divi- 
sion as a necessary accompaniment of growth. But this is not 
so. Growth is independent of cell multiplication. Cell divi- 
sion need not take place during growth, but may appear only 
after its conclusion. In Stypocaulon, an alga belonging to the 
Phseosporea? the lateral branches of the frond, as pointed out 
by Geyler, attain their full size before the formation of cells 
begins. Cells are then formed from the base upward, until finally 
the branch, which was a single cell, becomes a normal multi- 
cellular organ. One of the most remarkable cases illustrating 
this point is found in Caulerpa, a seaweed, the whole vegetative 
body of which remains throughout life an enormous single 
cell. (Fig. 1, a portion of frond, natural size). In the cavity 
of this thick walled vescicle, however, numerous cross bars of 
cellulose are found to give greater strength. In the common 
green felt (Vaucheria) even these cross bars are wanting. Cell 
division, however, usually accompanies growth and as shown 
above is in most cases a necessity to provide sufficient nutri- 


The phenomena of cell reproduction or division are so inti- 
mately connected with the consideration of all phenomena ot 
reproduction and fecundation that it is necessary for us to 
briefly consider this subject as a preparatory step. The changes 
which take place in the cell nucleus seem to be of paramount 

1892.] Phenomena ainl Dere/opment "/Fecundation. 105 

importance in cell division. Since Kobert Brown, in ls:>;>. tirst 
discovered the cell nucleus in the generative organs of orchids. 
and Von Mold in l,s:Jo first saw it divide, it has been growing 
in importance until now. or at least not long ago, the majority of 
biologists were willing to assign to it all importance in repro- 
duction and in the life of the cell, the *•» 11 brain as it were. 

Amitoris. — We need only to consider the so called Indirect, 
mitotic or karyokinetic division. The direct or amitotic nuclear 
division it appears from FlemmingV late paper and ZieglcrV 
biological discussion of amitotic unclear division, having merely 
a nutritive or secretory function, occurs in the animal kingdom 
only at the end of typical cell multiplication, when the cell is 
given over to other purposes and loses its power of physi- 
ological multiplication and reproduction of cells. Amitotic' 
nuclear division then always indicates the end of the series of 
divisions. Ziegler thinks "it occurs chiefly (perhaps exclu- 
sively) in such nuclei as minister to a process of unusually ac- 
tive secretion or assimilation." In typical gland cells it is 
frequently found. Whether like conclusion will be reached in 
the vegetable kingdom is yet doubtful, but in the absence of 
definite investigations we are justified in assuming that similar 

reproduction we need not further discuss this kind of cell 

Karyokenetis — In the cell nucleus, two kinds of protoplasm 
may be distinguished, the chromatin, so named from its strong 
affinity for stains, and the achromatin. Other substances 
have, it is claimed, been differentiated, but these will for the 
present answer our purpose. Investigators have come almost 
uniformly to agree that the essential featured of karyokenesis 
lies in the equal distribution of the chromatin elements to the 
daughter cells. 

The resting nucleus (fig. 2) presents under the microscope 
a finely punctate character but close examination will show us 
that these granules (micros&mata) are connected by fine granu- 

i\V. Flemming, " Ueber Teilung und Kernformen bei Leukocyten und iiber 
deren Attraktionsspharen." Archiv. f. mikr. Anatomie, 37Bd. 1891. 

2 H. E. Zieeler. " Die biologische Bedeutung der amitotischen (direct) Kern- 
teitung im Tier?eich." Biol. Centralblatt, Bd. XI, pp. 372-389, July 1891. 

,ilod, possibl; 
matter of th 
funded by th 

in the size of the nu 

. until the nucleus, pr 

collect at the ends of 1 
future nuclear spine 

becomes apparently I 

(figs. 5-6). The lower ends then bend inward and also appi 
eutlv fuse forming a continuous coil (figs. 6-7); while t 
daughter segments move towards the poles, the spindle fib: 
remain behind, and others become intercalated and a. bulgi 

in the equatorial region slight thickenings form on the spim 
fibers (figs. 7-8). These become more and more marked a 
gradually touch and fuse, forming the new cell-wall betwt 
the now divided daughter nuclei (fig. 9). 

During the process of cell-wall formation, the segments 
the daughter nuclei which have united as above explain 
begin to elongate and decrease in thickness, taking on the < 
pearance of the resting nucleus. The remaining steps are j 

ongates and decre, 
•esent the appearan 

The above outline 

pol,- of the dividing nucleus, designat.-d first l.v Kol as "^r*" 
later by Van Beneden as "attractive sphere*' and quite recently 
by Boveri as "archoplasmic sphere*." 

'The central area of the arehoplasni (fig. 10. a.) is situated in 
the cytoplasm near the nuclear membrane, and from it, as a 
centre there radiate out in all directions the granular archo- 
plasmic filaments or radiating stria, of th. asters, some directed 

arehoplasni is sometimes occupied by a definite body the so- 
called centrosome. The fundamental importance of the function 
of the arehoplasni and its centrosome is yet rather doubtful. 
Van Beneden looks upon it as a permanent organ, equal in 
value to the nucleus itself. Guignard, as we shall shortly see, 
is inclined to assign to it paramount importance in cell divi- 
sion, as directing and guiding the distribution of the dm. matin 

When we examine a daughter nucleus at the close of k a is- 
okinetic division, we see at one side of it the archoplasmic 
sphere in the position it occupied during the process of divi- 
sion. Shortly before a new division starts (or we may say as the 
first step in the next division) this archoplasmic sphere divides 
into two (fig. 11) and the two new archoplasmic spheres thus 
formed, pass around the nucleus in opposite directions until 
thev come to occupy points on exactly opposite sides, when their 
effect is soon shown by the starting of the phenomenal changes 
of karvokinetic division. Thus it is seen as new nuclei arise 
bv division, so also the new archoplasmic spheres arise in 
in the same manner. 

108 The American Naturalist. [February, 

G'tigiKwF* 1 and WiJchman's - Recent Discoveries. — It is not 
until very recently that anything similar to the asters or archo- 
plasm has been discovered in the vegetable cell. This year 
Guignard, a careful observer, published his observations " On 
the Existence of Attractive Spheres in the Vegetable Cell" 
which, from present appearances, marks an epoch in the devel- 
opment of vegetable cytology. 

In the resting nucleus, according to Guignard, two attractive 
spheres or asters are present. They lie close together at one side 
of the nucleus, (figs. 49, 54 and 56). Within each is a cen- 
tral corpuscle, the centrosome (figs. 12, a, 49, 54, etc.) surrounded 
by a transparent areole and around this a granular circle (fig. 
12 b.). In general the radiating striae are invisible as long as 
the cell is in a state of repose (fig. 49). They become feebly 
apparent when the nucleus presents the first symptoms of en- 
tering upon division and at this time they withdraw from each 
other in order to place themselves at two opposite points cor- 
responding to the poles of the future spindle (figs. 12 and 51). 
After this the striae become more evident and direct themselves 
toward the nucleus, while it is still provided with a nuclear 
membrane, which confirms the opinion of Strasburger that the 
spindle originates outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. When 
the chromatin segments have separated and collected at the 
poles, the centrosomes divide in each sphere into two new cen- 
trosomes, which thus have their origin at each pole (figs. 53 and 
55). They remain in this position till the next nuclear divi- 
sion is preparing to start, when they separate as explained 

" In resume," says Guignard, "the bodies in question, which 
merit the name of directive spheres since they govern the divi- 
sion of the nucleus, transmit themselves without discontinuity 
from one cell to the other throughout the life of the plant," 

1 Leon Guignard, " Sur 1* Existence des ' Spheres Attractives ' dans les Cellules 
Vegetates." Compt. Rend. Soc. de Biol. T.iii; p. 182. (March 20, 1891).— Ann. 
des Sci. Nat. Bot. T. xiv; No's. 3-4; pp. 163-288 (Nov. 1891), (10 pi.). Comptes 
rendus Acad, des Sci., 9 Mars 1891. 

2 E. De Wildeman, in Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belgique, LXI (1891) pp. 594-602 

for them, from thei 
binary division of 1 

Geddes and Thompson's Katabolit 
Female.— In approaching a consi< 
well for us to inquire into the eha 
what determines sex. Let us plui 
cussion of the theory winch seem; 
gested. Geddes and Thompson i: 
"Evolution of Sex" 2 strongly sup] 
katabolic-anabolic theory of male a 

In the changes of protoplasm n 
living, the upbuilding constructs 
are known under the general term 
tive descending series are known 
Now male and female differ accor 
and Thompson in their physiolog 
fundamentally of an anabolic eha 
character. According to this vie- 
sonier. more active, etc., merely b< 

ruptive rlumgvs n-nuuig u. i-n'M.-iiMi.,,, 

in the living matter. The females, on t In 

profit, are more anabolic,— constructive p 

their life; whence indeed their capacity 

Haeckel in the introduction to his "Hi 

marks that the intrinsic value of an 1 

depends upon the number of phenomena 

application. Judging this theory of sex 

Wan Tieghem, Jornn. de Bot. (Morot), V. (1891) p 

2 Geddes and Thompson, ''Evolution of Sex," Lone 

110 The American Naturalist. [February, 

and we come to realize its great worth, reaching to the very 

boundaries of sex in its application and being a chief ele- 
ment in the development of sex. < )f the very numerous illus- 
trations given bv Geddes and Thompson, we can only select a 
very few. 

The female cochineal insect, laden with reserve products 
spends most of her time on the cactus plant as a mere quiescent 
gall, while the male, on the contrary, is provided with wings, 
agile, restless and short lived. Almost innumerable instances 
of a similar character might he cited. Up to the level of 
the amphibians the females are generally larger. A sluggish 

expenditure of energy uses up the reverse material and keep- 
down the size. The large and small spores (macrospores and mi- 
crospores) which we rind in plants, and which mark the begin- 
ning of sex. illustrate the same law. Of sex cells in general, all are 
familiar with the fact that the antherozoids and spermatozoids 
are always much -mailer and infinitely more active than the 
female cells. The agility of males it appears then is not a 
special adaptation as Darwin suggested to enable them to better 
and more surely perform their functions with relation to the 
other sex, but is a natural characteristic of the constitutional 
activity of males. 

. Body temperature which is an index to the pitch of life 
is distinctly lower in females as observed in the human species, 
insects and plants. 

A familiar and striking illustration of this law is found in 
the process of menstruation, if it has been rightly interpreted. 
You are likely, as physicians, more familiar with the various 
theories of menstruation than I. Probably the most generally 
accepted one is " that which regards the growth of the mucus 
coat before fecundation as a preparation for the reception of 
an ovum if duly fertilized, and the menstruation process itself 
as the expression of the failure of these preparations.' 7 If we 
express it now in terms of the anabolic-katabolic law, or the 
anabolic highly vegetative character of the female, menstrua- 
tion is the means of getting rid of the anabolic surplus in case 

interesting and instructive as bo; 
Tadpoles pass through a hen 
according to other authors, with 
phase external influences and es 
as regards sex, though hermapln 
adult life. When tadpoles wer 

feeding with beef. Young raised t 
57 to 78: in the second with fis 

of the female, are surely very suggestive. 

Median's observation that old branches of conifers 

escence; and th.»so of 'various botanists that prothallia of 
grown in unfavorable conditions produce only antheridh 
no archegonia or female organs are further illustrations o 
same law and its bearing on the determination of sex. 
(To be continued.) 

•can Naturah 



By C. L. Herrkk. 

Our knowledge of the microscopic structure of the cerebrum 
of bony fishes is very imperfect, and I -hall endeavor to show 
that, notwithstanding the great progress recently made in de- 
termining the difficult homologies involved, gross misconcep- 
tions pass current at the present time. The fundamental diffi- 
culty lies in the fact that the cortex is anatomically absent 
though morphologically preset it. In < tther words, though there 
is no functionally normal cortex, its place is taken by an epithel- 
igerous membrane which in all important morphological par- 
ticulars substitutes for it. It is quite a different question 
whether the cortex is physiologically represented ; i. e., whether 
cellular structures exist whiel i functionally replace the unde- 
veloped cortical areas. Tins may rank among the most impor- 
tant question of physiology as it undoubtedly is of morphology. 
Inasmuch as the cortex of higher vertebrates serves solely as 
the organ of consciousness in the limited sense, if it could be 
shown that it is not only anatomically absent, but physi- 
ologically unrepresented, we should have strong reason to sup- 
pose that consciousness is practically absent in the group of 
fishes and thus is an unnecessary element in a purely animal 
existence even of a relatively highly differentiated organism. 

On the other hand, if it could be shown that some other cell 
aggregate functions in place of the suppressed cortex, it might 
be hoped that in locating the substituting areas we should ob- 
tain the clue to the origin of the cortex and the law of devel- 
opment or, rather, the archeteetonic plan of formation. In the 
latter respect we have secured so much concurrent evidence 
from widely different sources that the case scents: comparatively 

If the fish brain, iit spite of its great dissimilarity to the 
brains of higher vertebrates is actuallv homologous with the 
latter in detail, it should be possible to discover the exact 

Prosencephalon of Teleosts. 

standing of the evolution of the brain of 

higher vertebrate*. 

None of these homologies arc more importai 

it than those which 

relate to the commissures which may natur 

ally be taken as the 

points of reference. In this last mentioned 

1 direction a study 

of the Drum (II<i[>ln<]!ii<,tus) has fort una 

tely afforded the 

necessary clues. 

What follows is a brief summary of a 

detailed paper to 

appear in the December number of the Jam 

Neurology, forming part of a series whicl 

i has appeared in 

several previous issues. The methods pursi 

led will be given in 

full in connection with the paper, so that i 

t is only accessary 

to say that a modification of the laematox\\ 

[in process has been 

hit upon, which serves to sharplv differentiate 

■all the histological 

elements, bringing out the variations in ce 

11-structure beauti- 

fully. In fact a fish brain thus treated is his 

<t ©logically, instead 

of the least satisfactory, rather the most bea 

utiful of brain pre* 

parations. A large series of sections has 

been secured from 

which a few of the more important data art 

i here noted. 

First, in respect to histological differen 

tiation within the 

cerebrum. If the axial lobe of the fish cm 

?rebrum re] .resents 

functionally the entire brain, as would see 

in probable unless 

one claims that the fish leads a purely reflex 

that there should occur in it the various ty 

pes of cells which 

characterize the several regions of the cortex 

in higher animals. 

The writer has abundantly shown in a sei 

■ies of publications 

higher vertebr 


itv between kinesodic and a^sthesodic cells prevail in the 
Monocondylia. Whether we regard the brain of a fish as the 

conceded that the cells corresponding to kinesodic and 
;c-thcso(lic processes must be in .-ill probability represented. 
The absence of the cortex limits our search to the axial lobe. 
Observations upon various groups of reptiles have led me on 
several different occasions to suggest that the axial lobe, seen 
in those groups where the cortex is present, is a sort of pro- 
liferating centre from which cortical cells are formed. l 

This hypothesis has been further substantiated by the obser- 
vations of Mr. Turner, 2 upon the axial lobe of various birds. 
It is also worthy of note that the birds resemble fishes in the 

therefore in the form of niduli within the axial lobe. It would, 
therefore, appear legitimate to consider the axial lobe as the 
source from which the cortex has sprung, so far as its histological 
elements are concerned, a suggestion which is further empha- 
sized by the fact, brought out by Professor His and extended 
by the writer, that all neural elements arc derived from the 
epithelial structures lining the ventricle. 

A corollary of this would be the concentration of all com- 
missures and tracts belonuin- -trietlv to the cortex in the axial 
lobe. The position of such structures might then serve to 
determine the direction in which the complicated brain of 

1 Notes on the Brain of the Alligator. Journ. Cincinnati Society of Natural His- 
tory, vol. XII, p. 455; Contributions to the Comparative Morphology of the Central 
Nervous System, II. Morphology and Histology of the Brain of certain Reptiles, 
Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. I. p. 21, March 1891. 
2 Journ. Comp. Neurology. Vol. i,p. yi. 

Prosencephalon of Teleot 

higher vertebrates has 1 
principle the writer has « 

civ devoid of nerve cells, hut the surfac 
nevertheless quite conspicuouslv fissured. 

y brother and myself in a series „r arti.-li 

these fissures ser 
axial lobe, which 
ogical differential 

YV t< 

ilso ivniar'l 

> < certain arms 
cably constant in their 
ese land marks it has , 

the hippocampus, 
position, hut by re 
a raised lip or proj 

of a fissure perf< 



position. Thehomol... 
ily recognized, not only 
tomical connections. It 
3 ventral surface and is 

convexity in the « 


egion of the pyriforw, 1, 

the hippocampus 

in r 

nit"! 1 ' 

lnse° b Th^ 

the pallium (corte: 


iter part c 

f the hippocampus of 



teralis.. wh 
he rhinali: 

* fissure an<l may betra. 

hippLmpns, wh 


lefibivs si 


116 The American Naturalist. [February, 

cease here, but from the deeper parts of the hippocampal lobe 
an ental tract, corresponding to the hippocampal commissure 
and descending fornix tract, arises and passes cephalomesad to 
cross just caudad of the strongly developed callosum. At this 
point a branch is given off precisely like the fornix which passes 
to a bilobed cellular mass, projecting ventrad into the ventricle 
caudad and dorsal of the lamina terminalis. In appearance 
and structure, as well as fibrous connections, these tubers can 
only be regarded as identical with the corpus fornicis. Nothing 
is wanting to make the homology perfect. Fibres from the 
fornix body can be traced into the thalamus, but nothing 
indentifiable with the mammillaries could be made out with 

The radix mesalis of the olfactory is much larger and more 
distinct, and seems to be derived from a mass of cells occupy- 
ing the pes, while the radix lateralis springs from the pero. 
This bundle passes caudo-dorsad and then mesad and crosses 
in a special ventral portion of the prascommissura quite dis- 
tinct from the specific homologue of the latter. In the Drum, 
the olfactories are attached to the cerebrum, or more strictly, 
to the prsethalamus just at the origin of the lamina terminalis. 
They are obviously not appendages of the prosencephalon, as we 
have suggested on morphological grounds it would be impossi- 
ble for them to be, but the radices have suffered division or 
latero-fiexion with the outgrowth of the secondary cerebral 
vesicles. The origin of the hippocampal loop of the olfactory 
tract becomes obvious by inspection of an embryonic brain or 
that of a fish, it being the least diverted portion of the walls 
of the primitive prosencephala ventricle carrying with it the 
tracts and commissural origins proper to it. It is a curious 
fact that of the two radices of the olfactory, one belongs to the 
dorsal and the other to the ventral system and the commissural 
or decussational fibres likewise belong, one to the ventral the 
other to the dorsal of the two primary commissural systems of 
the neural tube. The radix lateralis connects, via hippocam- 
pus, with the dorsal system associated with the callosum, 'i.e. 
the fornix and hippocampal commissure. The radix mesalis, 
on the other hand connect- with the anterior commissure sys- 

paper 1 the writer has indicated the existence < 

homology „f the ^\hluu/\!\ VV nJu n Z r'mu!! 
following words : 

" Oommumres of th Cerebrum.— The exact equb 
commissures of the cerebrum is a matter of much 
these fishes where the whole dorsal and median j 
tectum cerebri or mantle portion is apparently re 
the pallium cerebri. Considering, however, that 
in which the cerebrum has been differentiated ii 
mals is caudad. and that, in the lower brains, hoc 
caudad or dorsad in higher vertebrates must be >< 
or cephalad, it is not difficult to homologize the 
the plexus-bearing- projection from the po.^teru 
margin of the mantle. Since the plexus in this 
the vertex, instead of projecting from the eaud; 
structures morphologically cephalad of the pie: 
sought still further cephalad or ventrad. Using t 
ol (serving thatithe cerebral cortex told- ventrad m 
tory structure, we think we find a homologue oj 
hippocampal commissure connecting the two h 
cerebrum cephalad of the openings of the olfaen.i 

as well as 

118 The American Naturalist. [February, 

others from the cephalic portions of the cerebrum. No indi- 
cation of the eallosum was seen in Scaphirynehus." 

In the Drum, however, the eallosum is relatively large and 
conspicuous. It lies far cephalad and somewhat ventrad (mor- 
phologically dorso-cephalad) of the anterior commissure. It is 
directly associated with a large nidulus of pyramidal cells, 
which occupies a central position in the axial lobe in the direct 
line of the pyramid fibres produced. This central lobe is the 
unmistakable homologue of the motor areas occupying the 
cephalic cortical regions of higher vertebrates, and is therefore 
properly associated with the eallosum. The eallosum lies 
dorsad of and adjacent to the line where the pallium adheres 
to the axial lobe, it is therefore just where it would be ex- 
pected upon the hypothesis that the structures otherwise found 
in the cortex had been driven from the latter by its conversion 
into the pallium, or, better, had failed to grow out into the pal- 
li vim when it was formed. 

Remembering that the growth of the cerebrum has been 
largely dorso-caudad, such a retarding as here supposed would 
leave the eallosum where we find it at the eephalic juncture of 
pallium and axial lobe. Since the interventricular cortical 
lobe is suppressed in teleosts, it follows that the eallosum and 
anterior commissure, which are collocated by accident, rather 
than relationship in Reptilia and Amphibia, are here widely 
separated. These facts are entirely in agreement with the 
highly philosophical theory of the commissures proposed by 
Osborn, though in the present case, Osborn supposed (an 
opinion in which the writer at first shared) that the eallosum 
of fishes is contained in the anterior commissure group. The 
considerations above mentioned show that in the absence of the 
mesal walls of the cortex a collocation the two commissural 
systems, except by great axial shortening of the brain, would 
be impossible. 

As to the general question, whether it is proper to suppose 
that the cell structures normally found in the cortex are derived 
from the axial lobe and may be retained there by conversion 
of the cortex to a cell-less pallium, I refer, first, to the data 
of embryology ; second, to my own observations upon young 


of Raploidoiiotus. 

1882.] Prosencephalon of Teleosts. 119 

reptilian brains; and, third, to the discovery made by my 
pupil, Mr. Turner, that in the brain of birds there are several 
introverted cortical niduli within the axial lobe, in regions 
where the cortex is restricted or aborted. 

In general, then, it seems proper to regard the cerebrum as a 
product of a dorso-lateral pouch from the thalamus, carrying 
with it the commissural systems (dorsal and ventral) belonging 
to what may be called the prsethalamic segment or neuromere. 
The hippocampal system may be regarded as representing a 
'part of the dorsal commissure, the callosum a pan of the ven- 
tral and perhaps part of the dorsal, while the anterior com- 
missure is decidedly ventral. 

At any rate the morphological relations in fishes are precisely 
as in higher vertebrates. The conclusions above indicated may 
be thus summarized. 

1. Fishes have a < 
and on the opposite 

2. Fishes have a distinct fornix and hippocampal coin- 
normal fibre connections. 

4. There are distinct radices mesalis and lateralis in the 
ichthic olfactory lobe, the former crossing in the anterior 
commissure, the latter passing to a hippocampal lobe. 

5. The hippocampus of fishes is a distinct lobe of the axial 
part of the cerebrum. 

6. The axial lobe in fishes is composed not only of the 
elements proper to the corpus striatum or sauropsidian axial 
lobe but also contains rudiments of the sensory and motor 
niduli of the cortex. 

7. The two types of cell- are sharply differentiated. 

Horizontal longitudinal sections through the i 
ie drum, Haplodinotus grunniens. 

Fig. 1. Section through the olfactory lobes and corpi 

The rad 

ix lateralis is 

easily follov 

red tl 

iroughout ii 

ts entire 

length from the lateral 

aspect of the 


to the hippocampus. 

The radi 

x mesalis arise 

s in the pes 

and, ( 

jurying yen 

tral and 

then dorsal, appears cej 


1 of the axial con 


as a circi 

ilar bundle. 


Section at the 

level of the 



3 (decus- 

sation of the basal pedu 

ncular tracts 

of K, 

linger) and c 


Fig. 3. 

Section above 

i the level of the 


sure, the 

tracts of 

which are visil 

o\e in the section. 

Fig. 4. 

Section near 

the dorsal 


:e of the c( 


The figui 

•e illustrates tfa 

e structure c 
Plate VII 

,i voh 

rula and cer 


Fig. 1. 

Portion of olfactory pero h 



Fig. 2. 

Pyramidal (k 

inesodic) cell 

s fro )i 

i the contra! 

lobe of 


The aesthesodic ceils are transversely cut. 
- Fig. 4. Cells from E in fig. 3 of the previous plate. 
Fig. 5. Portion of the cuneus. 
Fig. 6. Cells from the lateral lobe. 
Fig. 7. Longitudinal section through the whole brain. 
Fig. 8. Horizonal section through entire brain somewhat 
dorsad of fig. 3 of the preceding plate. 

Fig. 9. Section just dorsad of the olfactory crua to show the 
ita and eallosum. 

from Professor Stirling's paper: 

" It appears that the first specimen was captured by Mr. 
Win. Coulthard, manager of the Frew River Station and other 
Northern runs belonging to the Willowie Pastoral Company. 
Attracted by some peculiar tracks on reaching his camp one 
evening on the Finke River, while traversing the Llracowra 
Station with cattle, he followed them up and found the animal 
lying under a tussock of spinifex, or porcupine grass (Triodia 
irritans). Though he is an old bush ban. I, with all the watch- 
ful alertness and powers of observation usually acquired by 
those who live lives of difficulty and danger, this was the first 
and only specimen of the animal he ever saw. As previously 
stated, this found its way to the museum through the agency 
of Messrs. Benham and Molineaux. The three subsequently 
received shortly afterwards, as well as the last lot recently 
secured by Mr. Bishop during our journey through the coun- 
try, were also found on the Idracowra Station. This is a large 
cattle-run, comprising several hundred square miles of country 
in the Southern part of the Northern Territory of South Aus- 

122 The American Naturalist. [February, 

tralia, which lies immediately to the West of the telegraph 
line between the Charlotte Waters and Alice Springs Stations. 
The great dry water-course of the Finke River, which runs 
from N. W. to S. E., bounds the run for some eighty miles on 
the North and North East. Its distance from Adelaide is, 
roughly speaking, a thousand miles. Flats and sandhills of 
red sand, more or less well covered with spinifex and acacias, 
constitute a large portion of the country, and the rainfall is 
inconsiderable. Curiously enough, all the specimens hitherto 
received by me have been found within a circumscribed area, 
four miles from the Idracowra Head Station, which is situated 
on the Finke water-course itself, and almost invariably among 
the sandhills. I have it, however, on very fair authority, that 
the animal has been seen on the Undoolya Station, which lies 
immediately South of the McDonnell Ranges, and that one 
also was found drowned after heavy rain at Tempe Downs, a 
station situated about 120 miles W. S. W. of Alice Springs. 
These points will sufficiently define its' range, so far as is 
known at present. They do not appear to be very numerous. 
Very few of the white men in the district had ever seen it, 
even though constantly traveling, and not many of the natives 
whom I came across recognized the well-executed colored 
drawing I carried with me. It must be remembered, however, 
that I did not pass through the exact spot which so far appears 
to be its focus of distribution. Nor did a very considerable 
rew-ard which I offered cause any specimens to be forthcoming 
between the first lot received, over two years ago, and that 
recently secured during my transcontinental trip. With few 
exceptions the animals have been captured by the aboriginals, 
who, with their phenomenal power- of tracking, follow up 
their traces until they are caught, For this reason they can 
only be found with certainty after rain, which sets the surface 
of the sand and enables it to retain tracks that would be 
immediately obliterated when it is dry and loose. Nor are 
they found except during warm weather. So that the short 
period of semi-tropical summer rains appears to be the favor- 
able period for their capture. For this suitable combination 

borer is made of the conica 

1 sno 

shield, and the powerful s 


brought into play. As it di 


as well are used to throw 1 

again behind it as it goes, s< 

1 that 

to mark its course. Again 


els for a few feet upon the si 


nienal rapidity with which it can burrow, as observed 
n a state of nature and in captivity. In some notes sent 

Mr. Benham the following statement appears: 'Almost 
' the men here (Idracowra) can tell you how. >ne got a way 
ne in the loose sand. I brought it home alive and began 
g about how fast it could burrow, so Mr. Stokes wanted 
it. We took a spade and loosened the top soil near the 

and put it down. I kept my hand close to it until it 
>arly out of sight, and then started scratching after it, 

The American Xatumllst. 


but it was too quick; so I took a shovel and began to dig 
after it, but could not get him. 

" < One of the men then came with another shovel and also a 
lubra (aboriginal female) who scratched, but the three of us 
failed to get him.' Making all allowances for possible misdi- 
rected energies in this experiment, there is no doubt hut that 
their burrowing powers are remarkable. Mr. Bishop, who 
knew of my approach, made great efforts to keep alive for me 
some of those lie had captured, and placed them for safe keep- 
ing in buckets of sand, but in spite of all care and attention 
one only lived as long as four days. Night and day the sound 
of their ceaseless burrowing was to be heard. Acting on my 
advice, previously given, in consequence of an examination of 
the contents of the intestines of one of the earlier specimens, 
he supplied them with ants as food, but they ate none. They 
did. however, eat one < witchety,' the native name of large 

which are the larval forms of certain Longicorn beetles and 

states that the natives have 
'devil-devil;' but I could 

126 The American Naturalist. [February, 

be found in the brain and reproductive system. The brain 
has not been examined, but the external form of the skull 
indicates characters like those of Chrysochloris, including lar- 
ger hemispheres than are usual in marsupials. As to the 
reproductive system, the penis is single, indicating an undi- 
vided vagina in the female, a character non-marsupial, or 
present only in a highly .specialized family of the order. The 
penis is cloacal as it is in Chrysochloris, as described by Dob- 
son (Monograph of the Inseetivora p. 125). Returning to the 
- skeleton, we have other Insectivorous characters, which are 
non-marsupial. First; the imperforate palate; Second; the 
presence of a patella: Third; the incisor teeth, which are 
neither diprotodont, nor polyprotodont, but in number J, nor- 
mal in the placental Mammalia. 

If we adopt the view that this genus is placental, we have 
the following additional points of resemblance to the Chryso- 
chloridae. First, the general shape and structure of the skull. 
Second, the shape of the scapula, when- the inferior (posterior) 
spinous ridge represents the edge of the thickened border in 
Chrysochloris. Third, the presence of a heavy metacromion. 
Fourth, the slenderness of the clavicle. Fifth, the shape of the 
humerus, especially distally, where however the entepicondylar 
foramen is closed, while it is open in Chrysochloris (Dobson). 
Sixth, the shapes of the ulna and radius are much like those 
in Chrysochloris. Seventh, even the form and character of the 
anterior foot, where the resemblance is great, although obvious 
differences exist. Eighth, the general shape of the pelvis is 
similar, especially the horizontal position, with minute obturator 
foramen. The presence of a symphysis pubis, and a posterior 
articulation of the ischium with the sacrum are important 
differences. The symphysis exists however in various Inseetivora 
and the ischiosacral articulation is present in many Edentata. 
There is not much resemblance in the forms of the tibia and 
fibula, but these two elements are distinct from each other in 
both forms. Ninth, the posterior foot resembles considerably 
that of Chrysochloris, with manifest differences; and is similarly 

Here the character* 

both in the numbei 
anterior incisors ari 

ryetes will ultimately be found to enter the Marsupialia or not, 
it must be a descendant out of the sain." -lock as that which gave 
origin to the Chrysochloridida 1 . But I suspect that the brain, 
female generative organ-, and fetal characters will turn out to 
resemble those of Chrysochloris, as doits other characters, and 
in that case Notorycte.s will enter the Insectivora. In this 
order it will form a special family. Nbtoryctida'. characterized 
hy the presence of a symphysis pubis: the CQOSSlficatiOD oi tlic 
posterior part of the ischium with the sacrum, and perhaps 
by the coossification of the cervical vertebra 1 . Perhaps there 
should be added to these character-;, the fusion ot the sacral 
metapophysis into a continuous roof, and the ossification and 
fusion with the first rib of its hsemapophysis. 

The tritubercular molars, the large caudal intecenntra, the 
cloacal penis, show Notoryctes to be a primitive type. As to 
resemblances to Monotremata, such as have been suggested by 
a recent author, none exist. On the contrary, the Notoryctid® 
realize a desideration to mammalian phylogeny, viz : a form 
which connects the marsupial with the placental mammalia, 
although it is a specialized representative of this type. That the 
insectivora are the connectant forms among placentals has been 
long suspected and, that the connection is polyphyletic is sug- 
gested by Notoryctes, since the Creodonta are also candidates for 
i them to the Dasy- 

istinguished by the 

128 The American Nataralitt. [FeWy , 

uridaj. The structure of the pelvis approximates that of a num- 
ber of the Edentata, as do apparently the inferior incisor teeth. 
The origin of the latter 'order has yet to he discovered. 

The existence of a South African type of placental mammal 
in Australia need not greatly surprise us, since the fresh water 
fish Gonorhynchus greyi is common to both com dries, ami the 
ratite birds and pleurodire tortoises are found in both. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Copied from Prof. Stirling's Memoir in the Transactions of 

the Linnean Society of South Australia. 

Plate IX. 

Notoryctes typhlops Stirling, natural size, side view. Fig. 2, 

muzzle from front, 

Plate X. 
Notoryctes typhlops, skull and dentition enlarged. Fig. 1, skull 
side view. Fig. 2, lower jaw from behind. Figs. 3-6, superior 
molar from within, without, from front, and from below. Figs. 
7-10, inferior molar, from within, without, above, and obliquely. 
Fig. 11, skull from below. 


By Ci.u; 

Florida's burial n 

through the fruitless 

the unsystematic ex pi 

the North. In view of this it would seem fitting To put upon 
record a comparatively thorough exploration of a somewhat 
remarkable burial mound previously unopened, and probably 
unknown to those making scientific investigations in connec- 
tion with the burial mounds and the shell heaps of the State. 1 

1 The late Jeffries Wyman, in referring to shell heaps not far distant, makes no 
mention of this mound in his memoir on " The Fresh Water Shell Mounds of the 
St. John's River, Florida," although carefully indicating all burial mounds coming 
under his notice. Le Baron, in a long list of the mounds from the mouth to the 
source of the St. John's (Smithsonian Report, 1882, page 771 et seq.), makes no ref- 
erence to Tick Island. [It is not included in Thomas' » Catalogue of Prehistoric 

130 The American Naturalist. [February, 

Tick Island, Volusia County, Florida, is reached from the 
St. John's River by turning east and crossing Lake Dexter to 
the mouth of Spring Garden Creek, and by following the 
course of this creek until a tumble-down wharf of palmetto 
logs is reached, from whence a path half a mile in length 
leads to the burial mound. 

Tick Island is separated from the mainland by a narrow 
waterway, its other boundaries being Lake Woodruff and 
Spring Garden Creek. The Island presents in parts a very 
wild appearance, covered as it is with gnarled live oak and 
towering palmetto, with trailing vine and tangled undergrowth, 
where the presence of the rattlesnake imparts a certain risk to 
exploration. With the exception of one small house upon the 
island, at intervals occupied by the hired man whose care it is 
to look after the orange grove, the nearest point where quarters 
can be secured is at Astor, eight miles distant on the river. It 
is, therefore, evident that the explorer with his assistants and 
the necessary workmen, at least four or five in number (for the 
throwing out of sand from a stifling trench during a hot Flor- 
ida day demands frequent change of laborers), must either 
camp upon the island or occupy a boat chartered for the pur- 

Shape, Size, and Composition of the Mound. 

The burial mound, seventeen feet in height (spirit level and 
tape line measurement) and in circumference four hundred and 
seventy-eight feet, is conical in shape, save to the East, where 
from the summit a gradual slope extends into a winding cause- 
way or breastwork three hundred and ninety-two feet in length 
(tape line measurement), averaging four feet in height with an 
average breadth of twenty-five feet at base and fifteen feet at 
summit. The description of the composition of the mound is 
based upon careful observation through parts of ten days of 
February, March and April, 1891, during which time eight 
shafts and trenches were dug, the largest being forty-six and a 
half feet long with an average breadth of thirteen feet, and 
nine feet deep at the end. having from the level of the ground 

Baron Mound of Flurn 

shells, 1 while the sides of the rid-e are rounded out with smdv 
loam in which shells are wanting, thus forming a symmetrical 
mound. Through the layer of shell hut slight excavation was 
attempted, owing to its gnat compactness, its slope being fol- 
lowed at about six inches below its surface. The main trench, 
running in the same direction as the ridge, followed its course, 
and at the point where the excavation ended, the layers were 
respectively five, six, and three feet in thickness. 

In the burial mounds at Lake Harney, at the Indian Fields 
on the Upper St. John's, on Dunn's Island, and at a point on 
the Eastern bank of the river about eight miles below Enter- 
prise, no stratification was observed, but these mounds having 

1 Portions of the subject matter of this article are contained in a report made to 
the Peabody Museum of Archseology, accompanying the bones, pottery and imple- 

1 It is an interesting fact that the shells of the fresh-water snail of the burial 

132 The An 

been opened frequently an 

Naturalist. [February, 

af little value to the archaeol- 

Human Remains. 

During the excavations at Tick Island over one hundred 
skeletons were exhumed, and that many hundred still remain 
is beyond the shadow of a doubt. 

The skeletons except one (now at Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology) were in a very friable condition, owing to the 

Fig. 2. 
End Section of Trench B. 
A, layer of sand and loam mixed with shells, B, skeletons on white sand; C, 
layer of white sand ; D, skeletons on the shell ; E, shell foundation of mound. 

moisture of the sand, requiring the utmost care in handling, 
ana even in the majority of cases rendering futile the most 
careful efforts to save them. The skeleton recovered entire 
was in the main trench five feet from the margin of the mound 
and three feet from the surface. It lay imbedded in the shelly 
base and through impregnation with lime from its .surround- 
ings it had escaped the decay oceuring to such a marked extent 
in all the others. Above it the various strata were undis- 
turbed, Showing it to ho. from nn in**.; 

■','/, / 

Burial Mound of Florida. 

skeletons of 
act, and this 

layer of bodies apparently continued through the mound. 
There seemed to be no fixed position for burial, the bodies 
lying'as. though thrown without arrangement, often with arms 
and legs flexed, and in one case the head pushed down to one 

side to such an extent that a portion of the clavicle had entered 
the mouth. 

Several facts in connection with this layer of bodies lying on 
the shells are very suggestive. All were adults save one, a lit- 
tle child, near whose head three small pots of clay were found. 
The bodies lay in close juxtaposition, the skulls of some 
crushed in as by a blow from a blunt instrument; the bones of 
all the bodies lay in anatomical order, while the white sand in 
the ridge above was precisely the same shade throughout. 
From all this it would seem almost conclusive that over the 
bodies of many men slain in battle a long ridge of pure white 
sand was erected, and this ridge was never disturbed by subse- 
quent burials, no skeletons being found in the white sand. 
However upon it many bodies were afterwards placed at inter- 
vals and covered with a mixture of sandy loam and shells 
intermingled, considerably increasing the height of the ridge, 
which was rounded out with sandy loam to form the mound. 
We are told that the lower Creeks and Seminoles hid the bod- 
ies of their dead save in the case of a victorious battle, when a 
mound was raised over them, a fact that would still farther 
strengthen the conclusion arrived at, were it possible to -attrib- 
ute to the Tick Island mound an origin as late as the occupancy 
of the Peninsula of Florida by those tribes of Indians. 

Upon the mound lies a fallen live-oak that was old when the 
Creeks left their home to the North, and separate burials were 
continued long after the fight was over. Moreover, though 
negative testimony, any investigator of the burial mounds of 
Florida knows how frequently in post-Columbian times arti- 
cles valued by the deceased were buried with them, and that, 
on the river at least, mounds erected or used for intrusive bur- 
ials after the coming of the whites teem with beads of glass, 
and that pieces of copper, tomahawks of iron, beads and trink- 
ets of silver and even ornaments of gold are 1 occasionally 

: Georgia, an opinion w 
any valuable references, has ably combated in the 
f melal found in Florida, 

Report 1882, page 1 

136 The American Naturalist. [February, 

for burial purposes when the first white men settled in the 

In many places near the surface of the mound separate bones, 
or portions of skeletons not in anatomical order, were brought 
to light, suggestive of a custom of (be earlier Indians, who are 
known to have exposed bodies to the elements or to have buried 
them until, through decomposition they were more readily 
enabled to separate the flesh from the bones, which were 
gathered together and buried at stated periods. It is possible, 
however, that separate bones (and these bones were always near 
the surface) were due to the disarrangement of previous inter- 
nients caused by intrusive burials. 

The teeth in all the jaws exhumed were remarkably perfect. 
In no case was any decay apparent and almost never was there 
a missing tooth, though many were unusually worn as from 
chewing upon hard substances, possibly fragments of shell 

solute evidence as to the 
among the Indians wb 
origin of which disease 
would produce like resu 


: Study of Pre-Columbian Sy 

138 The American Naturalist. [February, 

described by Professor Morse 1 as existing in fragments of pot- 
tery, found in the shell heaps of Japan, served the same pur- 
pose as there, to furnish means of strengthening cracked earth- 
enware or of joining that already broken. Be this as it may, 
perforated objects of stone and shell are found which must be 
considered as charms and amulets, and it is possible that the 
fragments of bone were put to a similar use. 

But the cranial perforations at least admit of a very differ- 
ent explanation, if we suppose the skulls to have been buried 
entire with subsequent separation through pressure of sand or 
through decay. While perforated crania in Florida are hith- 
erto unreported, barring hearsay testimony, their discovery is 
no novelty in Michigan, where numbers have been found in 
the great mound at Rouge River and others near Detroit. It 
is presumable that these holes were made more readily to sus- 
pend the cranium of an enemy, similar perforations, it is 
stated, being formerly customary among the head-hunting 
Dyaks of Borneo. For fuller details as to perforated crania 
the reader is referred to American Antiijaariaa, vol. xii, p. 
165, and vol. ix, p. 392 ; also to Henry ( lillman's most inter- 
esting paper in the Smithsonian Report for 1875, p. 2:>5, et seq. 

From the Tick Island mound hundreds of pieces of pott 
were taken, the great majority rude and unornamented, 
rest decorated with lines, with crossed lines and with kiK 
the latter a form unfamiliar to the writer. In no case in l 

A Burial Mound of Florh 

whood of the shell fields would oal 

skulL TheEtnis 
eparted. May we 

side of the mound were brought to light : a sj.ear head of 
flint, five inches in length; one rude arrow head : one flake of 
Hint; a large quantity of small shell beads; three barrel 
shaped beads made from the columella of the Busycon, or 

If any effigy mounds are to be found in Flori 
of exceeding rarity. During fifteen winters spent 
none have come under the notice of the writer, 
matie Mounds and Animal " Effigies, 2 " is cited* 
by S. T. Walker of an effigy mound in the 

■Fresh-water shell Mounds of the St. John's River, p. 56. 

Florida that th 
As has been 

es and undergrowth cleared froi 
blance to a serpent would be strong 

of sepulture 

would pr 

>ve a gre* 

t convenience and for this 

purpose the 



served, though its winding 

shape may 


also as emblematic. The 

raised path 

vay termii 

atea at a 

large beau-shaped shell or 

refuse heap, 
the Indians 

doubtless 1 

land the 
ved, and i 

adjacent acres of shell-fields 

as a means 

>f commui 

ieation al< 

te, it seems fair to suppose 

that the na 

fives with 

their lim 

ted methods of conveyance 

would have 

made it in 

as straigh 

t a line as possible. More- 

over, a secoi 

id eausewa 

T , skirting 

the base of the mound runs 

in a direct 

ine from t 

tie great s 

icll heap, towards the solid 

hammock la 

n<] beyond 

It is impossible with 

our presei 

t light to state what race or 

races 2 piled 

up the bur 

and by the slow deposit of 

debris formed the vast 

-hell heap- 

of the river and of the coast, 

since many 

mounds gi 

ve no evid 

ence of intercourse with the 

white men, 

while such 

as do. 11 ia\ 

furnish their beads of glass 

and orname 

ntsand im 

f metal through the intru- 

*This slope is 

found in many 

burial mounds 

but not such a causeway. 

2 Prof. Wyman 


Shell Mounds 

of the St. John's River, Florida] has 

e of a live oak 

fteen feet fou 

inches in circumference growing upon 

a shell heap inv 

stigated by him, to be not les 

than three hundred years. On a shell 

heap in the immediate vicinity 

af the burial n 

ound at Tick Island, grows a live oak 

twenty three fee 

Moreover, as Professor Wyman points 

out, the age of 

rees upon she 

11 heaps can 

ive elapsed before the sprou 

borne in mind, 

■e proof never 

as yet has been furnished as to the 

We ar 

along the 


we have historical record, tu the Heminoles. 

How the Sominolesof a century ago regarded I 
snake isamusinglv told hv the naive though learne 
Bartram, who just before our war of Independenc 

In the great serpent i.m.uh.I of < the hea.l and 
are of nearly the same height, while a difference o 
feet in favor of the head exists in the Tick Islan 
Moreover the head or mound proper has been e 
used for burial purposes. In view of these factl 
probable absence of effigy mounds elsewhere in the 
weight of evidence woul<l seem to bear against tin 
of a serpent mound on Tick Island. Nevertheless 
enough points in its favor to justify the writer in 
the suggestion. 

The Height op the Florida Mousn Buru 

Although not bearing directly on the Tick Islan 

iFloridian Peninsula, p. 131. 
•Travels, Chap. IX. 

142 The American Naturalist. 


heaps investigated by the writer on the east coast, the west 
coast and the River, a few words as to the stature of the 
mound builders may not be considered amiss. 

In forming estimates from the whole or a part of a skeleton, 
as to the height of the body during life there is but one basis 
upon which to go: actual measurement; and unless these 
data are furnished by men of the utmost reliability, measure- 
ments made in person are alone of value. 

As the German physicians where no post mortem has been 
made dismiss useless theorizing as to the cause of death with 
the simple words " no autopsy " so it is well to put aside all 
reports of the finding of skeletons which, "judging from their 
bones must have been of giants." 

In all scientific researches of this nature the explorer comes 
in contact with three classes of inhabitants, the conscientious 
resident whose memory is possibly defective ; the kind-hearted 
inhabitant, who, having learned what information is wanted, 
rather than disappoint, will corroborate anything; and the 
facetious native, who, seeing a city man spending time and 
money upon what lie regards as matters of small import, takes 
delight infilling to repletion, with marvelous details evolved 
from his own imagination, the person whom he considers to be 
a mild form of lunatic. 

For a scientist with a theory to establish the native Floridian 
is an acquisitition beyond price. 

On an average the length of the femur is about two hundred 
and seventy five thousandths 1 of the entire height; thus the 
thigh bone of a six foot man would be 19*8 inches in length. 
To those unfamiliar with this relative size of the thigh bone, a 
femur when found in nearly every case gives the idea of hav- 
ing done duty in a body of abnormal size. 

The writer well recalls in March 1879, while engaged in an 
imperfect investigation of the burial mound at Bluffton on the 
St. John's, having found a skeleton and in association with it 
a pipe of stone, an arrow head and a portion of a drinking cup 
wrought from a human skull and ornamented— an object by 
the way, of groat archaeological interest. The femur of this 

Professor George A. Piersol. 

Burial Mound of Florida. 

Large that it required tl: 

llr tl.,> 

contained no taller men than can readily be 
present time. 

1 The writer in M.iy. Is91, while investigating a burial moun< 

the skeleton had not been personally inspected. 

The writer next sought his informant's informant. According t> 

Next the original finder of the bones was visited. He consider 

alone had been kept. It proved to be somewhat below the averag 


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On the Saurognathism of the Picidae. Ext. Proceeds. Zool. Soc, London, 

Feb., 1891. 

Tertiary Fossils of North American Birds. Ext. Auk., Vol. VIII, Oct., 1891. 

From the author. 

Smith, J. B.— Contributions towards a Monograph of the Noctuidse of Temperate 
North America. Revision of the Species of Mamestra. Ext. Proceeds. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 197-270, with Plates VIII-IX. From the Museum. 

Spencer, J. W.— Post-Plistocene Subsidence versus Glacial Dams. Ext. Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Am, Vol. II, pp. 465-476. From the Society. 

Stearns, R. E. C.-List of North American Land and Fresh Water Shells 
received from the U. S. Dept. Agri. with Notes and Comments Thereon. Ext. Pro- 
ceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 95-106. From the Smith. Inst. 

MfcfNF.',iR,L.— Description of a New Species of Chamaelon from Kilimanjaro, 
Africa. Ext. Proceeds. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, No. 857. From the Museum. 

The Centennial Anniversary of the City of Gallipolis, Ohio. Published by 
the Ohio State Archeological and Historical Society, 1890. 

iransactions of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Annual Me< 
as Academy of Science (1885-86), Vol. X. 
Traubel, H. L.— Camden's Compliments to Walt. Whitman. 
Veeder, M. A._The Zodiacal Light. Ext. Proceeds. Roche 

From the American Book Company, Publis 

Recent Literature. 

RECKNT litkkattkk. 

tions from the start with tin- ><>le purpose of tlt-ti-rmi ninir the validity 

revisions of nomenclature that has yet appeared. 

Kuntze made a tour around the world from L874-1876. He began 
to study and classify his collections made on that tour in 1884 at the 
Herbarium at Berlin. He worked there until 1887, when he went to 
Kew, where he continued his work until the end of 1890. The result is 
his " Revisio." It will be seen, therefore, that he did not begin the 
work of revision in cold blood of malice aforethought, but was drawn 
into it in the course of other investigations. In ehe-sifying his collec- 
tions he attempted to do something more than identify them. He 
studied them, and as a result wrote several monographs, of which he 
published some separately and incorporated others in the present 
work. In the present condition of nomenclature, he found that next 
after the proper limitation of a genus or species, the determination of 
the name to be applied was of the highest importance, and that the 
latter had become a much more difficult task in some instances than 
the former, as those who had worked at the one with the greatest care 
had used little or no care in the other. He decided to examine the 
names he applied with the greatest care and to reach as far as possible 
a permanent result. The great extent of homonymy and synonymy 

order to be sure that he was giving one whose title could not be 

Revisio Generum Plantarum Vascularium omnium et Cellularium multarum 

148 The American Naturalist. [February, 

doubted. To do this thoroughly, implied a revision of all the genera 
and he proceeded at once to examine the original sources and make a 
revision de novo instead of contenting himself with leaning upon the 
work of other.<. What ever may be thought of the result, in this case 
the motive can hardly be impeached. And it must be said, however 
radical his views on nomenclature seem, that in all other respects he is 
in the main very conservative. He repeatedly expresses his approval 
of Bentham and Hooker's limitations of genera and condemns severely 
triplication of genera or species. 

He bases his revision upon the rules of the Congress at Paris in 
1867, giving them a strict construction in order to prevent any doubt. 
He shows that these rules have not been followed in practice, but that 
there is no alternative between them and chaos in nomenclature. 
Some confusion has arisen also from defects in these rules — or as he 
expresses it, he found " leaks " in them. These leaks he has attempted 
to repair by framing additions and amendments to the rules. He 
made a thorough and complete revision of all the genera of Phanero- 
gams and Pteridophytes and of many genera of Bryophytes, Fungi and 
Algae which came to his notice in revising the nomenclature of the 
Phanerogams — as he was forced to examine everywhere to be sure 
that the names he adopted were not in prior use elsewhere. There is 
no complete unity in the work, for, besides the revision of nomencla- 
ture, in a few cases he has made a revision of the contents of a genus, 
or a monograph of the genus or some part of it, perhaps extending 
even to forms of a species. There is also a list of plants collected on 
his tour, dovetailed into the revision. The book seems to be a compila- 
tion of the work he did upon his collection or which he was drawn 
into in the progress of that work. It would take a critic almost as 
long to verify the work as it did the author to do it, and I wish it 
understood that the statements hereinafter made are on the authority 
of the work itself unless otherwise indicated. 

The book opens with a long and somewhat rambling preface in 
which the. author describes the circumstances which led him into the 
work. He then takes up the vital question of the necessity of 
such a revision and gives three principal causes of the alterations he 
has made. The first arises from matters of form as prescribed by the 
international rules. Some of these he has formulated more strictly and 
" completed in order to abate the multitude of variations and to bring 
controverted cases to an easy decision." " Many persons," he add-, 
" will recognize for the first time out of the mass of alterations the 
difficulties which inconsistencies in this respect may produce and the 

graphs and seldom correct them— in this cimrfu* riiin«us a careful 
study of the older sources is let slip by all." 

In the introduction to his revision he ~u j>j >I< nient.- this statement by 
a detailed account of the causes of the present state of nomenclature ; 
and the large number of examples which he give- certainly show a 
much more chaotic condition than one would suppose, even in spite of 
the discussions going on in ih- i :i_.i, i < - and ; . i fai lil ai nana- ; 
be met with in every new catalogue. " Above all," he says, " my 
revision shows that the present condition of botanical nomenclature is 
still very unhealthy. The great Linne indeed reformed Botany, but 
unfortunately he introduced a taint at the same time which has trans- 
mitted itself with botanists namely unfairness towards co- 

become bankrupt. The botanical * on^n-s in Pari- in 1 *<>7 tfrst made 
way for the cure. I hope through this w..rk to accelerate it." 

He also discusses in the preface the "Benthamain-rule" that a 
s only an incident to the genus name and the inter- 

, and in the main justly, and drives - -me- interesting example.- of 
7 he multiplies species-names on changing a species from one 
) another. He shows that this was a general practice of the 
rs of Linnaeus and of botan b jr, and observes 

s not to be expected that I mdon this old 

150 The American Naturalist. [February, 

method merely because it produces inconvenience and confusion and 
adopt the international principle, any more than that thev will even 
adopt the metric system or the centigrade thermometer or decimal 
system of money. In this section of modern English nomenclature he 
enlarges upon this in discussing " the renewed Kew rule" which is 
nothing but Bentham's rule again. He then discusses author-citation. 
After devoting sometime to criticising the Boisierian or "pietistic" 
method, he gives his own view which is somewhat novel. The follow- 
ing extract also shows a characteristic of the book which strikes one 
very oddly at first. That is its polyglot composition (of also the title). 
English, French and Latin come unexpectedly upon the reader in the 
midst of the German on every page. The words in italics are in 
English in the original. 

"Convolvulus reptans L. 1753 = Ipomcea aquatica Forsk 1775 
(misfortune or mostly piracy) == Ipomoea reptans L (pietism) = 
Ipomcea reptans (L) Pois (seduction) = Ipomoea reptans Pois (L) 
(correctness) = Ipomoea reptans Pois (International):' He thinks 
that " Ipomoea reptans Pois (Convolvulus reptans L.) " is the proper 
citation, and as an abbreviation of that he gets I. reptans Pois. (L.) 
" Earlier," he continues, " it seemed to me indifferent in which position 
the two authors were to be cited. But the citation of both authors in 
the sequence which I have denominated 'seduction ' seduces through 
the practice of abbreviation by omitting the ' Pois,' unconsciously to 

the false method of pietism and is therefore to be rejected." 

Admitting that "the citation of two authors alone leads to order" 
does it follow that the evil he deprecates will be obviated by the 
method proposed ? Will a lazy or a hasty man be more certain to 
abbreviate by omitting the last author than by leaving out the first? 
Will he not be pretty sure to leave out the name in parenthesis 
wherever it stands? Or at least will he not be governed by a bias 
toward pietism or the reverse quite as much as by the order in which 
the names are written ? It seems to me that his objection is fanciful 
and that his citation might well be termed " distraction " as increasing 
the already too numerous methods of citation. 

After the preface there is a long introduction. He first treats of 
the materials for revision. Section 1 is devoted to a severe criticism 
of Durand's Index to Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plaiitarum— 
" BHgp" he abbreviates it. Among other things he charges that a 
large part of the index, including some errors, is borrowed without 
credit from Pfeiffer's Nomenclator Botanies. 

3.(x6) 4<x6) 5.( 


1892.] Recent Literature. lol 

Section 2 is entitled " Certain common causes of the many mistakes 
in Durand's Index and on the future prevention of such mistakes." 
The first cause is inconsistent treatment of authors. Some are entirely 
neglected unless they were the emendators of a genus, while other 
" beliebte Autoren," though pre-Linnsean, are cited even to emended 
genera. Another cause, he points out, is inconsistency and confusion 
in the use of the abbreviations " MS.," "hied." etc. He distinguishes 
"such names found or given in MS. as are adopted and published by 
another author" from "names found in MS. which another author 
rejects, but which are published as synonyms." These he says are 
badly confused in practice, and he distinguishes the latter as "uomina 
inapplicata (n. inapl) " and the former as " nomina adoptata (n. adopt.)" 
He also points out the confusion resulting from irregular use of non 
for p. p. emend., etc. and shows the cases to which it should be restricted. 
It will be seen that he is very strict as to the smallest details. It often 
seems as if the distinctions he draws were too small to notice until his 
formidable lists of the results of looseness are examined. He cites 
copiously and apparently exhaustively on every point and argues with 

In section 3 he considers Pfeiffer's " Nomenclator Botanicus" at 
some length, criticising some parts of it a little. Incidentally he says 
that neither Pfeiffer nor Durand took enough time for their work, and 
that as a result the former is " leaky," and the latter sor gloss fehlervo 11." 

Sections 4-12 deal with the "principal causes of the present condi- 
tion of nomenclature." Section 4 is entitled "Linne's competition with 
his contemporaries." Linn6, it seems, in reforming nomenclature^ 
besides changing many bad names, " wilfully altered many good earlier 
genus names" and after 1737 was very free in altering the names 
given by those of his contemporaries who ventured to criticise him or 
who did not adopt his nomenclature. Says Kuntze : " Linne was 
great as an investigator, a discriminating observer, an ingenious 
thinker with immense talent for ' Systematics,' a tireless worker, an 
attached pupil, a genial man and on the whole an honorable character ; 
but excessively greedy of honor. Easily accessible to flattery, very 
prone to neglect of acknowledgment, tolerating no opposition, feeling 
himself an autocrat; he often needlessly changed names (even 
those which he himself had previously adopted) and chastised his 
opponents and « nichtbeivunderer ' by neglect of the names adopted or 
given by them. He actually held it allowable to criticise the newly 
created genera of his contemporaries, if he adopted them or to apply 

152 The American Naturalist. [February, 

the names to entirely different plants. In this way he monopolized 
his nomenclature." 

How far we may not be forced to tolerate this in Linne because of 
the necessity of a fixed foundation for nomenclature is a question 
which perhaps merits more careful consideration than Kuntze has 
given it. But there is no such reason in the case of Linne imitators, 
and as the root of all evil in nomenclature, they should not be allowed 
to escape with impunity. Linne is not the only man who considered 
himself the autocrat of botanical nomenclature. Subsequently, would-be 
despots and oligarchies have asserted this authority with great vigor. 
There are those now who assume a divine right to say what shall be 
and what shall not be, and, while crying out at all changes by others, 
themselves often make changes at will ; retaining only those names 
which they or their ancestors have approved and made current. 

In this connection Kuntze gives a list of the authors whom Linne 
slighted and whose names he * rebaptized ' and a number of examples 
of Linne's method. Two must be given, and they are not the worst: 
" upon Cardamine lunaria L — Lunaria aegyptica Juss. Adanson 
based a new genus, Scopolia. ' Immediately on this discovery,' writes 
Medicus, ' Linne separated it again from Cardamine, recognizing it as 
a separate genus, but changed the name Bcopolia to Kicolia.'" 
Another case is Heisteria L. 1737, dedicated to Heister, a contempor- 
ary. Heister afterwards ventured to remonstrate against Linne's. 
"shameful alterations in nomenclature," whereupon Linn.' chastized 
him by changing Heisteria to Muraltia (1767) ! 

Section -1, entitled ''Inconsistencies of Linn.' and his contemporaries, 
and their alterations of their own names," continues the same subject, 
giving a large number of interesting examples. 

Section 6 is headed "Brutal lawlessness of nomenclature after 
Linne until the beginning of the XIX century ; Robert Brown, etc." 
The period treated of in this section might well be termed the feudal 

period of Botany. " After Linne's death " says Kuntze " anarchy 

broke out, as in other cases in history after the death of a reformer 
and dictator." There were on the one hand the heirs of Linne-'-'- 
the editors of the successive editions of his works, and on the other, 
a number of imitators of him, great Barons, as it were, none great 
enough to fill his place, and all more or less at war. Name-alteration 

indebted for most of the present disorder in nomenclature. At this 
time was it that the habit of rharenn ■ l he H>ecie> nam.- of a plant put 

i-mUm i--kiii-ii!ho<.<l, tin' followers of whic 

tigators, but respected no author's right. 

His remarks on Robert Brown in t 

arose (Smith, Richard, Lindlev, 

Wallich, Bentham) 

marked injustice to certain other 

botanists [Sal 

yes one can say that he has four 

nled a sehool in tun 

d in ' BHgp.' " 

Section 7 treats of" different » 

inceptions of valid g 

He distinguishes and limits nam 

Inn nuda (names pi 

description.) " So long," he says 

•, "as the plant is BUl 

there is need neither of a plate no 

r of a description. ( 

nition is impossible, is the name 

s to be marked 'no 

nomen nudum, etc." Bentham ai 

id Hooker do great i 

bury by dismissing with the words ' lunaen baitum ' etc. the names of 
valid genera founded by him ai •; - ription, but 

with reference to well known types upon which they were founded in 
a way that left no room for doubt. On the contrary they carefully 
protect the names in Wallich's Catalogue, the application of which, he 
charges, is sometimes very hard to recognize. "One does not name 
the description, but the plant, and defective diagnoses are often more 
perplexing than none at all." 

We cannot blame Kuntze for remarking upon the injustice done to 
Salisbury. But in this case (and it is the only one as far as I have 
found) he departs from his customary strict interpretation of the 
rules. Common sense is doubtless on his side. But common sense 
-iderably according to the person applying it ; and Kuntze 
has warned us too many times against the dighte-t relaxation of rules. 

Sections. "Name-alterations by raising sections into genera and 
through linguistic changes," is the basis of some alterations in the 
international rules proposed by him. The subject will be considered 

A very interesting section is section 9, entitled " Homonymy, a 
powerful cause ot name-alt rati n and abiding source of danger to 
botanical nomenclature." Most of the cases of homonymy arise from 

The American Naturalist. 


the repeated use of the same personal name, in the hope, apparently, 
that it will stick in some one place, and some obscure man can be 
honored in the end. There are a goodly number however which have 
not even this semblance of an excuse. Kuntze gives a list of one 
hundred and fifty personal genus-names which have been repeatedly 
and differently applied in this way— two of them to seven different 
groups, two to six groups and fourteen to five ! As he says, this is a 
fearful list. 

In order to furnish those who are desirous of honoring some person 
at all hazards a means of so doing without imperiling nomenclature 
he explains a number of devices by means of which a personal name 
can be made in so many ways that hereafter there should be no diffi- 
culty in providing even for such numerous families as the Smiths and 
Joneses. He gives a long list of precedents of endings, prefixes and 
combinations: some very good, some very bad, and a few so atrocious 
that even he is compelled to exclaim at them. He also gives examples 
of anagrams and translations— some of them very good— and of 
" zusammengezogene" personal names, of which Pahlomagunsia 0. K. 
is a fair sample. But this is not all. He thinks the termination 
"ago" when joined to a personal name very euphonious and gives 
some examples: Pritzelago O.K. To him "ago" suggests "agere" 
and seems suitable to a compiler. So he would sa V : Steudelago, 
Pfeifferago etc. An anatomist would get a «toma" attached to his 
name. (Does this refer to the fact that the person honored would be 
likely to cut him after making such a name?) Linne sometimes 
attached inda to the generic name of an Indian plant. So inda, afra 
amra and asia he considers proper terminations for genera dedicated 
to travelers or botanists in India, Africa, America and Asia. He 
makes for us on this theory Watsonamara O K., Schweinfurthafra K. 
and many others. Fries made a genus " Aaretis" for M. A. Aretis. 
lhis is all well enough for once, but Kuntze takes him up with "Pa- 
saccardoa " O K. (for P. A. Saccardo) and outdoes him with a suggested 
' birhookera." I do not believe such a collection of monstrosities 
was ever brought together before, the names fairly pack two pages of this 
section. It would be better that every man he so "honors" be for- 
gotten, than that his name be made ridiculous forever by being joined 
to "carpum " or "fungus" after the maimer of " JVrkifunW K.; 
Henningsocarpum " O K.; " Philipimalva " o K etc ' The no^ibili- 
ties of the field he has opened up f„ r „s are indeed \rreaf,*: 
Smithia; Smithago ; John.smithotoma : hrsmithia f.j~ < i. Smith;) 
Smithialga; Smithodendrum. I dwell <.n il i. Um ■ --, ii -eenis to me 

guages almost reaches 
them. It may be well 
sake of those who are 
hut like tracheotomy, 

Systematische and Topographische Anatomie des 
Hundes, Bearbeitet von Ellenberger und Baum.— lh-rlin, 

carefully worked out. For the physiologist it will rank with the works 
of Krause on the rabbit and|Ecker on the frog. That it has been 
greatly needed will be acknowledged by all who have had to deal 
with the dog from the morphological, physiological, or medical stand- 
points. That it represents a vast amount of faithful labor on the part 
of the authors, who are instructors in the veterinary college at Dres- 
den, not only in the examination of literature, but more especially in 
the practical study, with scalpel and forceps, is evident from a survey.)!' 
the book itself. It is purely systematic and topographical, as the title 
indicate-, all histological, ontogeny : arative anat- 

omical and physiological considerations (except as to the actions of the 
muscles), being omitted. The rigid restriction of the subject matter 
in this respect is a detraction and must result in nan-owing the circle 
of users of the book. A broader treatment from the comparative 
standpoint would have added greatly to the interest and value. In 
this line the short discussions of the race differences in the various 
bones of the skeleton are an interesting feature. The physiologist can 
not fail to notice the lack of good descriptions and figures elucidating 
the physiological anatomy of the body. He has his Cyon, it is true, 
but Cyon is not all sufficient. The two hundred and eight figures in 
the text are with ;' v -xc. \ n- rigina . and mostly of unusual excel- 
lence. Thirty-seven plates represent sections through the body in dif- 
ferent planes and regions, and are given to show the topography of 
the parts, chiefly for operative purposes. 

156 The American . 


As a purely anatomical work it is excellent. It will be much more 
useful to veterinarians than to any other class of readers and it was 
largely written for them. However, no one in any way interested in 
the anatomy of the dog can afford to be without it ; and it is gratify- 
ing to have the labor performed for the first time so faithfully and so 
well. An English translation should be made. — Moritz Fisrini;. 

Olenn-a! Notes. 


The Crystalline Cambrian Deposits in Massachusetts. 
The Essex Bull, vol. xxiii, 1891, publishes another paper by Mr. J. H. 
Sears, on the Olenellus Cambrian rocks of Essex County, Mass. The 
numerous out-crops of these rocks, their position and condition lead 
the author to the following theory : 

That during the Cambrian period a vast sheet of these sediments 
was deposited over the entire region to the depth of some hundreds of 
feet. They have been distorted and crumpled into anticlinal and syn- 
clinal folds by the intrusion of eruptive rocks. The distortion left 
their entire surface a series of cracks and faults, which made them a 
prey to the forces of erosion and decay. The ice sheet during the 
glacial period scoured these sedimentary beds and ground the rocks to 
boulders and fine till, which is now scattered over Cape Ann and 
in the neighboring waters of the Atlantic Ocean. This would account 
for the absence of glacial grooves on the surface of granite areas, for 
the ice sheet probably never touched the greater portion of the granite 
area. Aerial decay has since destroyed all that was left of the sedi. 
mentary beds after the ice period, except such remnants as are found 
to-day. The absence of fossils in many of the beds is due to contact 

The Fauna of the Armorician Sandstones.— M. Charles 
Barrois has recently published {Ann. Soc. Geol. du Nord. Avril, 1891) a 
memoir in which the fauna, and discuses the systematic 
position of the Armorician sandstones of Bretagne. The fauna con- 
sists of 151 sponges, 155 Brachiopods, 157 Lamellibranchs, 212 (Jas- 
tropods, 218 Pteropods, and 219 Crustaceans. In giving the biologi- 
cal characters of the fauna, the writer calls attention to the verv slight 

rudely parallel to the Blue Kidge trench. 

" Second, That the deposits would he much greater near the main- 
land at the East than at two hundred miles away ; so that six hun- 

represent the four thousand feet of Chemung in Eastern I'ennsylva- 

" Third, That the water beyond the reach of the great land wash 
held a Chemung fauna throughout the whole line of the Catskill 
deposit." (Proceeds. A. A. A. 8., vol. xl, 1891.) 

"Water-Bearing Horizons of Southern New Jersey. — 
Mr. Lewis Woolman reports the discovery of a third water-bearing 

zons continue under the beaches South of Barnegat Inlet and beneath 
the Southern interior to a distance of 25 or 30 miles or more from 
the coast. The two upper ones have an intimate connection with a 
diatomaceous day-bed, havintr a thickness of 300 feet. In view of the 
thickness and extent of the diatomaceous clay-hed in New Jersey, Mr. 
Woolman thinks its prolongation into the Southern Atlantic States 
should be expected, and that there is a strong probability that the 
outcrops on Chesapeake Bay near Annapolis at N .mini Cliffs, and at 
Richmond, Va., are either identical with the New Jersey stratum or 
closelv related to it and belonging to the same series (Annual Kept 
N. J.Geol. Surv.,1890). 

158 The American Naturalist. [February, 

Prizes of the London Geological Society for 1891.— The 
medals and funds to be given at the anniver.-ary meeting of the Geo- 
logical Society on February 11), have been awarded as follows:— The 
Wollaston medal to Baron Ferdinand von Richthoi'en ; the Murchi- 
son medal to Professor A. H. Green, F. R. S.; and the Lyell medal to 
Mr. George H. Moreton. The balance of the proceeds of the Wollas- 
ton Fund to Mr. O. A. Derby; that of the Murchison Fund to Mr. 
Beeby Thompson; that of the Lyell Fund to Mr. E. A. Walford and 
Mr. J. W. Gregory, and a portion of the Parlow-Jameson Fund to 
Prof. C. Mayer-Eymar. 1 Geo]. Mag. Feb.. 1 >'.»!'. 

Interval Between the Glacial Epochs.— In the Bull. Geol. 
Soc. Am., April, 1890, Mr. T. ('. Chamberlin presents additional evi- 
dences bearing upon the interval between the (.laeial Kpochs; viz. 

the valley 

1392.] Geology and Paleontology. 100 

interest to the general reader. The sources of the metal, the forms 
and conditions of deposition and precipitation, and the geologic distri- 
bution, are given in a clear, concise ami orderly way that shows a 
mastery of the subject. 

The richest deposits in the I'nited States are confined almost 

found in the Lower Carboniferous. 

conditions surrounding the deposition. 

A geological map of the Batesville, Arkansas, region is folded in 
the pocket of the volume, and the text is still further illustrated by a 

Geological Survey of Texas, 1890. — The Second Annual 

with information, valuable not only to the citizens of the state, but 
also to the geologists at large. The report of the State and Field 
Geologists are followed by an admirable series of papers which take 
up in detail a study of each formation with it- various economic min- 
erals and possibilities. Messrs. Dumhle. P.irkiubine, Lerche, Kennedy, 
Herndon and Walker report on the Iron Ore District of East Texas; 
Mr. Cummings gives the geology of the north-western part of the 
State : Mr. Comstock the geology and mineral resources of the central 
mineral region; and. finally, Mr. Stiver. .witz describes the geology 
and mineral resources of Trans-Pecos, Texas. 

A separate chapter is given to a description, by Alpheiis Hyatt, of 
the Carboniferous Cephalopods. These forms being extremely limited 
in their chronological distribution are helpful in distinguishing the 
age of the rocks in which they are found, and it was therefore decided 
to have them all published in one treatise. 

The report is abundantly illustrated with plates, sections and maps, 
which add materially to its value and interest. 

Geological News-General.— It is the opinion of Mr. Waldemar 
Lindgren that there exists in southern Lower California two orogra- 
phic lines of great importance. (1) A comparatively recent, probably 
Post-cretacic line of dislocation extending from the vicinity of La Paz 
northward for many hundred miles along the eastern coast. (2) A 

« Second Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Texas, 1890. E. T. Dumble> 
State Geologist. 

160 The American Naturalist. [February, 

line along which an uplift of much greater age than the first one lias 
taken place, runs near the western shore of the peninsula. This line 
i- indicated by several short ranges mostly composed of crystalline 
schists and granite. It is probable that the mesa sandstones have been 
derived from this older area by erosion. (Proceeds. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
vol. III. Pt. 1.)— Dr. Lydekker has recently published a summary of 
the present state of knowledge of the Fossil Birds found in Great 
Britain. He has embodied in this summary brief descriptions of typi- 
cal specimens, pointing out some of the more striking features by 
which particular bones of certain groups may be recognized. The 
total number of species recorded in various collections is slightly over 
60. This includes, however, birds of the superficial deposits, many el 
which belong to existing species; the list of extinct forms admitted «| 
valid, falls short of 20. 

Paleozoic. — Contributions to the Micro-Pakeontology, Part III, 
has recently been published by the Geological Survey of Canada. It 
consists of a report on Ostracoda from the Cambro-Silurian, Silurian. 
and Devonian rocks at various localities in the Dominion by Prof. 
Rupert T. Jones, with a critical note on the species described by him 
in 1858. It contains forty-one pages of letter press, illustrated by fcwp 

full page lithographic plates and five wood cuts. W. B. Dwight 

has recently found a fossilifcrous stratum of the I'nradoxides zone at 
Stissing, New York. The species collected consists of Leperditia el?- 
nina, Kutorgina stissingemis, Olenoides stissing ensis, all undescribed, 

and a Hyolithes, probably " Billingsii." Four new Silurian fossils 

have been described by Mr. Whiteaves; Srophomena acanthoptera, 
Pentamerus decussahis, Gomphoceras parvidum, and Aridatpi* perar- 
mata. The fossils are the characteristic ones of an area of Silurian 
rocks discovered by Mr. J. B. Tyrrell on the Northeast side of Lake 
Winnipegosis, on Cedar Lake, and on the Saskatchewan River betafj 
Cedar Lake. (Can. Rec. Sci., April, 1891.) 

Cenozoic— The frontlet and horn-cores of an antelope discovered 
by Dr. Leeson in the Plistocene deposits near Twickenham have been 
identified by A. Smith Woodward as those of Saiga tatarica. The 
remains of Saiga have been found in Fiance and Belgium, but until 
now there has been no evidence of the occurrence of this animal in 





Nodule be 
The Red ( 









Norwich C 


r - 

Mesozoic. — Mr. A. Smith Womlwani has recognized three reptil- 
ian bones in a collection of vertebrate foMtlfl from the Cretaceous for- 
mation of Bahia, Brazil. Two of the bone? represent the articular end 
of a large Pterosanrian quadrate, while the third is a Plesiosaurian. 
The pterodactyle is the first of the kind in the Southern hemisphere, 
and the discovery of the Plesiosauri adds another important locality to 
the known distribution of that order. (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Oct., 

1891.) According to R. S. Tarr, the Permian of Texas in its most 

typical development was a completely enclosed sea. This is proved by 

gypsum and salt be accounted for. It would also explain the redness 
of the clays and sandstone beds. The peculiar sickly gray color of 
the limestone is that of an inland sea deposit, ami the abundance of 
vertebrate fossils of both land and inland sea types is thus accounted 
for. The small break between the Carboniferous and the Permian 
shows that in point of time the -formations were immediately associated, 
the marked difference in the nature of the beds, and the character of 
the fauna being due rather to changed conditions than to actual lapse 
of time. (Am. Journ. Science, Jan., 1892.) 

162 The American Naturalist. [February, 


Petrographical News.— Several contributions to the subject of 
the origin of spherulites have recently been made by Messrs. Cross and 
Iddings, and one on the minerals occurring in hollow spherulites by 
the latter gentleman and Penfield. Iddings" distinguishes two kinds 
of spherulites ; one composed of radial fibres forming the compact 
spherulite ; and the second consisting of jointed and branching fibres 
of feldspar, separated by tridymite scales and gas cavities. Grada- 
tions between small, dense spherulites composed of micro-felsite, and 
large ones, the nature of whose structure can be determined, were traced 
in many instances, and from them the conclusion is reached that micro- 
felsite is in many cases but a microscopic intergrowth of feldspars, 
elongated parallel to the clino-axis, and quartz, and that the spherulites 
are but special phases of granophyric growths. The discovery of tour- 
maline and mica, especially near the margins of spherulites, is an addi- 
tional proof of the correctness of Iddings' view that spherulites are 
the result of crystallization of pasty rhyolitic magma under the influ- 
ence of moisture. These two minerals are younger than the smaller 
compact radial spherulites of the rock, and older than the final crys- 
tallization of the residual magma between the spherulites. In the por- 
ous spherulites with branching fibres, or the lityophysae, some of the 
fibres are negative and others positive in the nature of their double 
refraction ; that is, some are orthoclase crystals elongated parallel to c, 
with the plane of the optical axes normal to the plane of symmetry, 
and others are elongated parallel to a, with the plane of the optical 
axes in the plane of symmetry. The essential characteristic of spheru- 
litic growth is the internal structure of the spherulites. They are not 
made up of amorphous substances under a strain, but of definitely 
crystallized minerals arranged radially with one or several centres of 
crystallization. Under this head, according to the author, would fall 
granophyric intergrowths, which are radially branching aggregates of 
orthoclase and quartz. Cross 3 places emphasis on the valuelessness of 
the term microfelsite in petrographical. nomenclature, as he finds the 
material to be an aggregate of quartz and orthoclase, two definite min- 
erals, and not the ill-defined substance described by Rosenbusch. He 
attacks both Rosenbusch's and Levy's classification of spherulites as 
incapable of covering the handsome bodies found by himself in the 

1 Edited by Dr. W. S. Bayley, Colby University, Wateryille, Me. 

^Bull. Phil. Soc, Washington, xi, p. 1 B. 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 163 

rhyolites of the Silver-CHH-i:..sit:i mining district in Custer County, 
Colorado, where spherulites occur of all sizes, up to ten feet in diam- 
eter. All are products of the consolidation of a magma, whose coin- 
position is* 

SiO a AL0 3 Fe 2 3 FeO MnO CaO MgO K.0 Xa o H.0 
171.56 13.10 .61 .28 .16 .74 .14 4.06 B.77 5.52 
or about 5 alkaline feldspar and '. free silica, from which nearly all of 
the Ca, Mg, etc., had been separated as phenocrv.-ts of plagioclax> 
before the formation of the spherulites. The oldest of the spherulites 
are miuute bodies, in some of which a granophyric growth ii detecta- 
ble. The large ones are found in many generations. Some contain 
internal cavities, while others are compact. The hollow >phenililes are 
composed of radiating branching orthoc lax s,.\vith opal and other forms 
of silica between the fibres, forming a mass through which are scat- 
tered minute balls of tridymite or grains of quartz. Another type of 
spherulite is the trichitic, in which the feldspars are branched and 
curved to an unusual degree, forming a radiating bunch parallel to 
whose radii trichites of magnetite are arranged. Both hollow and 
trichitic spherulites are often surrounded by a supplemental growth in 
which the feldspar is in very delicate needles. The various genera- 
tions of spherulites locally make up the entire rock, but usually there 
is a little residual material consisting of glass, of another radiate 
growth, or of a combination of both. Compound spherulites are com- 
posed of regular orientations of successive growths. The many spher- 
ulites of quartz that have been described are thought by the author to 
be largely feldspar and quartz aggregates, in which the orthoclase is 
elongated parallel to c with the abnormal optical orientation, and thus 
have a positive double retraction, when they are with difficulty distin- 
guished from quartz microlites. Cross has traced unmistakable pris- 
matic orthoclase down into fibres, and so seems warranted in stating 
that determinations of the character of the material of spherulites 
based entirely on the character of the double refraction of the fibres 
are worthless. Some of the spherulites of the Colorado occurrence 
consist entirely of positive feldspar, while others are composed of mix- 
tures of this with a negative variety. With reference to the origin of 
spherulites, Cross reaches the same conclusion as that reached by 
Iddings; the mass in which spherulitic growth was set up must have 
come to rest and consequently must have been pasty, since fluidal lines 
cross the spherulites undisturbed in their courses. During the forma- 
tion of some of the spherulites the mass again became pasty, and in 

164 The American Naturalist [February, 

certain areas became colloidal, then rapid crystallization was set up 

and the branching forms resulted. Though the main features of 

the Rapakiwi granite have long been well-known through the descrip- 
tions of Ungern-Sternberg, but little information has been granted 
us as to its occurrence and structural peculiarities. A recent article 
by Sederholm 4 gives an account of the varieties of the rock and out- 
lines their modes of occurrence. The peculiarity common to all varie- 
ties is the occurrence of porphyritic crystals and the possession of a 
granophyric ground mass. The prevailing type possesses phenocrysts 
having an elliptical form and surrounded by a rim of oligoclase. The 
orthoclase is never pure, but it contains plagioclase particles and grains 
of quartz, and biotite or hornblende, the usual constituents of the 
ground mass. These inclusions are often arranged concentrically. 
The peculiarity of the structure of the ground mass is the idiomor- 
phism of the quartz, which is often intergrown with the feldspar, lepid- 
omelane and hornblende in micropegmatitic forms. The place of the 
orthoclase phenocrysts is sometimes taken by an aggregate of orthoclase 
and quartz grains, surrounded by a radiating rim of orthoclase and an 
exterior one of plagioclase. Miarolitic cavities are filled with fluorite. 
As the orthoclase becomes smaller the structure of the rock becomes 
more granitic, at the same time the amount of orthoclase decreases 
and mi crocline takes its place. The finest -iain.«l varieties occur as 
dykes in the others, and are finely granophyric. All these varieties 
occur in the Wiborg district in South Finland, where, on account of 
their remarkably easy weathering and the consequent production 
of granitic debris, they are well known. This easy weathering is 
ascribed by the author to mechanical rather than chemical agencies. 
At Aland and other regions types are found resembling more or less 
closely those described. In some porphyritic crystals of oligoclase 
occur in a micropegmatitic ground mass of quartz and orthoclase, and 
in others porphyritic quartzes in a granophyric ground mass. Between 
the branches of the quartz in the granophyre are small areas of coarse 
grain, and in these are found the miarolitic cavities. Not only do the 
rocks described occur in Southern Finland, but they are found also in 
the Southwestern portion of the same country, as well as on the islands 
off its coast and in the Eastern part of Sweden. All the varieties are 
supposed to be phases of the same ma-ma. tin- coar,o-graiued, deep- 
seated facies and the granophyric surface forms. For granitic rocks 
with idiomorphic quartz the author proposes to use the descriptive 
*Min. n. Petrog. Mitlh., xu, p. 1. 

on their edges to (lib. rite, a little biotite. magnetite and apatite. The 
compaction of one of these is given as: 

SiO, ALA Fe,0 3 FeO CaO MgO K<> Na .< > H<» 

The phonolites are fine-grained rocks, made up of porphyritic crys- 
tals of acmite and red augite, sometimes zonally iutergrown, and horn- 
blende, in a ground mass consisting of microlites of hornblende, 
augite, biotite, orthoclase, plagioclase, muscovite and magnetite, and 
little grains of a colorless mineral, probably orthoclase, in an isotropic 
base. Nepheline could not be detected microscopically, but is supposed 
to be present as the result of chemical tests. One specimen contains 
regularly outlined icositetrahedra composed of a nucleus of calcite 
and sahlite, and an external zone of biotite, that are regarded as altered 
garnets. Since this rock occurs between a well characterized phonolite 
ami limestone it is thought to be a eontaet facies of the former. 

The trachytes, andesites, basalts, etc. of the Upper Eifel have been 
subjected to a very careful in vestigation by Vogelsang/' The phono- 
lite and the leucite and nepheline lni>anit< - have no peculiar charac- 
teristics which need be referred to here. The basalts include plagio- 
clase, leucite and nepheline varieties, the former two of which have 
effected alteration in sandstones and graywackes. with which they are 
in contact. The trachytes are very much like the Drachenfels rock, 

166 The American Naturalist [February, 

and like some specimens of this, contains tridymite in its ground mass. 
The most interesting type studied is hornblende andesite. This also 
contains tridymite in its ground mass, and also contains parallel 
growths of biotite and hornblende with OP of the former parallel to 
co Poo of the latter. The hornblende is much corroded, and new 
hornblende and feldspar are among the products of its solution. 
Large numbers of concretions are characteristic of the rock. There 
are granular aggregates of cordierite, andalusite, sillimanite, feldspar, 
biotite, pleonast, corundum, rutile, quartz, garnet, zircon and magne- 
tite, and are sometimes schistose. The author thinks that they were 
originally inclusions of sillimanite-cordierite gneiss or schist that were 
altered by contact with the molten mass of the andesite. He strength- 
ens his supposition by treating cordierite-sillimanite rocks with ande- 
site material, when he obtains an abundance of pleonast, which is one 

of the most characteristic minerals of the aggregates. The leucito- 

phyres of the Laacher-See region have again been subjected to a very 
thorough microscopical study. Martin 7 has found' them to consist 
principally of sanidine, leucite, nepheline, augite, and sometimes bio- 
tite and melanite phenocrysts in a ground mass of sanidine, nepheline 
and green augite, together with a little glassy base. He regards them 
as tertiary in age and separates them into two groups, according to 
the presence or absence of melanite. The former contain but 48.50- 
49.25% of SiOj, while in the latter the percentage of this constituent 
rises to 53-54%. The mineral in the rock from Perlerkopf, thought 
by Rosenbusch to be perofskite, is melanite. The rocks from Seeberg, 
called trachyte by Zickel, are phonolites containing green and violet 
augite and nests of olivine. There appear to be gradations between 
the phonolites and fasanites. The leucite-tufa of the region is aleuci- 
tophyre-tuff and the leucitophyre-nepheline tephrites and nephelinites 
of the Harmebacher Ley are all nephelinites. Some of Selberg are 
feldspathic basalts and nepheline basalts, the latter with leucite crys- 
tals altered to zeolites and augites filled with hornblende inclusions. 

At Democrat Hill and Mt. Robinson in the Rosita Hills, Col., 
are two vents of old solfataras, whose gases have so affected the rhyo- 
lite surrounding them that two entirely new and unique rocks have 
resulted. At the former place the original rhyolite is now replaced 
according to Mr. Cross 8 by a cellular rock composed of alunite and 
quartz, and sometimes a little kaolin, whose cavities are lined with 
'Zeit. d. d.geol. Gcsell., xlii, p. 151. 
*Amer.Jour. Sci., June, 1891, p. 466, 

crystals of t 

168 The American XaturalUt. [Februar 

cutting the crystalline schists and granites- of the Western part of th 
Argentine Republic have been carefully examined by Sabensiji 
They are aggregates of orthoclase, microline, quartz and mica, wit 
plagioclase, biotite, chbrite, tonrnialine, garnet, bervl, apatite, zireo: 
and hematite as accessory components. Both the potassium feldsptl 
are intergrown with albite lamella;, inlaid parallel to a plane betweei 
oo P^- and 2P-^. The microline offered a fine opportunity for th 
study of its characteristics. An untwinned specimen gave as a meai 
of the measurements of its cleavage faces the angles 89° 30.6' am 
90° 29.4'. The peculiar grid-iron structure seen in certain thin sec 
tions of the minerals are ascribed to twinning according to the albit 

pericline laws. The arguments brought forwa 

rd in support of this 

view are too involved to be dealt with in this pi; 

stated in the author's article. Gas and fluid incl 

usions were formed in 

the quartz, which mineral often i 

unduloua extinction. 

Quartz and feldspar are inter-row n 

to give rise to the 

graphic structure. This is explained l.v the nut 

hor as a regular inter- 

growth of the two minerals j„ a manner analog 

oufl to that of ortho- 

clase and albite, /. c, the quartz follows easv el 

eavaee planes in the 


Mineralogical News.— Of some rare Aigen 

,,ine minerals recently 

described by Klockmann" the following de^ei 

•ve notice: E»hmte, 

Umangite and Lvznnih. The first namc.fis rega 

irded by the author as 

a member of the galena group, in spite of the fa 

ct that it appears to 

possess a foliated structure and an hexa-ona! 

yielded: Ag = 43.13; Cu . 2">.:Ji' : Se :;i. 

55 corresponding to 

Ag, Cu, Se, or a jolpaite in which Se replaces S. 

The mineral occurs 

in a vein with calcite and umangite, cutting a li 

age. The umangite has heretofore been mista 

ken for harite. An 

analysis of the purest material obtainable 

gave: Co9»(M| 

Ag = 49; 8e = 41.44; Co,, H.O, etc., 2.04 

impurities irives a result corresponding to ( 'u Se 

Its density is 5.620. 

The mineral, which is new, is found massive and 

in the form of • very 

full-grained granular aggregate It- hardness is 

3. It ha- a metallic 

lustre and is opaque. ItTstrvak U hhek while it- 

color in consequence 

of corrosion is a dark, cherrv red or violet. The 

the locality iu which it occur- -on the We-t s 

lope" of the Sierra de 


"Zeils.f. Kry f, ., |,s . 

must be regarded as representing accurately the composition of the 
substance, especially since they correspond so closely to the formula 
suggested by Brogger as the result of Bickstrotna investigation. The 
tsehetl'kinite was somewhat altered. In thin section Mr. Cross found 
a brownish transparent amorphous substance crossed by cracks con- 
taining reddish brown ochreous decomposition products and bands of 
colorless minerals that appear to be calcite and sphene, besides several 
darker minerals. The material analyzed by Price 13 was found upon 
examination to be as complex in composition, so that it seems probable 

that the substance has no place among minerals. The buuacife, 

tcenite and plessite found in the Welland meteorite 14 were so easily 
separable that Davidson 1 '' has succeeded in obtaining a sufficient quan- 
tity of each for analyses. The kamacite is brittle and of the color of 
cast iron, while tamite is silverv in lustre and is flexible. The results 

170 The American Naturalist. [February, 

Both are magnetic, the latter evincing stronger polarity than the 
former. In etching the kamacite is attacked more rapidly than the 
richer alloy of nickel. Plessite was found to consist of fine lamellae 
of the two alloys above mentioned. Brown' 6 has carefully exam- 
ined the bernardinite first described by J. M. Silliman, 17 from San 
Bernardino Co., Cal., as a new mineral resin, and has discovered it to 

be in all probability the fungus Polyporus officinalis. Weed finds 18 

that the ore deposit of the Mount Morgan gold mine in Queensland, 
Australia, is a siliceous sinter like that of the Yellowstone National 
Park, impregnated with auriferous hematite. Both the sinter and the 
hematite are clearly hot spring deposits. A brief abstract of a paper 
read by Dr. Foote 19 at the Washington meeting of the A. A. A. $ 
gives an account of the discovery of black and colorless diamonds in 
a fragment of meteoric iron weighing forty pounds found at Crater 
Mt., about two hundred miles North of Tucson, Ariz. The diamonds 
usually occur associated with amorphous carbon in the cavities in the 

mass, which contains about %% of Ni. Census Bulletin No. 49, by 

Mr. Kunz 20 contains a brief account of the value of gems and precious 
stones discovered and worked up in the United States during the vear 
1889. The total value of the materials found within the country 
amounted to $188,807. Agatized wood, turquoise, zircon, and quartz 
in the order mentioned are the most important domestic productions 
falling under the head of precious stones used as ornaments or gems. 
n Amer.Jour. Sci., July, 1891, p. 4*5. 

The Nervous System of Ec 

close connection which oxi.-ts between them, the two systems can aid 
each other and work together for the accomplishment of the multiple 
manifestation? induced by the different conditions external and inter- 
nal, by the sensations arising from stimuli, and hy reaction. To the 
diffused nervous system is attributed above all the role of perception 

its position and which informs it of its state of equilibrium. It is the 
one also which accumulating those diverse and vague organic impres- 
sions, which the physiologist groups under the name " kynetic," keeps 
the animal in constant activity and readiness to respond to stimuli. 

" The motive impul.-es. properly speak hilt, the external manifest at i«>n> 
of vital phenomena do not depend directly upon the diffused system. 
Their real centre is the condensed system whirl, must then he the true 
organ of reactionary impulses. It is the centre in which are generated 
the reflex motions; it contains cell groups whose functions are defi- 
nitely specialized, and which thus form the first traces of a more 
advanced type in which the different important manifestations of 

unite them render their functional agreements close and each reinforce? 
the other. From this last point of view a progressive specialization 
is also manifested. In fact, the cond - causing the 

which are important only in the aggregate, is 
accomplished by means of the hidden fibrilJae which unite the condensed 
with the (Mused system. On the contrary, some ways of direct com- 
munication between the two systems have been established physiolop 
cally for the special excitations before provoking a quick respond 
necessary and fatal. The easy propagation of the sensations thusallows 
the corresponding motor centers to readily respond." 

The Land Molluscan Fauna of British New Guinea.- 
Last year Mr. C. Hedley had an opportunity of collecting and study- 
ing the land shells of this little-known region and has embodied the 
results in a paper published in the Proceeds. Linn. Soc. vol. vi. 
The author states that for the convenience of students he gives in his 
paper a summary of the knowledge of this fauna up to date. 

The land shells of this province exhibit four rather distinct geo- 
graphical divisions: 

(a) The alpine fauna, whose sole known member is Rhytida globota. 

(b) The region lying between Port Moresby and the Fly Kiver. 
The types in this region are //,„/,•„ brmvlb, ntn, Geotrochus taybriutii 

■ probably derived IV this fauna, by mi-ration 

across the dry bed of Torres Straits. 

(c) A province which includes the eastern extremity of New 
Guinea with the outlying islands, of which the typical members are 
Hadra rehseii, Nanina bumteinu, and C„ olr„rI,ut'l>ri»n> 

(d) The Louisiade, D'entreca'steaux, Trohriand. and Woodlark 
Archipelagos. Characteristic forms are the Geotrochi allied to Ionia- 
iadensis and the gigantic Pupinelhe allied to qrnndis. The author 
thinks that the occurence of G. wehinxn* and /' Um-'n r« on Fergus- 
son Is. would indicate that the fauna of these i-lands will prove to be 
related to that of the distant L.uisiadc rather than to that of the 

The Pycnogonid Eye 

3 taken place. 

South American Siluroids. — G. A. Boulenger has published 
(Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. April, 1891) an account of the Siluroid Fishes 
obtained bv Dr. von Ihering and Mr. Wolff in Rio Grande do Sul, 
Brazil. The following is a list of the new species added to the 
Brazilian fauna: Pimelodella eigenmanni n. sp. n. for 1>. buekleyi E. 
& E. not Boulenger. 2, ]'■-> "duj/imehydn^ cuittdde*, '■'>. (Horinclu* nigri- 

The Spermatophores of Diemyctylus. — The fertilization of the 
Irodela has been until lately very imperfectly understood. The 
2Cent observation of Gasco a n< I Zellu on European torn;-, and * iaye's 
mdies of Diemyctylus have proved beyond a doubt that fertilization 
■ internal, but there is no direct cluneal contact between the sexes. 

174 The American Naturalist. [February, 

If a female newt be examined during the months of May and June 
spermatozoa will be found in the cloaca, not inside the mouth of the 
oviduct as might be expected, but closely packed in the ducts of two 
groups of gland-like structures situated in the cloacal wall just below 
the entrance of the oviducts. The question as to how the spermatoai 
find their way to these snug resting-places is an interesting one. 
According to Mr. E. O. Jordan the explanation lies in what Pfeffer 
calls "positive chemotaxis." lie think- it probable that the pelvic 
glands of the female newt may secrete a substance — proteid or other- 
wise — with a positively chemotactic effect and thus draw the sperma- 

During copulation both animal- are motionless, sometimes for hours, 
with the exception of a fanning movement of the tail by the mak 

male passes gradually intr 

i a n 


wrongly stated by some autl 

ctend ove 

the climax of agitation the 


leaves the fe 

slightly raised, his cloaca 



dM. Tided 

protruding papilla.', waits fo 

r the 


iale to i; 

this and presses her head 1 


v a» 

■Slinst the 

deposits a spermatophore 


centimeters, where, if the 


till eoliti 

a thick, irregular mass about six millim 

ting upwards from the base; and, borne oi 
mately spherical mas- of -permatozoa about 
ters in diameter, this mass being a sort of co 

After the male has deposited the first spei 
ward with the female following him. In 
brushes over the spermatophore and the ma- 
to the cloacal lips and passes thence' into tl 
chance of the spermatophore's fulfilling its D 

It is difficult to understand why the'-pcrm 
the female cloaca rather than into the su 
positively chemotactic influence is supposed 

reached would seem adapted for eflectii 
tozoa; but this is not the invariable m 
([uently happens that the spermatozoa 

A New Species ofWande 


The Temperature of the Dog.— Dr. Wesley Mills 
imx^tigating the suhjVct and has published the following 
Forest and Stream Jan. 28, 1892. 

Range of temperature for the twenty-four hours. 

Greyhound Dog Gordon Bettei 

(Two years old.) 
Hours. grees F. 

1.00 A. M. 
1.00 A. ML 
'.40 A. M.. 

Great Dane Bitch, 

eight months old. 


Deg. F. 

8.30 A. M 


10.00 A. M 


2.00 P. M 


4.15 P. M 


It will be seen in this case the tern 

almost 103 degrees 

The temperatur( 

-in puppies is rathe 

able than in grow 

n dogs. The folio' 

puppies of the sam 

elitttr rem tl 

does the variations 

fur the same breei 

cisely the same coi 


Temp, in de- 

Hours, gree 


8.30 A. M 

.... 102.2 

11.00 A. M 


2.00 P. M 


5.00 P. M 


7.00 P. M 


9.00 P. M 


It will be noted 

that the tempera 

puppies reached 102 degrees or high 

Zoological Ne 

:ws.— Mollusca. 

peninsula of Lowe 

r California has at 

restria! Mollusca. ! 

3 of which arc ( 'ali 

tropical groups bu 

t are in general pe 


of a baurii.—M. 
entitled, Studies i 

partly because tin 

Erethizon dorsatu. 

il habit, and the ] 
er is prefaced by < 
f the Kodeuts ui 
(Fiber zibethicm 


Epigenesis or Evolution?- — One part of this paper is devoted to 
the results of certain experiments upon the action of light upon the 
cleavage of eggs. These show that the eggs of EehinvA 

latus, Planorbis carinatusf and Rana esctdenta undergo cleavage and 
the early stages of organ formation equally well in darkness, white 
light or colored light. Light then has no effect upon the early stages 
of development, though others have shown that the presence or absence 
as well as the color of light does have an effect upon the later stages 
of differentiation of embryos. 

The main portion of the paper, however, contains the most interest- 
ing results : that from one of the first two blastomeres of the egg of 
Echinus in In- >''■'" r'-nlnfus, and the same is true of a specie.- of Spine- 
rechinus, a complete pluteus of normal form but of half the normal 
size may be reared ! 

Owing to the importance of these experiments as bearing upon the 
value of the blastomeres upon the question of early potential repara- 
tion of organs within the egg, thai is, upon the question of evolution as 
opposed to epigenesis, it will he necessary to give here a brief account 
of the author's methods, from which the chance of error may be 

When the first cleavage furrow has come in, 50-100 eggs are shaken 
vigorously for five minutes, with little water in a test tube 4 cm. long 
and 0'6 cm. wide, then quickly poured into clean sea water and exam- 
ined. If the right moment has been taken, neither too soon nor too 
late, some of the blastomeres will be found not only isolated but still 
alive, others of course dead, or not separated from their fellows as the 
egg membrane does not always burst open. There is also great varia- 
tions in the resistance offered by eggs of different individuals— some 
may need to be shaken several times. 

The best isolated cells are removed and placed two or three 
together in sea water in solid watch glasses covered, and with a hang- 
ing drop on the cover to diminish evaporation and concentration of 

observed from time to time without removal. 

equal cells, four of which 
other four divide. Then 
small ones at one pole : 

108 cell stages. 

Now in the groat majo 
the cleavage results in tl 

The time taken for the ha 

Though in the majority 
halfblastulas formed fron 

half-egg formed a symmeti 

cells must he one-half the normal. Wl 

furnish a complete individual, both rigl 
rior, dorsal and ventral parts, and had 
to the other egg-half. 

Of the 30 perfect blastulas only 15 I 
often the case with normally formed 1: 
the morning of the third day active ii 
individuals. They then take on the pi 
are formed and the normal course is fc 
normal, but small, plutei were raised. 

If each half-egg may thus form a con 
of forming twins by partial separation < 

the experiments above recorded thougl 
observed amongst the many examined 
probability that the partial separation 

especially noticeable as it shows that f 
stage there resulted an apparently no 

180 The American Naturalist. [Februuy, 

days divided into two almost separated spheres each of wind) became 
a gastrula and finally a platens attached by a narrow isthmus to its 

This abnormal action of the embryo is not confined to a simple 
two-fold division : in three cases the blastula dividtd into a j and a 
t section of which the former became plutei and the latter, in one case 
a gastrula. The general distribution of this power to produce com- 
plete individuals was more striking in a case where \ of a shaken egg, 
in the two celled stage, died and the remaining ] of the egg became 
a normal blastula ! 

Attempts made by the author to separate the blastomeres of Frogs 
and of Planorbis have as yet been unsuccessful. There seems need of 
extension of this experimental work before any wide-reaching con- 
clusions can be drawn. 

Regeneration of Lost Parts. 1 — In these two papers the author 
has given an important addition to our knowledge of the process of 
regeneration of the tail in Batrachia. Both adult and larval urodeles 
and larval anurans were used, though most of the work refers to 
Rana and to Siredon larva?. In the first paper the interesting fact is 

case may be. Yet they become later like the original tails. This 
change the author assigns to the eili-.-t oi'u.-e, to functional adaptation. 
This is made probable by a number of experiments in which larvae 

tail. Some of the final straightening in tin non-swimmers is referred 
to the effect of gravitation, but there still remain eases in which only 
the " directive power " of the otgan ism seems to be concerned in the 
ultimate return of the new tail to its proper use. 

The great length of the second paper forbids its proper treatment 
in the present notice, its chief advance over previous work, of which 
it furnishes a good confirmation, lies in the discovery of the fact I hat 
the histological changes concerned in the formation of the new tail 

the spinal cord, chorda, connective ti-sue, cutis, blood-ves.-els striated 
muscles and peripheral nerves in the order irjvom Simple tissues arc 
quickly regenerated, the more specialized, more slowlv. Moreover, 

Embryology of Rotifer 

the eggs "are 'less liable to be rendered 

foreign bodies to their stick v surface. 

As the .-r is lar-e. elon-ated and r« 
ftirnishes an unusually good rl.anc to 
there being moreover resting periods i 
author's account of the continued rearrai 
meres within the e.irir membrane these 
favorable objects tor inve-tiiratini: the n 
and cell arrangements to mechanical pi 

The polar body is exceedingly large 
present) and is formed on what proves 
the anterior pole, so from this early .>tai 
are oriented by this appearance at the ei 
ted egg. 

Of the first two cells the larger, I, 
smaller, A, posterior ; both divide. The 
of cells on the right side, the progeny of 
and left side. Other cells are budded 01 
series. Thus an elongated, solid mass oi 

A few smaller, granular cells, likewise ov 
the egg come to lie beneath the ectoderm a 
ing the material for the pharynx aud saliv; 

!Carl Zelinka: Studien iiber Raderthiere Zdt. f. 

The American Xatiiral'tHt. 

Of the subsequent fate of the embryo to the time of its hatching in 
the adult form we can only note from the detailed organogeny given 
by the author the facts that the reproductive organs arise from two 
small sets of cells given off from the progeny of I, that is from the 
entoderm : that the nervous system and muscles both come direct from 
the ectoderm, the former as solid ingrowths, the latter as sinking in 
of separate cells, muscle cells. The excretory tubes arise from cells of 
undetermined origin. The flame cells are from the first blind tubes, 
closed by a protoplasmic mass bearing the numerous cilia. 

The author also takes up, in less detail, the embryology of Melictm 
ringens, a less favorable subject. Here also the precaution was taken 
to keep the observed embryos up to hatching to avoid the vitiation of 
results by study of abnormalities. 

The cleavage is remarkably similar to that of Callidina. Yet the 
polar body is found towards the posterior, dorsal end. 

Both male and female eggs have the same cleavage and subsequent 
development in spite of difference of size. 

In the author's interpretation of the embryology of Rotifers there is 
no mesoderm, no middle layer. The sexual organs arise from the 
entoderm, the coelon, muscles, pharynx and salivary gland from certain 
granular ectoderm cells, the circular muscles directly from the adja- 
cent ectoderm and the excretory organs not from the entoderm but 
probably from the ectoderm. A comparison is thus drawn between 
the Rotifer and the Trochosphere — the great similarity being over- 
balanced by the absence of mesoblasts. Thus the Rotifer is to be 
regarded as an earlier stage than the Trochophore, wanting as yet 
the special mesoderm mass. The Rotifer is thus not a sexually 
mature Trochophere. Yet the possession of a subcesophageal ganglia 
points out a resemblance to the Molluscan trochophore, while there 
is also much resemblance to an ancestral form for the Polyzoa, Brach- 
iopods and Chsetognaths. 

The " foot " of the Rotifer is not a ventral organ but to be regarded 
as a tail or posterior end of the body, having at first a terminal anus 
afterwards moved dorsally by the formation of a terminal adhesive 
gland. The embryology of this region is accepted by the author as 
homologous with that of the abdomen of Crustacea. 

While the Rotifers thus stand as representative.- of the ancestors^ 
so many groups they themselves are to he divided, as the embryology 
indicates, from the " I'rotroehophoni " of tin I'latvl.elniinthes. 


Renal Organs of Amphibia. —I 

of soniatopleure, the pr< 
system arises secondaril 
appear in coi 

184 The American Naturalist. [February, 

origin of the duct i- that it arise* from a solid proliferation of somato- 
pleure . . . In so far as these authors maintain that the duct arises from 
a solid profileration of mesoderm and acquires it- lumen secondarily I 
entirely airree with them; hut my own observations on this point lead 
me to conclude further that the duet arises throughout its entire 
length from a continous thickening of somatopleure and that the 
only free growth which occurs in the Amphibia studied by me is for 
the purpose of effecting a union with the cloaca. 

"Finally it remains for me to consider the third view, that of the 
ectodermal origin of tie due;, which i- to-dav advocated on so many 
sides ... In my opinion the entire excretory system of the forms I 
have studied unquestionably develops without any participation of the 
ectoderm in its formation. The duct develops from mesoderm through- 
out its entire length and at its posterior end, in Rana and Bufo at 

secondary and meaning 

The remaining part of ihe paper deal- with "those inferences of a 

"I conclude therefore that pronephros and mesonephros arc parts ot 
one ancestral organ; that the glomeruli arc strictly homodynamous 
with the glomus; that the entire tubular portion of the pronephros 
is represented in the mesonephros ; that the cavity of a Malphigan 
capsule and the nephrostomal canal connecting it with the body cavity 
are detached portions of the eo loin, the equivalents of which are not 
thus differentiated in the pronephros ; that the pronephros is developed 
as a larval excretory organ; and that the period at which it appears 
largely accouuts for its peculiarities of structure." 

The closing sections are devoted to a consideration of the evidence 
which the development of the excretory system throws on the origin 
of the vertebrates. On the whole, the evidence brought forward does 
not add materially to the solution of the ancestry of the vertebra*!" 
and such a theory can only be established by investigations wkie* 
shall include in their scope the entire organization of the 1 D r U P 

The International Congress of Anthropology and Pre- 
historic Archeology of Paris of 1889. 

ethnic type 

and arc-hat' 
the other 
The Colleg 

2. The Caverns of Central America.— The pre] 

studied and are tolerably well-known, and this n 

is not so with the cavern*, for while they in many c 
contain evidence- m|' huinan oecupation in ancient 
the most part unexplored. 

prehistoric archaeologist, who was in charge of the 
ing and display at the French Imposition, and w 
International Congress of Am. ri 
presented a list of these, the most interesting of 
made elaborate and satisfactory descriptions, which 

a. 3fe.dc - -.-cms of Chi 

> Xat„ralt,t. 

; Feb 

b. Guatemala.— The Cueva Encantada de Mixco. Described by 
Fuentes y Guzman in the year 1700. Its length was three leagues 
It served the aborigines as a place of adoration and sacrifice in honor 
of the Divinity of the Fountain, Cateya, Mother of the Water or God- 
dess of the Water. The grottoes in the neighborhood of Mitla on 
Mictlan, of which the most celebrated were those of Tibulca and 

c. Salvador.— Cavern near the village of Aguacavo and of the Eio 
Lempa. It is deep. The Cavern of Corinto. The Cueva y fuente 
de Sangre, near Amatillo, on the frontier of Honduras. 

d. Nicaragua.— The Cavern of Metapa in the Dept. of Matagalpa. 

e. Costa-Eiea.—Th'ere are several caverns in the Province of Gua- 

/. Venezuela.— One should not neglect the famous Caverns of the 
Orinoco; Cerro de Luno, Ipi Iboto and Cucurital, the antiquities J 
which with skulls of the aborigines, deformed and natural, have been 
recently found by Crevaux and Dr. Marcano. 

t'^ Confess a note on the cup-nnrkim- „f I" |.i-mx ., ar \lvnum- 
de-Luchon, Pyrenees. II,- , JIXV ' ( . -, description' Then' wen" three 
series of these. The Calhande Pourics, the alignments of Peyrelad* 

and of Couseillat. He gave a description of th^t- >toncs which while 
of granite boulders within reach of the glacier, of the ( >s and hear- 
ing marks of glacial action, yet had undoubtedly been placed in their 
present position by human intervention, and so were monuments of 
human art. Cavities of greater or less size and depth had been wrought 
in their surfaces, which were to be eounted In- the hundred,. These 
were cupstones, and were quite prehistoric, no person having within 
historic times had anv knowledge of their orhdn or purpose. M. 
Sacaze believed these sculptures to be contemporaneous with the mon- 
uments which- thev ornament. The stone- mcdi i-.v- b. -r. sepulchral 

■ircheology and Kihnolo> 

Cup markings 
4. Presentation 

When Will the Earth be Entirely Peopled ?— In order to 
answer this question M. Kaven-tein lias undertaken a series of 
researches and calculations the results of which are published in the 
Proceedings of the London Geographical Society, 491, p. 27. 

It appears from this work' that the population of the globe, 
1,467,000,000 of people, is distributed over the surface of the islands 
and continents, excluding the polar regions, in the proportion of 
thirty-one inhabitants to the English square mile (2.51) kilometres). 
The author divides the entire land surface, 40,o5u,i.H.»i) square miles, 
into three regions; fertile land-, -tcppes. and deserts, winch contain 
respectively, in round numbers, 28,000,000, 14,000,000, and 4,000,000 
of square miles. He computes the maximum number of inhabitants 
which each of these regions can sustain per square mile as follows: 
fertile lands, 207 ; steppes, 10 : and desert, 1. The average for India 
is 175, for China 295, for Japan 204. M. Ravenstein estimates the 

face at 5.994,000,000. 

At what date will this fatal number be reached ? The increase of 
population in the different countries can be expressed, according to 
the author, by the following figures : 

188 The American Naturalist. [February, 

Europe... 8.7 per cent, by decade 

Africa 10 " " " 

Au-tralia and < K-eaniea 30 " " " ' 

North America 20 " " « 

South America 15 " " " 

Total 8 per cent, by decade 

With this ratio of increase as a basis, the figure .',,994,000,000 will 
be attained A. D. 2072, or in about 181 years. 

It is a curious tact that this is very nearly the same date when, 
according to the geologists, the coal supply of Great Britain, which 
gives her prestige among nation-, will be exhausted. 

Our great-grandchildren will have reason to reflect upon the future 
and the fate of their posterity doomed to struggle for life under the 
hard conditions that maybe summarized in these words: want of 

officers for 1890-'91 were : Joseph Leid 
Philadelphia, Pa., President; Frank Ba 
C, 1st Vice President and Acting Presid 
D., New York City, 2d Vice President ; 
ington, D. C, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Harrison Allen, M. I)., Philadelphia, P 
Cornell University ; Thomas Dwight, M. 
sity, President and Secretarv, ex-officio 
Washington, I). C, Dele-ate to the Comri 

m. Browning, Brooklyn, N.Y. 8. Mo 

■itios. Du. Hi-rt (J. Wiu.kk. Cornell r 

cockatoo. Specimens ami remarks. Mtt. FniiD. A. Lrr.vs, W'a-hin^- 
ton, D. C. 21. Homologies of the principal bones. Mr. Pbed. A. 
Lucas, Washington, D. C. Friday, September 22. 1. Election of 
officers for 1891-93. Election of Delegate and Alternate to the 

„ business. 

Natural Science Association, of Staten Island. — Janwaj^ 
9th, 1892.— The following paper, illustrated by maps and specimens, 
was read by Mr. Arthur Hollick : 

On the 4th of April, 1881, Dr. N. L. Britton read a paper before 
the New York Academy of Sciences on the geology of Richmond 
County. This paper was puMi-hed in the Annals of the Academy, 
vol. ii, No. 6, and in it the prediction was made that Cretaceous clays 
would be found beneath the drift to the South and East of the Arch- 
aean Ridge wherever this covering of the drift might be removed. At 
that time Dr. Rritton \\<v<\ the following words: " No fossil leaves or 

knew what ought to 

Definite evidence in regard to the subject has been slowly acclima- 
ting, and especially during the past three months, important f :ld * 

expressed by m*- that it was pn.bablv <>f Drift origin. See ] 

Outcrops of what was apparently Cretaceous clay and iriav 
next discovered on the shore and in the ravine at Princes Ba> 
shore at Eltingville, and in a gravel pit on the North side of t 
gerboard road at Clifton. (See Proceedings, March 14, April 
9, and Oct. 10, 1889.) 

In the meantime the material from Tottenville was aecum 
some of the specimens being in far better condition than thus. 
discovered, so that they could be accurately studied and the 8] 
plants determined, leaving no question as to their Cretace* 

On May 1, 1889, Dr. N. L. Britton and myself were exphninir th ■■ 
clay beds'along the Raritan River, at Perth \\mboy, where we found 

other respects identical with the leaf-bearing concretion* from tin- 
shore at Tottenville. This encouraged us to believe that careful 
search cm Staten Island would probably yield similar n suits, and such 
has been the case. 

In October, 1891, I found molluscs in the concretions at Tottenville, 
and immediately afterwards at Arrochar. These and the ones from 
Perth Amboy were submitted to Prof. Whitfield and by him identified 
as Cretaceous species. 

Finally, in November, 1891, I found well preserved fc 

tions in all respects similar to thos, from Ambov, Ti 

Following is a list of the molluscs, as far as the 
identified : 

Corbula sp t (possibly a new species) Perth Amboy. 

Terebratella vamixemi Lyell tfnd Forbes, Tottenville. 

Pachycardium Lttrihiyhuense Whitfield, Tottenville. 

Card turn {Criocardnt.n) duvio-mm Conrad, Arroehar. 

Ostrea plwnosa Morton, (?) Arroehar. 

Aphrodina tippana Conrad, or ( lli t delawai 

Gryplum sp. ? Arroehar. 

In addition to the above there are several speciea whin 
sufficiently good state of preservation for determination. 

has been verified, 

, .thing except 

Boston Society of Natural Histor 

gos Islands ; Prof. W. M. Davis. The Catok 
Hudson Estuary. 

December 2d.— The following papers wen 

. >. Shal.-r, In Memory of Samuel D. 

Biological Society of Was 

. Mnr.-e.On 

( hum- V. 

§4.60 per Year (Foreign). 





MARCH, 1892 


ES. . S. V. Clevenger, M. D. 195 brate Fossils 

of Plant Physiology as at Means of Fossil Plants 

ng in Germany and England. j Mineralogy and Petrography.— -Petrograph 

£. L. Gregory. 211 I News— Mineralogical News 

he Snake Pla,ns of Idaho. | Baany _ The Sargasso S ea_Ferns of the Bl 

C. Hart Mernam 218 \ HilIs __ Notes on the FIora of Western South Dal 

■ Pamphlets 223 j _ The Range _ The Black Hills— The Bad Lai 

£.— Kuntze's Revisio Generum, j Z oo/ogy. - Work of Earth-worms in Yor 


-1 ' : ' 

e Address of Prof. Kolliker— j rep tans— New Fishes from Chihuahna, Mexico - 

omach vs. Brains— Donation of j Description of a New Mouse from Southern Cali- 

:J. Wistar— Mongoose in the West j fornia— Zoological News I 

make Mistakes— Change of Pub- | £mi ryo/ogy.- Anatomy of a Human Embryo— 

234 Thyreoglossal Tract and the Hyoid— Origin of Spinal 

Ganglia in Man— Somites of Human Embryos. . : 
Travel.— Recent Australian Ex- Entomology.— Descriptions of New North Ameri- 
237 can Bees : 

; Agent-V 



518 and 520 MINOR STREET. 


By S. V. Cli:vkn(.kk. M. I). 

In several articles on biological subjects published during 
the last fifteen years, I have called attention to the importance 
of analogical reasoning in the consideration of many scien- 
tific subjects. 

To a limited extent this process of reasoning is carried i.n 
by scientific writers generally, but mure with reference to its 
convenience than with a full realization of its great impor- 
tance ; for example, the vibratory theory is made use of by 
physicists in discussing heat, light, electricity, and sound, and 
most authors on the correlation of forces, and modern philoso- 
phers like Herbert Spencer endeavored to reduce universal 
phenomena to simple terms such as the convertibility of mat- 
ter and motion, but from first to last all these thinkers seem 
to have missed what appears to me to be the most valuable 
application of analogy to practical sciences. 

It does not require much thought n> concede that a house 
built of bricks will possess the properties inherent in individ- 
ual bricks, such as unmfhimmability, degrees of porosity, 
impermeability to moisture and air, and even the colors of 
the original brick, but it has taken thousands of years to 
establish the fact that however highly differentiated the ani- 
mal tissues may be they possess only attributes of the primi- 
tive cell, some having one or more abilities highly developed 
with others in abevance. 

196 The American Naturalist. [March, 

Thus the protozoon eats, grows, reproduces ; so does the man, 
and for the same reasons. Whether we regard the processes 
as homologous or analogous, these acts performed by every 
animal have their foundation in the ability of the primitive 
cell to do the same things. It requires a certain familiarity 
with zoology and physiology to be capable of appreciating this 
connection, and it is a hopeless undertaking to try to teach 
such conceptions to those who are not furnished with the nec- 
essary preliminary knowledge. And there are those who are 
instructed in such matters, who for the want of sufficient 
deductive ability are unable to see the dependence of the phe- 
nomena because to their untrained minds the complicated pro- 
cesses of ingestion, such as deglutition, insalivation, mastica- 
tion, digestion, etc.. apparently differ so radically from the 
simple assimilative act of the amoeba. 

The ends attained are identical, though the processes may 
differ, somewhat as the sun-dial, the hour-glass and the clep- 
sydra differ from the modern watch. No matter how complex 
the organism, the individual cells that compose it absorb food 
directly, very much the same as do primitive single-celled 

The complicated differentiations, to those unfamiliar with 
the subject, differ radically from their origin, as Talmage 
imagines he differs from the ancestral ape. 

That analogies have been considered useful in some ways is 
shown by many attempts to utilize them, as, for example, in 
the celebrated work of Bishop Butler, whose success in the 
application Huxley thinks was not very great, for the latter 
claimed that the story of Jack and the Bean-stalk could be 
proven by the same method of reasoning. The sloppy man- 
ner in which analogies have been selected to illustrate certain 
points show that while there was acknowledgment of their 
value there is universal ignorance of their real nature. 

I firmly believe that there will eventually be elaborated a 
science of analogies which will bear a relationship to the 
imperfect usage of the past in such matters that the old bears 
to the present zoology and botany. 



ml i 



a makes 

, good use « 

ie metho 

Social Organism, 

"°a.i:l Fl ti 

:y g< 

merallv i 

but I tin 

11k that 

neither he 


any otlu 

the sped 

Lai point 

which I si 





icial res, 



1 betray 

use of i] 


, figures, o: 

nilc, ei'tl 

close ins 

pection i 

lothing bu 


phenomena which science dispels l>y the growth of intelli- 
gence with more accuracy of observation : as alchemy and 
astrology were followed by chemistry and astronomy, so 
mythology, which is the savage attempt to explain the uni- 
verse through crude conceptions, is gradually being super- 
ceded by philosophic recognition of the unity of the laws gov- 
erning everything. 

One of Lord Bacon's essays is devoted to an ingenious 
attempt at explaining ancient Greek and Roman mji 
as symbolizing profound wisdom, and no legend among them 
was too silly not to be reconciled on this basis. The confus- 
ingly complex ecclesiastical symbolization is the outgrowth of 
endeavors to find material equivalents for spiritual things, 
with such poor success that the Christian can see nothing holy 
in the crescent and horse-tail of the Mohammedan, while the 
latter derides the cross as "two sticks." and exclaims " Behold 
the Christian's God." 

And now we come to the main consideration. It is nothing 
new that there are parallelisms between the acts of men and 
nations, but these connections were treated of as purely acci- 
dental, or at best as if they were caused by some inscrutable 
law. I am not aware that anyone has preceded me in announ- 
cing that so far from there being anything mysterious in such 
matters the interdependence of phenomena and the possibil- 
ity of reducing all things, if not to their ultimates, at least to 
simpler terms, enables many of the operations of the universe 
to be better understood and simplifies them a-toni-hmg!v. 

198 The American Naturalist, [March, 

But first of all to enable this insight, the scales of ignorance 
must be scraped from the eyes, for the past system of educa- 
tion that ignored the sciences would create this blindness. 
Sociological study depends upon a knowledge of biology in its 
widest sense, comprising such things as anthropology, ethnol- 
ogy, zoology, botany, comparative anatomy and comparative 
physiology, and the front door to all this knowledge is chem- 
istry and physics. 

It may not be possible for any one person to master all these 
branches in their entirety, and we daily encounter narrow 
specialists in scientific fields, who, for want of education, can- 
not see the bearing of all the departments of information upon 
their particular branch. Such arc anatomists who know no 
botany or chemistry ; botanists who know nothing outside of 
plants; chemists who can see nothing beyond their test tubes 
and reagents. But. other things being e<|ual. no one is so well 
equipped to begin the study of the universe as is the one with 
a good training in chemistry. 

During the great fire of Chicago it was observed that the 
marble fronts of the houses seemed to melt in the flames and 
that the bricks were the really fire-proof material, facts which 
did not surprise the mineralogist, who. with Ids chemical 
knowledge, knows that carbonate ,,f lime readily calcines and 
that silicates resist heat. 

Comparably the philosophical scientist can reason from 
cause to effect, or backward, intelligently, and see associations 
that do not exist for the one with purely classical knowledge. 
A house may be an aggregation of bricks, stone, or wood, and 
will behave toward fire, water, and air as its component mate- 
rials enable it, without surprise to anyone, but when commu- 
nities are made up of human beings the old-time historian 
never traces relationship in the behavior of one to that of the 
other. The whole had no relation to its parts. 

Even among sociologists who recognize these dependencies. 
a deeper source of information was seldom sought, such as 
biology in general, and they might indulge in the general 
smile of contemptous ignorance if it were hinted that chem- 
istry and physics could aid their research. 

1892.] Natural Analogies. 199 

To illustrate that analogies have a deeper significance than 
is usually assigned them, let us take the instance of what lias 
been called a " bread riot." People are starving : they are tur- 
bulent, rushing here and there, finally gathering at some ware- 
house where food is stored, which is soon seramblingly dis- 
tributed and eaten. This proceeding on the part of the popu- 
lace is instigated by analogous ami in many respects identical 
conditions existing in each individual of the mob. The col- 
lection of cells composing each person are in revolt ; they are 
badly nourished; the intestines, muscles, nerves and their 
cells are hungry ; the blood corpuscles surge through the ves- 
sels irregularly and riotously. The white blood corpuscles 
particularly are more active than usual, exactly as the free 
aneeba moves more rapidlv when hungry than when ted. 
There is starvation excitement throughout the body. The 
lymph and vascular channels are ransacked tor food, and what 
previously would have been rejected is now assimilated exactly 
as the starving rabble gather offal from the streets and alleys. 
The fat repositories are drawn upon with resulting emacia- 
tion ; the cellular elements are enfeebled, and multitudes of 
them die, as occurs among the starving populace. 

A single cell may become a source of irritation to the colony 
' cells by provoking action, and individuals seek ' 

themselves upon a community by orating, : 

ing, quarreling, fighting ; all more or less lgnc 
ing gain. 

A modicum of such excitement may result in benefit to the 
colony of cells, as an individual's action may result in the 
common good. Great national activity may eventuate in ben- 
efit to the world. In all these cases the good done may he 
accidentally accomplished. An epidemic of msaniu n..t\ 
become as wide-spread as during the crusades, as crazy phys- 
iological processes may be induced by a fever. 

Metzehnikon's description of phagocytosis, interestingly 
reviewed by J. L. Kellogg in The American Naturalist. 
June, 1891, quotes Osier's summation as follows: "He says 
that Metzchnikoff has likened specific inflammation to a war- 
fare in which the invading forces are represented by micro- 

200 The American Naturalist. [March, 

organisms, and those who offer resistance by leucocytes. The 
news of the arrival of the enemy is telegraphed to headquar- 
ters by the vasomotor nerves, and the blood-vessels are used 

When the invaders are established they live on the host and 
scatter injurious substances which they have formed. The 
active leucocytes make an attack and try to eat the micro- 
organisms, and some die in the fight. Their dead bodies form 

basic substance, the living protoplasm, 

Sevier as consisting of anhydrous nit 
molecules capable of motion in a hydra 
protoplasm resulted from the hydratii 
the assimilative, reproductive abilities 
upon this molecular life, while this 
existed intact and was able to constru 
entiate similar molecules out of the les 
affinity. The molecule lived and was 
was part of the man, which was part of 
In a condition of surfeit no one woul. 

necessarily increased, and there is dang 

Other sociological relationships may 
way the human organism lias been lil 
In a series of articles entitled " Monistic 
lished in the "Open Court." lssT, I too 
ideal, highest man was a republic: thai 
throughout his bodv cohered ami work. 
health, for the common good of the or 

ted colls, and in this sc 
tion of analogies will ( 
the social organism. : 

of society, when in r 

think for the common weal: the philosopher, the scientist. 
the investigator stand in the front rank as brains: even the 
inventing mechanic should have high rank, and all such 
thinker in spite of the fact that they are not so recognized 
popularly. Heretofore, and to a great extent to-day. the real 
brains of a community are neglected, starved. In times ot 
dearth they are the first to suffer, just as the reasoning power 
abates in sickness, and emotionalism develops. 

must occur before natural analogies shall be recognized as 

capable of being erected into a science. At present in this 

its profunditv and capacity fo*r exactitude have not been seen. 
One consideration alone baffled the carrying out of analogies, 
and that is, that in comparing an organism to a nation, it \va* 
considered necessary to make use only of living material, when 
in reality living material coheres with the inorganic, or what i- 
called the « formed or dead material " of Beale. 1 1 
tions of the body there is use for such part- as th< 
as machinery of all kinds, the telegraph, etc., are essential 

202 The American Naturalist. [March, 

The cells of the body are used up, die, or are cast off, but 
the man lives on. The individuals of a city perish here and 
there and are buried, until in a few generations there is an 
entirely new population, but the city, more or less changed, 
still exists. The molecular interchange of the cells is identi- 
cal with this, and while so far as time and general processes 
are concerned then. 1 are differences, the operations of the 
nation depend upon the organism function, this upon the cel- 
lular, and the cellular upon the molecular. Nor are the activ- 
ities so radically changed as we might imagine. The whole 
end and aim, physically -peaking, is the conversion of mole- 
cular into mass motion, death reversing the process. The 
molecular life may be less than a minute; the cell life dura- 
tion cover a few days or longer time ; man may live nearly a 
century; the nation ten times as long or longer, but disinte- 
gration in some form or other overtakes them all, and history 
has to be studied in a new light to determine when the death 
took place. 

The hermit crab is not the builder of the shell he lives in. 
Egypt will someday be wholly occupied by Europeans, and so 
in regarding the life of a city we may mistake the persistence 
of a shell and overlook the fact that the social organism which 
constituted the real city may have long since passed away. 

Sociologically, merchants, bankers, etc., are the nation's 
intestinal or other visceral cells, and that they do not eat up 
everything that passes into their custody is solely due to their 
not being able to do so. 

Common carriers may be the blood-vessels. 

Telegraphs and other such means of communication consti- 
tute the nervous system. 

Laborers, soldiers, are the muscle cells. 

So-called rulers and law-makers (whether in republic or 
monarchy), merely obtain their power from the general units, 
and serve to correlate the intestinal and vascular operations 
as the sympathetic system does. 

The professors, authors, and other real thinkers generally 
afford the unrecognized brains of communities, however starved 

1892.] Natural Analogies. W8 

tionallyand think afterward, so the real brains of a commu- 
nity are disregarded in the main. 

Pathological conditions infest communities as well as indi- 
viduals, from want of harmonious working of parts. When 
the elaborating, transferring apparatus of a person or nation, 
as the intestines and blood vessels, or merehants and railways, 
either separately or together, become too selfish, and want to 
absorb everything, it is an easy matter to induce the intestinal 
ganglia legislature to adjust mean- torso doing; but. as this 
means death to the organism in general, a feverish condition 
may follow that threatens the national life until an e.jiiilib- 

mon wealth, hut so may be other associated parts. 

The workings of the nervous system, especially that of the 
spinal cord with its gray centre and white columns, may be 
explained some day by an application of electrical laws, 
particularly when the latter shall be better understood. New 
principles are yearly being worked out in this realm. Care- 
fully applied 'reasoning may enable an explanation of phy- 
siological mysteries that cannot be possibly arrived at any 
other way. Many of the viscera are not so well understood as 
they should be. The functions of the spleen, liver, and pan- 
creas, while much better known than formerly, are still to a 
large extent " sub judice." Analogies may enable us to better 
understand these parts, and in turn a better understanding 
may be reflected upon sociological and other matters. 

In the American Journal of Psychology. Jan. lS!m, the fol- 
lowing comment occurs on the discussion between \\ eismann 
and Gotte (uber dieDaner <le* Lcbens, u,«l <h r I rxpnunj 'V-s 
Todes.) "We may illustrate Gotte's idea by an analogy. 
Essentially there is no difference in the idea of death as 
applied to biology and as applied to the death of a literary 
society when the members agree to disband, possibly to found 
new societies. If we could feel sure that the analogy is some- 
times more than a mere analogy, but at bottom is a universal 
principle of life, we could gain immensely by the mutual 
comparison between sociology and biology. There are many 
terms and ideas common to the two sciences, such as i msion 

204 The American Naturalist ' [March, 

of labor, development, atavism, colony, etc. Reproduction by 
self-division might be illustrated by a splitting of the tribe 
into two. Budding, by the founding of a colony by emigra- 
tion of individuals representing different trades needed in the 
new colony. Sexual reproduction, by emigration of a single 
couple, and the gradual development (embryology) of the 
colony with differentiation of labor as the individuals increase 
in number. The individual in this illustration represents the 
gemmule. The integrity of a state does not depend upon the 
number of persons, though the amount of its activity and 
wealth does. Similarly in the cell, the gemmules may be of 
like nature, and vary much in number. Here the illustration 
favors the view of Kolliker rather than Weismann. 

"Although the work of two persons may he different, they 

any person in a state could found a similar state if forced to do 

hole study of pathological 
humanity what pathology has done for medicine.'' 

Analogy (which is often identity) may be used to illustrate 
psychological processes. For example, the individual thinks 
pretty much as the social organism does. Seldom is a com- 
munity wholly guided by superior thought, Its mercantile, 
transportation, and intercommunicating machinery is hard at 
work on the victual and clothes question. Amusement 
comes next, If a subject such as popular reform, inebriety, 
education, comes up, any person with advanced views will he 
talked at and about, by silly vaporers, and his ideas will be 
contested ; this or apathy' may smother the measure, the 
organism goes blundering on, guided by average expediency. 

Methods of rural village, town, and city workings are com- 
parahle to those G f individual- with different degrees of wealth 
and intelligence. As in higher animal life there i- better 

community there is a tendency to increased subordination to 
intelligence, for the higher grade intellect- may eventually 
impress their ideas upon the commonwealth. 

the soci 


precisely as do many foreign Mil-Stances in the body. 

which is meant that every time an ontogenesis is reviewed, the 

words, the developmental history is compressed to give room 
for the later added requirements. Adapting this to national 
matters, the United States seems to he rapidly passing through 
stages whirl, required aires, comparatively, in older nations. 
Written languages tend to become phonetic in spelling: 

plished for many decades, radically in the last named conn 
in Germany there would seem to be little to be accompli; 
in this direction, hut in the last twenty years the silent 1< 
"h" may be omitted. Conservatism holds on to un 
nounced, absolutely useless letters under various pleas- 
biases. How very like this is to the unfaithful copying 
ontogenesis by phylogenesis. The abridgment occurs in 

fossilizing tendencies against alteration. 

America indicates that ( 'ope'- law of acceleration is at wor 
develop the United States in this as in other regards bey 
the capabilities of its senile parentage. Many other us 
innovations are similarly made and meet with resists 
And vet without conservatism there would be no advance. 

206 The American Naturalist. [March, 

in general, resistance to the new until its utility is demon- 
strated, prevents the adoption of many vagaries. 

In past generations, boys up to fourteen and sixteen years 
of age were greatly influenced by dime novel, Indian and 
pirate tales. No matter what the cause may be (probably the 
dissemination of better reading matter), it is the boy of ten 
years, or younger, nowadays, who affects such reading, and this 
may be likened to a condition existing in the days of knight 
errantry, when cock and bull stories of fights with dragons 
and giants were rife among every class of adults. Bombastic 
and emotional influences for centuries back existed generally 
among all, and more recently the Capt. Marryat style of novel 
lured young men to become sailors, and in some instances, 

As the individual repeats in his life-time the history of the 
world, so to speak, he must pass through the stages of puerile 
belligerency, until he profits by his own experience, or that of 
others, and a boy of to-day, by the law of acceleration, passes 
more rapidly through these periods than did the one of a gen- 
eration ago ; and going back we find a period when a lifetime 
was required to outgrow this disposition. 

Friends fall away during misfortune and are attracted to 
wealth and power, in obedience to laws which are identical 
with those that create parasites among plants and animals and 
the so-called messmates of the latter: the attraction of single 
and multiple celled organisms to food ; and all these find their 
fundamental causes in laws of eh, rnical attraction and repul- 
sion of atoms. 

Increase in chemical and mechanical motions often induce 
atomic interchange and molecular motion and recombination; 
as for instance, stirring a compound to produce precipitation 
of iv-agents to pro- 

cells no man: without the man, no nation; and activities 
among either affect all of them. For many years as a student 
of disease.! mental processes, I have often' satisfactorily com- 
bated such things as delusions of persecution, morbid fears, 
apprehensions, and fright, particularly in incipient insanity, 
by an application of the following reasoning: 

In a healthy state, a fright produces certain sensory and 

action, capillary dilatation and contraction, temporary muscu- 
lar paralysis, and in extreme cases, perspiration and loss of 
sphincter control. Now as these are the usual expressions of 
fright, it is plain as anything can be that if disease may so 
interfere with the nerve mechanism as to produce any or all 
of these associated effects, it would be natural for the mind to 
interpret them as being due to the usual cause. For example, 
fear may make the heart beat fast. I have known an organic 
disease that interfered with the pneumogastric branches at the 
base of the brain, or with the cardiac sympathetic nerves 
running from in front of the spinal column to set up irregular 
heart action, and a feeling of dread or apprehension, or even 
terror will be thus caused by association, unless some compen- 
sating influence, which is not usual, interferes. 

By artificial regulation of the heart's action, both the physi- 
cal and mental disturbances may be caused to cease. Evi- 
dently a fright stimulates the heart muscle to greater activity, 
necessarily causing greater commotion among its cellular 
molecules, and the reverse condition is also true. The mole- 
cular action of the heart muscle may produce fright, 

I would divide analogies into two particular classes, the 
apparent, and the real. The fact that as we advance in 
knowledge, resemblances in the mode of operation of widely 
unlike phenomena are being more clearly seen, and that even 
by the lowest races, resemblances are more or less accurately 
traced, justify the prediction that some of our greatest revela- 

208 The American Naturalist. [March, 

tions of the universal workings will be obtained through a 
scientific study of analogies. 

The apparent analogy may be taken as tentative, or it may 
be wholly false, or metely poetical, such as is afforded us by 
the allegories and mythologies, and even scientific writers' 
may find a use for an apparent analogy in illustrating certain 

The real analogy is such by direct interdependence and 
relationship, and the great difficulty in determining its reality 
lies in the necessity for the accurate understanding of these 

It is not possible for any one human mind to be thoroughly 
versed in chemistry, physics, biology, psychology, geology, and 
astronomy, ami for this reason the one who may be familiar 
with one or two branches and have a fair knowledge of the 
rest, will be able only to generalize, but his suggestions could 
be heard and amended by a worker in complementary fields, 
and eventually a synthetic study can be erected, unifying 
what is known in these various departments, and thus astron- 
omy may come to explain a problem in microscopy ; biology 
may clear up a chemical point ; and sociology, in the light of 
the other sciences, may explain an otherwise inscrutable phys- 
ological matter. 

Necessarily the history of the past may thus be laid bare, 
and ethology may become a science such as David Hume 
little dreamed of. The reasons for behavior, the feelings, 
passions, vices, and virtues, may thus be seen. It will be 
found that we are truly creatures of circumstance. 

The significance of institutions may be more easily under- 
stood in their relation to the commonwealth. We may be 
better able to determine whether a measure will be useful or 
harmful, for example, when we make comparisons of certain 
physiological processes with sociological ones, there may arise 
a necessity for assigning a certain contemplated national 
movement to its proper place in the general economy. These 
comparisons may enable us to prove that instead of being a 
newly evolved useful structure, it may be in the nature of a 
cancer or an ulcer hostile to the national life. 

Plato's model republic was founded upon vague correspon- 
dences between mental and social divisions. Inder Reason, 
Will, and Passion, he placed counsellors, the military and the 
people, and Hobbes pictured the State as a monster " Levia- 
than." Herbert Spencer deserves full credit for formulating 
many analogies in the light of biology, and in the essay on 
'■Social Organism" lays down parallelisms and leading diiler- 
ences well worth studying. Some of which are as follows : 

The differentiation of labor is universal in all kinds of 

Among primitive people the ruling class is comparable 1 to 
the ectoderm, the governed to the entoderm, and when with 
later evolution the trading class was created, then the meso- 
derm arose, which furnished the distributing avenues. This 
may be taken to represent Europe in the feudal period. 

Great activities in society may abstract capital in one 
direction at the expense of another, just as over cerebral 
excitememt may draw blood from the abdomen and cause 
indigestion. In the lowest animals there exists no blood. 
Among aborigines there is no circulating medium. 

Circulating methods and channels increase in complexity 
in the ascending scales of animal and national evolution. 

The growth of a consolidated kingdom out of petty baronies 
is like an advance among the species of Articulata. Closer 
commercial and governmental unions between the several 
segments subordinated to a cephalic ganglion. 

England of to-day, Spencer would compare to some much 
lower vertebrate form than the human. 

Parliaments discharge functions that are comparable to 
those discharged by the cerebral ma^es in a vertebrate, he 
says in the essay, but he refused a gpt in parliament, as he 
denied that it was any place for a high order of thought, 
stating that that body did not govern or make laws, but 
merely promulgated what was indicated to it by extrinsic 
(mainly popular) influences. And in this idea of the legisla- 
tive and executive being the cerebral and cerebellar parts lies 
a great field for dis 


My view is that scarcely any nation has much more than 
passed the invertebrate stage. At least all are pretty low in 
the Simian scale, if as far advanced as that. Some may be 
likened to ferocious gorillas, brutal baboons, capering lemurs. 
The highest are scarcely as thoughtful as the chimpanzee. 

But seriously, the Science of Analogies, merits very deep 
consideration as promising revelations obtainable in no other 
way in chemistry, physiology, biology, sociology, in all their 
ramifications. The orbits of the planets have been with 
reason found analogous to molecular rotations and between 
the atom and the star lie universal principles applicable to a 
better understanding of mental and physical laws of animals 
and society. History will by its means be read in a new and 
brilliant light, and the ideal nation may possibly be evolved 
from the better understanding of what would constitute one. 

1*92.] Tioo Schools of Plant Physiology. 21 1 




tific schools of Europe in advance even of the same depa 
ment of animal life. It is also well-known that in Gonna 
the three most prominent men who have contributed to t 
result are Naegeli, Sachs and Schwendener. 

The expression "Two Schools of Plant Physiology " is o 
however, which requires some explanation, and possib 
defense. It implies that the various conflicting theories whi 
are at present occupying the botanical world maybe tra< 
back to two distinct sources, which, if true, is a fact not 
universally known or admitted. 

All scientific students whose knowledge of botany extol 
as far as a mere superficial acquaintance with the ordinary U 
books, are more or less familiar with the position occupied 
Sachs. His text book may be said to be the first general t« 
book on the science of the plant kingdom : that is, the fi 
reckoning from that time when our knowledge of the p] 
nomena occurring in this kingdom and of the laws govern 1 
them was considered sufficient to warrant the expression 
ence of the vegetable kingdom." The various text books 
general botany written before this time are now considered 
little worth except as historical records. It is partly owing 
this fact of priority that all our later text books bear 
strongly the impress of Sachs' personal teaching. His na: 
is constantly repeated in connection with the principles whi 
he advocates, whether these principles owe their discovery 
him or his predecessors. It is, therefore, impossible to read a 
of the ordinary text books without becoming somewhat fan 
iar with the ideas and theories advocated by Sachs. 

iu„«,i k-fc— ♦».- m ~H„a of the American Society of Naturalists, Phila., Dec. 

212 The American Naturalist. [March, 

It is, however, quite different in the case of the works of the 
two others, Naegeli and Schwendener; especially is this true 
of the first named, whose long and busy life presents a record 
of intellectual labor and achievement possibly unequaled and 
probably unsurpassed by any other scientist of the present 
generation. He was a teacher, like the other two, and not 
only retained his position as professor of botany in the Uni- 
versity of Munich, but fulfilled all its duties up to the day 
preceding his death. Unlike the other two, he seemed to lack 
in some degree that quality of mind usually so predominant 
in teachers, namely, the necessity of impressing its mode of 
thought on other minds. He was a sharp, keen, and logical 
thinker, and directed his strongest efforts in search of unknown 
truths. Although he may not in any sense be considered the 
founder of a school, it would be impossible to discuss fairly the 
present condition of this science without referring to the influ- 
ence of his thought and labor. 

The object, therefore, of the following paper is to consider 
briefly the present condition of plant physiology as it now 
stands in Germany and England, represented as under the 
controlling influence of two men, Sachs and Schwendener. A 
paper claiming such an object must necessarily contain much 
that is personal in character; it may, therefore, be allowed the 
writer to disclaim, at the outset, all design of personal defense 
or attack, whatever the appearance may be, the purpose being 
to show, as clearly as possible in such brief limits, the princi- 
pal features presented by the teachings of two men whose 
methods and theories are in some respects antagonistic. 

Again, in farther explanation of this purpose, as before inti- 
mated, the teachings of Sachs have become familiar through 
the works and text books of his numerous students and disci- 
ples. It is, perhaps, quite sale to say there is not a single text 
book on plant physiology wl lid i in all its important features 
is not based on the principles expressed and advocated by 

On the other hand, it is equally true that if there is a school 
of scientists opposed to many of these theories it has not yet 
reached the position to lay claim to this title by the publica- 

»*»*.] Two Schools of Plant Physiology. 2l:i 

tion of text books. In short, this school is of a date so recent 
that comparatively few of its theories are accessible to Un- 
English-speaking world. As an illustration of this fact, one 
of the most strongly contested points of disagreement between 
Sachs and Schwendener is in reference to the cause of twining 
stems. Vines in his text hook of physiology gives the theory 
of Sachs and also those of various later writers, and among 
others refers briefly to that of Schwendener in these words: 
" Schwendener attributes the twining to circumnutation and 
to an antidromous torsion." Professor Schwendener said of 
this after reading it carefully, " This is quite erroneous ; he has 
entirely misunderstood my theory. According to my expla- 
nation of this fact, torsion is only an effect of twining and not 

In that department of plant physiology which deals with 
nutrition there are fewer differences of opinion than in that of 
the physiology of movement. It is in the latter field espec- 
ially that Professor Schwendener has worked out solutions of 
various problems differing vitally from those of any other 
physiologists. In fact, his fondness for mechanical questions 
has given him the reputation of a specialist in the narrow 
sense of the term. Added to this is the fact that his discuss- 
ions of several theories are so abstruse as to render them diffi- 
cult even for the mature students who are likely to choose such 
studies in the German Universities. Thus, in speaking of his 
work on the position of leaves, he said it was extremely diffi- 
cult for his advanced students who had been under his own 
training to follow his lectures on this subject; that with all 
Ids illustrations and models which he had constructed for 
these lectures it was often necessary for him to go twice 
through the same lecture, and that he never felt certain of the 
number who had conquered the subject until he had tested 
them in the laboratory. 

Again referring to Vines, w r ho may be considered at once 
the best exponent of the views of the English botanists and 
a fair disciple of Sachs, he says of this: "Schwendener has 
constructed an extremely simple theory regarding the posi- 
tion of leaves." 

214 The American Naturalist. [March, 

This implication of narrowness and specialization is, in the 
writer's opinion, extremely unjust and lacking foundation in 
truth. The fact that he chooses to devote special attention to 
the mechanical problems connected with the subject of growth, 
by no means proves his unwillingness or inability to cope with 
all the questions connected with the subject, those referring to 
plant nutrition as well as those of growth. It is, however, 
unquestionably true that the habit of reasoning induced by 
studies of this nature is such as to lead to a different treat- 
ment of the questions of plant nutrition from that adopted by 
most of his cotemporaries. 

For example, in all those questions included in the general 
term, "plant-metabolism," his views may be said to be 

of Sachs. Among the latter are many who express the hope 
of bring aide to trace the course of the changes connected with 
these processes in such a manner as to prove by actual weight 

There are no text-b 
a few elementary 


>n plant phy 

in which th 

through some mode of re 

asoning eithe 

or show how it ma 

y possibly be pro^ 

process of CO., assimilatio 

11 as it is cal 

tion is formed whi 

ch m 

ay, or may i 

undergone in this 

e process. 1 

arbitrary, no proof 


ver can be gi 

that it expresses hoi 


relations in igl 

more difficult mal 

cter is 

i undertaken 

explain the process 


ring in the ch 

tion. All the Ger. 

man i 

text books, £ 

Reinke, Detmer an. 

1 otic 

T8, all have ti 

thesis which may e 


i the exact m 

which the rhythm ■ 


;raetive and i 

is kept up in the li\ 

ing p 




able to carry 

1892.] Two Schools of Plant Physiology. 215 

and Chemistry to the results of action connected with the 
living portions of the plant. The difficulty lies not only in 
the extreme delicacy of the material in i[iiestion but in the 
danger of interference with the processes as they go on. 

Schwendener and his followers claim that we have not yet 
reached that point in the development of the science where 
such questions may be asked with a reasonable hope of a 
satisfactory reply. Our knowledge is too meagre and our 
means of acquiring more are as yet inadequate. In other 
words, they claim that the methods now used are incorrect, 
inasmuch as they do not aim at constructing a theory which 
shall satisfactorily account for certain facts, 1 nit they presup- 
pose the existence of the facts, and the methods result, for the 
most part, in mere conjecture- ami speculations which count 

Whether this view be true or false it is unquestionably the 
source of the implication of narrowness and onesidedness 
before referred to, as obtaining against Schwendener among 
his own cotemporaries and his own country. Even here, 
however, it cannot be said that there is any actual difference 
in opinion between the two schools, only that the methods and 
results so far obtained by the one, are held in very light 
esteem by the other. It is very different when we come to the 
various problems connected with the growth and motion of 
plants. It is in this field particularly that the difference of 
opinion between the two men leads to positive diiference in 
the teaching and modes of treatment of several important 

Schwendener gives, each year, a course of advanced lectures 
covering the following ten subjects. 

1st, The mechanical principle in the development structure. 

2nd. Theory of leaf position. 

3rd. Mechanics of stomata. 

4th. Bending of the medullary rays in eccentric secondary 
growth in thickness. 

5th. Torsion, as caused by hygroscopical changes. 

6th. Ascent of sap ; hydro-mechanics of. 

7th. Mechanics of twining. 

216 The American Naturalid. [Marcb, 

8th. Nyctitropic movement of leaves. 

9th. Mechanics of irritation movements. 

10th. Flying apparatus of fruits and seeds. 

All of these ten subjects he treats from his own standpoint, 
giving the results of his own experiments and study, except, 
perhaps, the last one, which is sometimes omitted for lack of 
time, and it is one to which he has given less attention than 
to the remaining nine. 

From these ten subjects there may be selected three in 
which his opinions are diametrically opposed to those of Sach8 
and his followers ; several of the rest are not treated at all 
in the latter school ; and to the three here mentioned may be 
added two more important questions in which Schwendener 
differs radically from other physiologists. He gives the fol- 
lowing list as including the most important questions of differ- 
ence between his opinions and those of Sachs. 

1. The problem of the ascent of water. 

2. Cause of the year's ring. 

3. Bending aside of the medullary rays by the rind 

4. Mechanism of twining stems. 

5. Turgor, its influence on growth of cell wall. 

These may be said to represent fairly the important points 
which serve to separate the new school from the old. It is 
hoped a brief consideration of some portions will be sufficient 
to vindicate the right of the new school to this title, claimed 
for it here for the first time. 

The problem of the water ascent is one in -which Schwend- 
ener not only differs from Sachs but also from a large number 
of other botanists, who cannot be considered the followers of 
Sachs. The theory held by the latter and his school is, that 
the water rising in stems more than 30 feet high is for the 
most part carried through the lignified cell-walls. Schwend- 
ener and a large number of other botanists believe it is carried 
through the lumina of the cells. The difference, however, in 
the theory as taught by Schwendener and these other botamsts, 
some of whom are, in other respects, hi- followers and adher- 
ents, is that they claim to give an exact explanation of the 

1892.] Two Schools of Plant Physiology. 217 

manner in which this is done. On the other hand, oehwend- 
ener, who treats this question at length, denies our ability at 
the present condition of botanical knowledge to explain how 
the water is driven up. The agent he gives, but of the manner 
in which this agent works, he says we know nothing. 

His treatment rests on a long series of experiments, the last 
of which were made several years ago and conducted as 
follows : A forester several miles out of Berlin was authorized 
by the government to allow the forest under his charge to be 
invaded for scientific purposes, and a small lodge was built 
where one of Schwendener's assistants remained for several 
weeks, in fact about eight weeks, so that the experiments 
might have an uninterrupted course, the professor going over 
every few days to perform the manipulations himself, while 
the assistant remained to watch and report the results. 
(To be continued) 

By C. Hart Merriam. 

The basin of the Snake River in Idaho is an undulating, 
sage-covered plain, stretching completely across the State in its 
widest part. It is crescentic in shape (with the convexity to 
the south) and measures about 600 kilometers (375 miles) in 
length by 120 to 100 kilometers (75 to 100 miles) in average 
breadth. Its boundaries on the north and east are everywhere 
sharply defined, consisting of rugged mountains rising more or 
less precipitously from the plain. In several places these 
mountains project southward in parallel ranges, like so many 
fingers, alternating with northward extensions of the plains, 
which occupy the valleys between them. Such valleys are 
those of Birch Creek and Lemhi River, Little Lost River^ 
and Malade or Big Wood River. On the .south and west 
the Snake Plains are not so well defined, passing south 
ward into Utah and Nevada between irregular ranges of 
mountains, and westward and northwestward into Oregon 
and Washington, where they are continuous with the 
Malheur Plains and plains of the Columbia. The altitude of 
the basin along the course of Snake River is about 1,800 
meters (nearly 6,000 feet) at the eastern end, and less than 900 
meters (3,000 feet) at the western, and its sides rise on the 
north and south to the altitude of 2,000 or even 2,150 meters 
(approximately 6,500 to 7,000 feet), forming a broad trough 
whose general direction is east and west. 

The dominant feature of the Snake River basin is sage 
plains— rolling, uninterrupted plains, rising so gradually from 
the bottom of the basin as to appear almost level, and stretch- 
ing away in every direction as far as the eye can reach. The 
plains are everywhere arid. The few streams that reach 
Snake River by a surface course usuallv flow in lower channels 
and do not water the region on either side. 

The surface rock which crops out here and there over the 
sage plains proper is dark basaltic lava. It appears in the 
form of irregular masses or beds, extensive lava flows, and in 

Snake Plains of Idaho. Mt 

of broken down craters, the largest of which, 
Big Butte, rises about 600 meters (2,000 feet) above the plain. 
Some of canons of Big Butte support a growth of Douglas fir 
and Murray pine. The lava flows present great diversity 
of form; elevated ridges of rough rock irregularly fissured and 
with jagged edges alternate with smooth, Hat domes, suggest- 
ing giant bubbles; nearly level stretches marked by wavelets 
and ripples which bend and double, spread out as if just 
escaped from a seething, tumultuous caldron, while in many 
places the thick crust has fallen in, leaving deep pits of 
circular or elliptical outline, exposing the mouths of dark 
caverns that extend to unknown depths and furnish homes to 
owls and bats and a multitude of nocturnal animals. Tins 
black lava or basalt overlies an earlier flow of porphyrin. 
trachite, grav in color and much less firm in texture. I he 
Great Shoshone Fall, commonly known as the "Niagara ..f the 
West," results from the cutting down of the river bed through 
the hard basalt to the softer trachite below. 

In summer the heat is excessive, the thermometer frequently 
reaching 110° in the shade, while in winter the snow covers 
the ground, and icy winds sweep over the plain. The forms 
of life which inhabit the region, therefore are such as can 
endure great heat during the season of reproductive activity, 
and can avoid the cold of winter by migration or hibernation ; 
or if they remain active throughout the year they are hardy 
species, able to withstand great extremes of temperature and 

Most of the rivers which flow down through the mountain 
valleys disappear on reaching the plains, and the greater part 
of the water which reaches Snake River does so by subter- 
ranean channels. Hundreds of springs pour their waters into 
the lava canons of Snake River, usually at or near the bottom, 
and many of them are of great size. In winter their tempera- 
ture is considerably higher than that of the river. < rayfislj, 
identified by Mr. Walter Faxon as Astacus gambelln Girard, 
abound in these warm springs and are much sought after by 
(Procyon lotor?) and a small shell identified by Dr. 

220 The American Naturalist [March, 

R. E. C. Stearns as F j Lea, is exceedingly 

abundant on stones in the same springs. 

It is a common feature of the Snake Plains, as of many 
other arid parts of the West, that the rivers which do not sink 
cut for themselves deep channels with precipitous walls, their 
present beds being several hundred feet below the general 
surface level. Of this character are the grand lava canons of 
Snake River itself and many of its tributaries, particularly on 
the south side. As a rule these canons cannot be seen until 
their very brinks are reached, and it is not often that they can 
be crossed on horse-back. 

The northern boundary of the Snake Plains is formed by 
the lofty mountains of central Idaho, and by that part of the 
main range of the Rocky Mountains which bends directly west- 
ward from the Yellowstone National Park. Three narrow 
parallel valleys penetrate the mountains of east-central Idaho 
in a northwesterly direction, carrying slender tongues of the 
sage plains all the way to Salmon River. 

The soil of the Snake Plains, where not lava or sand, is 
generally alkaline, and the characteristic plants, in addition to 
the ever present sage (Artemisia tridcntata), are such Sonoran 
species as Atriplex crmfertifolia, Atriplex nnitallii, ArUmimtpedrt 
tifida, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Tetradymia canescens, Eurotia 
lo until, Eriogonum cernuum tenue, several species of Bigeloiia, a 
Malvastrum, and two or three kinds of cactus. Artemisia trljida 
and Purshia Iridentata are common in the higher levels ; and 
Iva axillaris, a saline species, was found at the sinks of Big 
Lost River. 

The characteristic birds of the sage plains are sage sparrow 
(Amphi«piza belli nevadensis), Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breiverii), 
sage thrasher (Oroscoptes montanw), burrowing owl (Speotyto 
cunicularia hypogoea), sage hen (Centrocercus urophasianus), 
and sharp-tailed grouse (Pediocsdes phasianellus columbianus), 
though the latter is rare in the area traversed. Ravens (Corvus 
corax sinuatus) and magpies (Pica pica hudsonica) are common 
in places, and the canon wren (Catherpes conspersus) was 
found near Shoshone Falls in the lava cation of Snake River. 

1892.] Snake Plains of Idaho. 221 

The most common diurnal mammals arc the Groat Basin or 
sage chipmunk (Tamias minimus pictus) and a small spermo- 
phile (Spermophilus townsendii). Other equally characteristic 
species are the nocturnal kangaroo rat (l)ipodups ordii), 
pocket mouse (Per ognathus olivaccu*), grasshopper mouse 
(Onychomys leucogaster brevicaudu*). Four species of rabbits, 
namely, the white-tailed and the black-tailed jack rahhits 
(Lepus campestris and L. texianus), the Idaho pigmy rabbit 
(L. idahoensis) here described for the first time, and the great 
basin cotton-tail (L. siladicns milUrflii.) are common. Antelope 
roam over the plain in small herds, ami badgers and coyotes 
are abundant. In the lava canon of Snake. River, near Shos- 
hone Falls, the plateau lynx (Lynx baileyi), raccoon (Procyon 
lotor?), little striped skunk (Spilogale saxatilisf), dusky wood 
rat (Neotoma cinerea occidentalis), and cliff mouse (Hesperomys 
crinitus sp. nov.) are common, and tracks of porcupine (Erdhizon 
epixanthus) were seen. Black-tailed deer (Cariacus macrotis) 
inhabit the canons in winter. 

Rattlesnakes (Crotalus lucifer), horned toads (Phrynosoma 
dovglasii), and small lizards (Sceloporus graciosus) are common 
on the Snake Plains, and extend north through the principal 
sage-covered valleys. Two Bull snakes, provisionally referred 
to Pityophis catenifer by Dr. Stejneger, were collected at Big 
Butte and Arco, and a single Baseanion vetustum at Big Butte. 

Salmon and sturgeon ascend Snake River to the Great 
Shoshone Falls. When we crossed the river at Lewis Ferry, 
October 15, we saw several large sturgeon (Acipenser tram- 
montanus) tied by the tails to stakes driven in the bank. One 
weighed fully 70 kilograms (150 pounds), and we were told by 
Mr. Lewis that he sometimes catches individuals weighing 
as much as 300 kilograms (600 pounds). He told us also 
that a fall run of salmon reached his place about October 1, 
and that the fish that do not die go back in November. We 
met a number of Shoshone or Bannock Indians on their way 
to the river to spear salmon. Some of them came all the way 
from the Lemhi Reservation. 

A kind of mole cricket locally known as the Idaho Devil 
(SienopeJmatm famntnd) is common on the Snake Plains m 

222 The American Naturalist. [March, 

October. It is a large wingless insect with a great yellow 
head, powerful jaws, and a banded abdomen. I first saw it in 
eastern Idaho in October, 1872, and found it common from 
Shoshone Falls and Lewis Ferry to the head waters of Brun- 
eau River in October, 1890. It lives in burrows in the sage 
plains and its holes resemble those of the small pocket mice 
(Perognathus olivaceus) in being clean cut, going straight 
down at first, and having no mound at the opening. In 
crossing the plains during cold stormy weather the heads of 
these curious animals were often seen at the mouths of their 
burrows and many were met with walking about among the 
sagebrush. They walk much, with seeming dignity and 
deliberation, and their tracks may be seen in every direction. 
If two are held together they immediately bite off one 
another's legs and inflict other Serious wounds. — From AnimcH 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. 


I Report of the Iowa Weather and Crop Service, 1890. From 

Baur, G.— The Pelvis of the Testudinata, v 

ith Notes on the 

Evolution of the 

J, No. 3. From the author 

Boettger, O. — Reptilien u 

Bolivia. Separat- 

Zoologischer Anzeiger, No. 37 

i, 1891. From the author. 

Bonaparte, R.— Le Prem 

er Etablissement 

From the author. 

Bowditch, H. P.— The G 

rowth of Childre 

Percentile Grades. Extr. 

Boulenger, G. A.— Note o 

Lycodon atropurpureus, Cantor, an 

Liitken. Extr. Ann. and Mag 

Nat. Hist., May 


Remarks on the Herpe 

ological Fauna o 

Mount Kina Baloo, North 


Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ap 

il, 1891. 

Description of a New 

Genus Cystignathid Frog from Ne 

Extr. Proceeds. Linn. Soc. N. 

S. W., Sept., 1891. 

On some Chelonian Remains preserved i 

Surgeons. Extr. Proceeds. London Zool. Soc. J 

the Rhynchocephalia. Extr. 

s Ctenoblepharis, 

Proceed. London Zool. Soc, [ 

an., 1891. ' 

Sexual Characte 

s in the South A 

HCail TO 

the Genus Homopus. Extr. F 

roceeds. London 

Zool. Soc., June, 


rom the 

aU BROVN, H. G.-Klassen 

und Ordnungen 

des Thier-Reich 

s wissen 


dargestellt in Wort und Bild. 
12, 13, u. 14 Lieferung ; 2. k 

4, 7, 8, 8 

btheilung, -1. 3, 

1, u. 5 Lieferung. 

„ V:e ^ :: 

30 u. 31 

12,13, u. 14 Lieferung . ?U**mi 

Tome IX, No. 1, 4, 5, 6, 1890. Supplement a Tome IX. *rom tne k s 
SU Butts,E.-A Description of a New Species of Echinodennata from the Upper 
Coal Measures of Kansas City. Ext,. NATURALIST, Oct., 1890. 

Catalogue ofthe Michigan Mining School, 1890-91. 

Chambers, T.C.-Bou.der Belts Distinguished rom Boulder rnuns-Theu 
Origin and Significance. Extr. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol ,889. 

S * *., rwti, Classification of Plistocene Format.ons. From the 

Cherrik, G. K.— Notes on Costa Rican Birds. Extr. Proceeds. U- S. Natl. 
Mus., Vol. XIV. pp. 517-5H7. From the Museum. 

Dolley, C. S.— Objects of the University Marine Biological Association ; Phila., 

DUMBLE, E. T.— First and Second Annual Reports of the Geological Survey of 
Texas. From the Survey; 1890-91. 

EiMER, G. H. T.— Eine systematische Darstellung der Ahandenrugen, Abartenund 
Arten der Segelfalter-Ahulichen Foremen der Gattung Papilio. Die Artbildung und 
Verwandtschaft bei den Schmetterlingen, 1889. From the author. 

Emery, F. E— Tile Draining Farm Sands. Bull., No. 22, N. C. Agric. Exp. 
Station, 1891. 

EYERMA.N, J.— A. Catalogue of the Palseontological Publications of Joseph Leidy, 
M. D., LL. D. Extr. Am. Geol., Nov., 1891. From the auihor. 

Furbringer, M.— Anatomie der Vo^el. A II-Dik Nemzetkozi Ornithologiai 
Congressus Magyor Bizoitsaga. From the author. 

Gaertner, F.— Concerning the Differentiation of Black Pigment in the Liver, 
Spleen, and Kidneys, from Coal Dust Deposits. Extr. Microscope, Aug., 1889. 

Concerning the Rules and the Applications of Reichert's Haemometer. From 

Gage, S. H.— The Microscope and Histology, Third Edition. From the author. 

Giard, A. — Lecon d' ouverture du Cours de i' Evolution des Etta ' >rg«nlse*. 
Extr. Bull. Sci. de la France et de Belgique, 18S8. From the author. 

Gregorio, A. de.— Annales de Geologie et de Paleontologie ; Palermo. 

Herrera, A. S.— Nota Relativa a las Causas que producen Atropia de los 
Pelos. Extr. de les Anales del Museo Nacional de Mexico, Vol. IV, No. 9. From 

Jordan, D. S.— Notes on Fishes of the Genera Agosia, Algansea, and Zophendum. 
Extr. Proeeeds. U. S. Natl. Mus., Vol. XIII. From the author. 

Jordan, E. O.— The Spermatophores of Diemyctylus. Extr. Journ. Morph., Vol. 
V, No. 2. From the author. 

List of the Geological Society of London, Nov. 2nd, 1891. 

Locard, A.— Les Coquilles Marines des Coles de France. From the author. 

Lydekker, R.— Note on a nearly perfect skeleton of Ichthyosaurus Unuiroslris 
from the Lower Lias of Street, Somerset. Extr. Geol. Mag., July, 1891. 

Ou Lower Jaws of Procoptodon. Extr. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Nov., 1891 - 

McCarthy, G.— How to Preserve Irish Potatoes. Bull. No. 22, N. C. Agri. Exp- 
Station, 1891. 

Merchrat, A.— Observations Relatives a deux Articles Critiques de Florentino 
Ameghino. From the author. 

Osborn, H. L.— Etudes sur les Schistes Cristallins. Congres Geol. International, 

■ XXX VI I. Fromtl 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. 

Extr. Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, Tome XVII. 

Note sur le Geure Synagris.— Les Chromides des eaux douce: 

Extr. du Bull. Soc. Zool. de France pour l'Anne 1891. From the a 

Tacoma Academy of Science; Constitution and By-laws. 

Thurston, E.— Administration Report of the Government Cei 

Wadsworth, M. E.— Report of the Director and Treasurer < 

Exposition, 1888. Proceeds. U. S. Natl. Mus., Vol. XI. Fro 

-Turn Tables. Extr. The Microscope. 
'.— Desciiptions of Four New Species of Fossils irom tl 
Silurian Rocks of the South Eastern Portion of the District of Saskatchewan. Exi 
Can. Rec. Sci., April, 1891. From the author. 

Wilder, B. G.— The Paroccipital Fissure. Extr. Med. Rec, Oct., 1886. 

Notes on the Brain.— The Collocation of a Suture and Fissure in the Hum; 

Fcetus. Extrs. Journ. Nerv. and Ment. Dis., Vol. XIII, 1886. From the author. 

WoODBURN, J. A. — Higher Education in Indiana. Bureau of Education, Circul 
of Information, No. 1, 1891. 

Woodward, A. S.— The Fossil Fishes of the Hawkesburg Series at Gosfor 
Memoirs of the Geological Surv. N. S. W. Paleontology, No. 4. From the authc 

Winslow, I. O.— The Principles of Agriculture for Public Schools. From tl 
American Book Co. 

The America)/ Naturalist. 


Kuntze's Revisio Generum. II.— (Continued from the February 
number, p. 147.) — Section 10 discusses the difficulties arising from 
the almost simultaneous appearance of new publications, publications 
of uncertain date, incompleteness of libraries, etc. 

Section 11 is entitled " Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plantarum 
and their neglect of the literature before Robert Brown." Kuntze is 
not the only one who has criticised Bentham for this, (G. J. Britten's 
Journal of Botany 1888, p. 261,) but Kuntze is especially severe upon 
him, not only for this, but for his method of changing spent -nan • -. 
He pays a high tribute to Bentham for his work in limiting and 
defining genera, but says (in English, § 16) : "Surely Bentham was a 
genius of botanists, therefore I admire him, but he was a great .-inner in 
nomenclature, who worked stupendously, but did not lose time in 
looking out for the rights of older authors and priority of their given 
names. He was alittle ignorant of the ant hors of the past century ; he 

took for instance Patrick Browne for ante-Linnean, although this 

botanist had adopted (1756) the Linnean system of 1735 with little 

alteration In the Genera Plantarum he has forgotten several 

thousands of generic names of Linnean and post Linnean time. He 
opposed the new international rule so as not to be obliged to correct 
himself innumerable times." Elsewhere he says, speaking of Bentham 
and Hooker : " Their nomenclature is to be censured not only because 
it is very incomplete as pointed out, but also because it builds wider 
upon the corrupt nomenclature of Robert Brown. The many incon- 
sistencies and caprices in the choice of names in B.H.g.p. is to be 

The truth of Kuntze's remarks will not be disputed. The English, 
as he says, admit it, but reply with the characteristic answer, "in our 
country we like to do so." So too, they like to measure with yards, 
feet and inches. Science is international or rather supernational, and 
it is not to be kept back by the prejudices of any nation. We may expect 
English botanists to cling to the methods of the " raubritter " period 
for a long time to come. But the world is not to be ruled by the 
heir3 of Robert Brown. 

The next section, 12, deals with the " beqitemlichkeit-motiv as a 
hindrance to the restoration of rightful name-." This "brqaemii<-hkt>'d- 

1892.] Recent Literature. 227 

motiv" is the excuse constantly put forward by those who do not like 
to take all the consequences of the rule of priority. Hut like other 
vague principles its operation is somewhat < -a; rn \<>\i>. and in practice 
is only applied where it suits the convenience of those who follow it. 
Bentham and Hook* r, says Kunt/c. follow it very inconsistently. In 

it in the case of their countryman Lindlcy. He gives some exa.nples 

which worked with Bentham on Wallich's catalogue 1*2!»-31." He 
then speak- of the way in which author- in one country neglect foreign 
authors, and charges that the English ami French *' on the average 
overlook with great consistency everything- written in the (ierman 
language." Each nation too, " pushes to the front w/lnis ro/e/'." its 
own authors," and he adds "we Germans are not entirely without Un- 
patriotic weakness." In these remarks he has struck the key note of 
the " beqxtemlieJikeit" excuse. As he says, it is " directly opposed to 
the principle of order. If it is not given up, we shall revert to the 
condition before Linn6, when each school or each land had a different 

In section 13 he considers what should be the starting point f r 
genus-names. He claims that there is no generally recognised fixed 
starting point. In general, Linne's last names are used together with 
those names given by his contemporaries which he adopted or did not 
rebaptize. But in some instances authors have gone back of his last 
names. Bentham and Hooker, he says, used the 1767 edition of 
Linne's Systevia, not because they attached special value to that 
edition, but because they had no earlier one. Kuntze takes the editio 
princeps of Linne's Systema Natural (1735) as the starting point for 
genera, and explains his reasons at some length. In the fint place 
he objects strongly to the citation of Tournefort for genera adopted 
from him by Linn"e. If Tournefort is cited, he says, why not Kivinu- .' 
And why not cite the authors between Tournefort and Linne whose 
names the latter adopted? It is, he says, making too great a leap to 
start with Tournefort, and then pass over all intermediate authors and 
start again with Linne. Some fixed point must be had and every- 
thing beyond rigidly excluded, or there will be no fixity in nomencla- 
ture. The citation of Tournefort arises, he says, from pietism and a 
little French patriotism. "Tournefort was shoved forward by De 

Candolle, but De Candolle and his followers ought first to have 

troubled themselves about the generally neglected contemporaries ot 

228 The American Naturalist. [March, 

Linne, and have it yet to do before they make so long a leap 

The remainder of his argument is, in effect, as follows: The genus- 
nomenclature before Linne was very crude. Barbarous vernacular 

abounded to an intolerable extent. In his Flora Lapponica, Linne" 
outlined to some extent, but only to some extent, the system and 
reform which he introduced in his Systema Natures of 1735. After 
1735 the changes which Linne made in genus-nomenclature were for 
the most part capricious and made to confound or punish his contem- 
poraries. It cannot be said that any of his works has been taken as 
the starting point. He made many changes for various reasons dur- 
ing his life, and his pupils and editors took his latest changes and 
handed them down, though some of them have not been followed. 
The foundation of modern genus nomenclature was permanently laid 
in 1735. All changes thereafter were in the details only. For these 

rightful claim to be the starting point." "There' i>," he .-ays, "no 
rightful or moral ground for pushing aside the first and fundamental 
work of Linne." Accordingly he lays down two rules: 

"1. Limit's Systema Natures, editio prima prineept, 1735, stands as 
the first consistently carried out Tinman system of nomenclature and 
system of genera ; the work of 1753 for the first consistently carried 
out Linnean nomenclature for species." 

As there is some doubt as to the exact time of the year at which the 
work of 1735 appeared, he adds : " 2. In order to have an undoubt- 
edly firm basis and a certain point of time for the beginning of our 
nomenclature, I have cut out from competition all the publications of 
other authors appearing in 1735 and bearing 1735 on the title page, 
and have allowed it (the competition) to begin first with the end of 
1735— beginning of 1736, on the foundation of Linne", Systema I." 

Admitting that there is no M moral" ground for pushing aside the 

cal grounds for so doing. This question he does not sufficiently con- 
sider. Many of Linne's later names, whatever motive may have led 
to their introduction, are gnat iiuMnivements noon his earlier ones. 

18M-] Recent 



yoke of Robert Brown and his to 

ccenora. But 

if authors 

h , ick to 

Linne's lust names at all. there 

which they are not to go, and 

at whirl) eilati 

on should 

\ u ' 'n,',- 

adoption of the 1735 edition do( 

iiuniher ..f 

changes as one would suppose— 

indeed the nun 

il>cr i'rela 

tiwlv verv 

small, and it certainly has the 

advantage of 


• a certain. 

unmistakable and eminently logi 

cal foundation 


Section 14 is devoted to a mini 

her of proposer 

1 addition* 

and aiuend- 

ments to the international rules, 

which make 

Mrict and 

definite, and modify some of th< 

m in acoordiu 

ice with 1) 

is views as 

explained in the preceding secti 

ons. They an 

; of such 

lon-th, that 

but a few can be noticed here. 

He proposes to amend article 51 by striking out the woi 

-ds « higher 

or " and adding at the end of the 

article "on ele 

vationof i- 

i group, the 

author who founded the group should be cited 

, either al 

one with a 

£ mark preceding, or with the 

other author 

behind in 

the second 

position." The last is of course 

to avoid what 

he calls " 


His object in making the change 

is to get a cita 

tion that w 

ill indicate 

clearly the origin of the name, so 

that there can 

be no dou 

bt as to its 

validity against intermediate n: 

ames. But he 

makes a 


between the elevation and the ret 


up, claimi 

ngthat his 

rule should apply to the former i 

>nly, and that 

in the latter case the 

correction only should be cited, i 

ind he argues 

this at so 

me length. 

His reason is that to extend the i 

•ule to both cases would 


undue haste ami radicalism. So- 

on the other 

hand, it m 

ay be said 

which sometimes does not demand much deiilx ration. His idea .-eems 
to be that a writer should feel that he describes species under new 
genera at his peril. It is somewhat inconsistent with his principles 
to allow any possibility of confusion for the purpose of chastizing 

-: and it cannot be denie 
must be guarded against as much in 

the book he is con-- ;~divi-ion. 

In this instance he seems to have carried his zeal too far. 

In article 60 he proposes to strike out paragraphs 3 and 4, which he 
adds to article lis, and to substitute 1 1 paragraphs giving forms to be 
rejected. Of these 10 is " double genus-names," with three exceptions 
however, of which (b) is " personal names put together which result in 
a flowing word." This is not exactly consistent. How much worse 
are double genus-names than •' Mowing words" (!) like " Sirhookera," 
"Hallowmullera", etc? 

230 The American Naturalist. [March, 

His eleventh paragraph is: "In case of halves of separable ancient 
genus-names, if the first word is valid and capable of standing alone, 
and is not the name of a higher group, then the first word stands. 
Accordingly he gives us " Bursa " for Capsella, and our common weed 
he writes " Bursa pastoris Wigg." 

To article 06 he adds : "Names which rest upon unlike orthogra- 
phy or are only to I»'<1 - -• nee or addition of final 
syllables, only stand a- different word- when they differ in one unlike 
consonant standing between two vowels or lacking in one of the 
words." He then proposes an addition to the effect that vernacular 
names and the younger of two pseudo-homouymes (e. g. Apium L and 
Apios Moench., within his rule) be adopted and Latin i/.ed or altered, as 
the ease may be, by the addition of two or three letters; e. g. Vochy 
Aubl. he makes "Vochysia Aubl. corr. O.K.;" Apios, " Apiosus 
Haller corr. O. K." He lays down some more exceptions and addi- 
tions, which are quite strictly formulated, and finally proposes this: 
" Permissible name corrections do not warrant the citation of the cor- 
recting author in the first place, either for genera or for the names of 
species to be joined therewith." He also lays it down thai names like 
Heurckia and Vanheurckia, Candollea and Decandollea must stand as 
distinct. I believe I am justified in savin-, however, that Saecardia 
(or as he writes it Saccardoa) and Pasaccardoa or Marckia and 
Lamarckia (both of which stand under his rule) are much more likely 
to be confused in practice than Apios and Apium, certainly more M 
than Capnodes and Capnodium, which conflict under his rule, so that 
he rejects the latter. Besides his " corrections " (as Apiosus) are fatal 
to the meaning of a name, and as a rule add nothing to its sound. It 
is all very well to have strict rules here as elsewhere, but there is 
room in this place for the application of a little common sense. 

A suggestion which he makes for a new article is interesting, and 
will not seem unreasonable to those who have tried to deal with works 
in Polish or Hungarian which sometimes appear. It is: " Article 69. 
Publications are only admissible for competition for valid nomencla- 
ture so long and so far as they are printed in Latin characters and 
appear in the Latin, English, French or ( ierman languages; but for 
gothic characters this has no retrospective force." To be strictly just 
this should include Italian ; hi other respects the rule is desirable. 

Section 15, additions, etc., to i'rit/el's Tin-aunts and £ 16, a vigor- 
ous and well written article in Kn-li.di on " Modern KnglUh Nomen- 
clature " close the introduction. 

1S92.] Recent Literature. 231 

The revision itself follows, the genera in each family being taken ap 
alphabetically. Details of all kinds abound in notes, etc., and are 
often very interesting (e. g., notes on proper spelling, on botanical 
Latin, etc.). But no confusion is produced by them or the revisions 
of genus-limits and monographs scattered through the work. One 
thing might be mentioned. He unites Aster and Holidago and inter- 
mediate groups in the genus Aster, giving quite a full discussion of his 
reasons. He also works out the proper species-name combinmtiOM 
whenever he changes a genus-name. Many things might be commented 

the changes. 

Just what the effect of the work will be cannot be foretold. Many 
of the suggestions will hardly be adopted. Others, it is to be hoped, 
will be. As the most thorough piece of work yet done in a direction 
now receiving much attention it must have some influence. Certainly 
the admirable discussion in the introduction of the defects of our pres- 
ent nomenclature and the causes of them cannot fail to have consider- 
able effect, and constitutes the most valuable part of. the work. The 
author appears in the introduction as a keen and severe, yet on occa- 
sion, appreciative critic, and if we are to believe his statement that he 
worked from thirteen to fourteen hours a day for the last three years, 
no one can charge him with haste, or say as he does of Durand, that 
he has not put time enough upon his work. 

One acquires a good deal of prejudice against the book on first 
glancing it over, which disappears on a more thorough reading of the 
introduction. Paradox as it is, the only way to attain an un. banka- 
ble and uniform nomenclature is to make chan-es now with an iron 
hand. " Unambiguous rules and priority," as he ever says, "are the 
only sound principles by which we can bring order in [to] nomencla- 
ture. The changes necessitated by priority should 

promptly and as thoroughly as possible, and— as we may wish it— it 
possible at once, in one book.-RoscoK Pound, Lincoln, M™b,, 
February 8, 1892. 

Literature of Parasites, No. II.-M. Braun. « Die »ge°an»te 
freischwimmende Sporocyste." (Centralblatt f. Bakl. u. Par. 1891, 
X 7, p. 215-219.) , .. . 

In 1885 Prof. Eamsav Wright, of Canada, found a peculiar iree- 
swimming organism which he considered to be a free-swimming sporo- 
cyst. Prof. Braun, of Konigsberg, recently found some similar organ- 
isms, which he traced to Limnueus paliutns var. corvu*. Jiraun ait- 

232 The American Naturalist. [March, 

fers, however, in his interpretation of these organisms from the views 
advanced by Wright and arte; wards accepted by hem-hart, in that he 
considers that we have in this case not a sporocyst stage but a cercaria 
stage, in which the anterior portion of the body (the Dutomd) hat 
crawled into its own tail, He has given the name Cercaria mirabids to 
the larva, but is as yet unable to tell to what species of Distoma it 
belongs. Prof. Braun's view seems to be the correct one, as he exam- 
ined the organism in various stages of development. 

Dr. Raphael Blanchard, " Histoire Zoologique et Medicale des Ten- 
iades du genre Hymenolepis (Weinlandj." Prof. B. begins with a for- 
mer review of works on this genus, dwelling at some length on Grassi's 
experiments, in which the latter showed that H. murina has an indi- 
rect development without change of host. 

The embryo enters the villosities of the intestines, where it develops 
into a cercocystis, which afterwards becomes free in the lumen and 
develops into the adult tape-worm. This is the only case where it has 
been demonstrated that a Taenia can pass its full development without 
change of host. 

Blanchard's diagnosis of the genus Ilvmenolepis is as follows: 
Body small, filiform; head small, provided with a retractile rostel- 
lum — well developed and armed with a simple crown of 24-30 minute 
hooks or rudimentary and unarmed; neck long; segments serrated, 
much wider than long, in number rarely less than 150. Sexual pores 
marginal, piercing the left border, the ventral face being that which is 
occupied by the female genital organs. The male genital apparatus 
contains a very small number of testes, generally but three, two of 
which lie in the right half of the segment, the third in the left half. 
Mature segments transformed into a sack full of round or oblongated 
clear eggs ; there are three concentric yet separated egg shells. The 
internal shell contains the oncosphere (six hooked embryo), pos es-es 
no pyriform apparatus, but sometimes shows a papilla at each pole. 
The larvae is either a cryptocystis (cercocystis) or a staph} cv-tis. 
Development is indirect, either without change of host, but with a 
migration from one organ to another, or more frequently with change 
of host, the intermediate host being an insect or mvriapod. 

A list is then given of all the know species (14 according to Blan- 
chard), their hosts, intermediate hosts and larval forms, so far as 
known. Blanchard is not readv to accent ( Ira-si's view that ILpnirina 
of the rat and H. nana of man are identical. 

The latter half of the hook is given up to the more pun h medual 
side of the question. Diagnosis, symptom-, treatment, etc. 

1892.] Recent Literature. 

H. nana has been found in man in Egypt, England, 
States of America and Argentine Republic. H. dim 
punctata) in America and Italy. 

Complete bibliography of the genus follows. 

The work is well done and like most of his work 
subject up to date. — C. W. Stiles, Washington, D. C. 

The American Naturalist 

—The address of Prof. Kolliker as President of the Munich meet- 
ing of German Anatomical Society contains some word:* which are 
deserving of repetition in this country. 

Referring to the literature of Anatomy, he expresses the wish 
that all morphologists would agree to publish their observations 
only in one of the four best-known languages, and at the same time 
that it is desirable that all anatomical contributions should appear in 
a few specified journals. He makes the following suggestions: (1.) 
Every author who writes in another language than English, French, 
Italian or German should provide, as is already often the case, a short 
abstract in one of these languages. (2.) It would be of great value 
if every country possessed a journal which should give as soon as 
possible a short abstract of every paper which appears outside of the 
.-pecial journals. It is often the case that important papers lie long 
buried in society transactions which would thus have their value and 
significance placed before the public. A few words follow upon the 
possibilities of a universal language, in which the claims of Volapiik 
and the like are dismissed in short order. "The savants of the middle 
ages possessed a genuine universal language in the Latin, and it is 
only in such wise that one is possible to-day: in such connection 
English or French are first to be thought of." 

The rapid advance of English to the position of a universal lan- 
guage has attracted the attention of all students. English is spoken 
to-day by over 125,000,000 people; no other language of Europe, 
excepting the barbaric Russian, is spoken by half that number. 
English has an additional claim from the ease with which it can be 
learned. It has developed further (has degenerated, if you will) in 
that it has largely lost its inflections, and this fact has added not a 
little to its simplicity and to the facility with which it may be acquired, 
while its capacity for adopting Latin and Greek roots is an important 
element in its favor. 

Another word in relation to the address of Prof. Kolliker. There 
is to-day no other journal in America which „ti;. rs itself for the publi- 
cation of preliminary communications in all departments of natural 
science; there is none other which attempts to -jive abstracts of work 
published elsewhere. Our readers know what we have done in this 
respect in the past; we feel that we can promise that the Naturalwt 
will in the future excel its past so far as thi- dei.-irtim nl is concerned. 

financial consideration attached. To the habitual cultivator of sci- 
i'!! )i" other ideal occupation, the devotion of the majority of m an- 
them would he -till less profitably i mploved. and the race as a whole 
would degenerate. Nevertheless the numher of men who believe 
it to be true, that the pursuit of pure science and philosophy are 
necessary to human development, is increasing. 15ut of this 
enlightened class a considerable proportion appear to think that 
human knowledge will grow of itself like grass, and that artificial 
aid is unnecessary. These remarks are made apropos of a pheno- 
menon frequently observed in the city where this journal i- pub- 
lished, and we have no reason to suppose that other localities differ 
from it in this respect. A dance or a dinner party is a most success- 
ful rival of an emergency to be met at a meeting of a society devoted 
to the pursuits of science or philosophy. Where the heels or the stom- 
ach have the call, the brain has to retire into " innocuous desuetude." 
The limited revenues of science may he misappropriated or absurdi- 
ties perpetuated in her name, while her alleged patrons cultivate less 
important matters. Dinners and dances may be indefinitely •repeated, 
but action by corporate bodies is only lawful at stated times, and the 
results of such action are far-reaching, both in scope and time. "W ith 
a higher civilization we will respect our brains more and our stomachs 
less, and -till have a mutual understanding between brains and stom- 
ach which will be beneficial to both parties. 

—General Isaac T. Wistar, President of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Sciences, has added his name to the honorable 
list of those who have given pure science a permanent endowment. 
He has placed in the hands of trustees for the benefit of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, $100,000 for the erection of a museum with 
laboratories, to contain the Wistar and Horner Museum of Human 
and Comparative Anatomy, and has added an endowment om«M)n 
per year for the maintenance of a curator, whose occupation shall 
consist largely of original research. Although there are several posi- 
tions in Philadelphia occupied by distinguished investigators, this is 
the first permanent endowment distinctively devoted to this purpose 
which we have. 

236 The American Naturalist. [March, 

— The newspaper press announced a few months ago that the Agri- 
cultural Department of the U. S. Government had determined to intro- 
duce the mongoose into the West to exterminate the rodents which 
annoy the farmers of that great agricultural region. Among other 
protests sent to Washington against this proposition, was one written 
by one of the editors of the Naturalist. The following reply was 

Washington, D. G, Feb. 8, 1892. J 
DearSir: Replying to your letter of the 7th inst., respecting the 
introduction of the mongoose into the United States, I beg to say that 
this department has never contemplated any such rash act, the intro- 
duction of exotic species being contrary to the policy of this depart- 
ment. Respectfully, 

Assistant Secretary. 
This reply gives us great pleasure, since evil has almost invariably 
resulted from the introduction of exotic animals into countries when 
no adequate natural restriction to their increase exists. It should he 
the duty of an Agricultural Department to impress on our farmers 
and others the importance of preserving the natural balance of life iu 
the country as nearly as possible. If insectivorous birds are destroyed, 
vegetation will be overrun with insects. If the snakes are destroyed 
the smaller mammals will increase indefinitely. A good deal of paini 
is taken to protect birds in some of the States, but none whatever to 
protect the harmless snakes. These animals are the natural destroyers 
of the rodents, moles, etc., which are so destructive, and they inflict 
absolutely no injury. Yet one can hardly open a newspaper without 
reading of some men or boys who have found a den of snakes and have 
as a matter of course destroyed every one of them. This is not only 
a crime, but a blunder, and the grade of a man's intelligence is low 
who allows himself to commit it, 

—Prof. Burt G. Wilder, in a recent paper, makes a good sug- 
gestion. All naturalist- make mistakes, and he propose- that each 
writer, either as soon as he finds some enor in some of Ids published 
work, or periodically, have a public confession of sins. It certainly is 
some stranger, 
■ sins of omis- 

Geography and Ton;!. 

—The Naturalist has a< 
that we will not again have to* 

in making payments. The n 
Feb. 1st, 1892. The late pub 
page of that issue as requested 

<£nicra! Xotrs. 


Recent Australian Exploration.— It was believed early in this 
century that the wholly unknown interior of Australia was watered by 
a great river system reaching the sea in the deep bays of the north- 
west part of the continent. It was to establish this supposed fact that 
Capt. Sir Philip King sailed along this coast in 1820, entering all the 
deep inlets to find some great river mouth. One day he sailed twenty- 
five miles up Hanover Bay, discovering a large river which he named 
the Prince Regent. The next year he ascended the river for fifty 
miles. Nearly seventeen years elapsed before another expedition 
under the command of Sir George Gray, was sent to Hanover Bay to 
complete the exploration of the river. The natives fell upon the party 
and wounded its leader so badly that he hastened back to civilization. 
From that day until last year no further effort was made to solve the 
problem of the Prince Regent River. 

The latest Petermann's Mitteilungen contains a report of the expe- 
dition led a year ago by Mr. Joseph Bradshaw, of Melbourne, through 
this wholly unknown part of Australia. Landing at Wyndham, on 
Cambridge Gulf, with four white companions and two native- and a 
supply of provisions carried on pack horses, the little party plunged 
southwest into the unknown wilderness towards Prince Regent River. 
They had not gone far before they met natives as wild as any that 
were ever dismayed by the apparition of white men. The savages 
living along one river plunged into the*water and swam across the 
stream upon the approach of the expedition. 

Nearly all the way to the Prince Regent River the party traveled 
through tall grass One species known as tin black oat gra-s was 
from nine to twelve feet high, and it was difficult for the little caravan 

238 The American Naturalist. [March, 

to force their way through it. At one place, where many enormous 
sandstone blocks were scattered over the plain, they found numerous 
large holes excavated in the boulders in which the natives had stored 
the bones of their dead. The skeletons were not preserved intact, hut 
the bones were packed closely together, and large stones covered them, 
apparently to prevent wild dingoes from scattering them. These curi- 
ous mausoleums were found along a creek which Mr. Bradshaw named 
Sepulchre Creek. Here also he found a hitherto unknown fish of fine 
flavor which he was not able to find in any of the other rivers. He 
proved that the great desert of inner Australia does not extend thus 
far to the northwest, for the region through which he passed was 
watered by scores of creeks and rivers, while tropical vegetation 
luxuriantly flourished. 

One day the party came to an unexpected impediment. A wall of 
high hills rose so precipitously that it was impossible to lead the horses 
up the slope. After hours of search a narrow valley was discovered 
between whose steep, high sides they traveled for about a mile until 
they reached the summit of a comparatively level, well-grassed plain. 
On this plateau they traveled for several days before they descended 
on the other edge. They found it very difficult to get through the 
tangle of hills bordering this little plateau on the western side, and 
for four days they were busy with axes under the glowing heat of the 
tropical sun cutting a road for the horses. A little beyond they 
ascended a mountain about 1,500 feet high, from which a very fine 
prospect extended from all directions. 

On all sides stretched away the hills of lesser elevation, covered to 
their tops with thick growing grass, while as far as the eye could reach 
could be seen a great abundance of lagoons and watercourses fringed 
with papyrus and palms. It was a fine tropical prospect and very 
different from the semi-arid region which must begin not a great dis- 
tance to the southeast. 

Mr. Bradshaw was particularly struck with the work of- white ants 
in the western part of the region he traversed. In one place, for 
instance, he d with a diameter of abou 

three feet and nearly ten feet in height. It stood in the middle of an 
enormous rock, at least fortyfeet from the nearest bit of soil. * 
the material for this structure must have been carried by these little 

As the party neared the Prince Regent River the country became 
more difficult to traverse on account of the steep hills, the grea 
blocks of porphyry and sandstone in their way, and the tall grass- 

de sac. i 

■ UnuMiaw - 

ing. The party ascended the river, only to t.mi that ahout a ri:iy > 
journey above the place attaint d liy >;r l'lniip kin;; a -{ >U>n<lni water- 
fall puts an end to navigation. This waterfall extends from hank to 
bank and the entire volume of water has a perpendicular fall ot thirty 
feet. They traveled for five days along the river bank above the 
waterfall to mountains through which the river flows, and along the 
rockv walls that hem in the narrow river they found many cavern, on 
whose walls the natives had made paintings in red. black, while. brow ... 
yellow, and light blue. There were figures of men with profiles well 
drawn, and kangaroos, wallabies, crocodiles and other animals were 
graphically portrayed. 

The noteworthy discovery was made that for a distance , t ..m 
miles the Prince Regent River flows between two entirely different 
rock formations. The right shore is composed of b«altic reeks ami 
The territory < 

and grassed, while on the west there is found mostly only prickly 
spinifex and black oat grass with boulders strewn over the country. 

Mr. Bradshaw was well satisfied with the rt suit ot hi* journey Hi, 
purpose was to ascertain if this region was adapted for. 
He has satisfied himself fully that ranches can be established to good 
advantage at manv places between the northern coast and 1 r.nce 
Regent River. South of the river vegetation changes its character 
and doubtless merges at no great distance into the aim*, 
expanses of the great thirst region of inner Australia. Hi 

very short of provisions before 
arrived on May- 
did turkeys, kangaroos, iguanas 

back to Cambri 

they arrived on May 14. They, however, eked out their 

- J ... - . _ :„.,„„„c «t,H fish, and at Cam- 

240 The American Naturalist. [March, 

bridge Gulf they were glad to find again some of the comforts of civil- 
ization in the huts of the hospitable Chinese who occupy the most 
advanced post of civilization in that region. 

Bradshaw's journey has revealed the character of one of the large 
unexplored regions of Australia. About the same time David Lind- 
say was crossing the greatest unknown expanse in southwest A u>tralia. 
He has now gone north to traverse an unexplored district in the west 
central part of the continent, and when he completes this journey 
there will be no large region in Australia that is not fairly well 
known in its general aspects. — N. Y. Sun. 


The Genus Scolithus. — Mr. Joseph F. James read a paper 
before the meeting of the Geological Society at Washington entitled 
"Studies in Problematic Organisms— The < Jenus Scolithus." After a 
lengthy review of the literature concerning this subject, the author 
discusses the fossils as follows: 

"There have been described of the genus from North America the 

Scolithus (Fucoides) shepardii Hitchcock, 1833 (Triassic). 

S. linearis Haldemann, 1840 (Lower Cambrian). 

S.( Fucoides) verticalis Hall, 1843 (Portage). 

S. clintonensis (n. sp.), proposed for S. verticalis Hall, 1852, preoc- 
cupied (Clinton and Medina). 

S. canadensis Billings, 1862 (Potsdam). 

8. minutus Wing, 1877 (Calciferous). 

S. tuberosus Miller and Dyer, 1878 (Cincinnati). 

S. (Arenicolites) woodii Whitfield, 1880 (Potsdam or St. Croix). 

S. delicatulus U. P. James, 1881 (Cincinnati). 

S. dispar U. P. James, (Eophyton dispar), 1881 (Cincinnati). 

5. minnesotensis (n. sp.), Winchell, 1884, described but not named 
(St. Peters). 

The geological range of the genus appears from this list to be from 
the Lower Cambrian to the Triassic 8. shepardii from the Triassic 
does not differ in any essential respect from S. linearis from the 
Cambrian. It is impo,sibh> to separate S. v< rlindi* of the Portage 
from S. clintonensis of the Clinton and Medina, or either of these from 

1392.] Geology and Paleontology. -41 

may be considered identical; while & Wtnetfus from the Calcitonins 
and S. woodii from the Upper Cambrian of the MissiflBppi Valley may 
be said to be separable by no definable characters. S. dchcatuhis 
from the Cincinnati differs from S. minmtm only in having the caviti. s 
of the tubes filled instead of being hollow. Finally, S. minneaoUntit 
from the St. Peter is the same, so far as characters go, as S. linearis 
from the lower Cambrian. 

It cannot be considered as at all probable that the annelid living in 
the lower Cambrian and making the perforations we know as N. linea- 
ris persisted in the same form through all later geological pen. ds into 
Triassic time. Mr. Walcott does not think it probable that the same 
species ranged even through Cambrian time, to say nothing of a much 
greater time-range. Yet he places forms from the lower and Aon the 
upper Cambrian under the same specific name. On the same principle 
we should unite all the species, in whatever geological horizon they 

one* from another. But this does not seem advisable, and under the 

decide the name to be used. Thus, 8. linearis might be applied to 
forms from the lower Cambrian rocks of the eastern United States ; S. 
canadensis to those occurring in upper Cambrian strata of the eastern 
United States, and S. woodii to those from strata of similar age in the 
upper Mississippi Valley ; S. minutus might be the name for the form 
in Calciferous strata: S. minnetoteima might be applied to the forms 
from the St. Peter, and S. delicatulus to those in Cincinnati rocks; 
S. dintonensis might be applied to those from Clinton and Medina 
strata, S. verticalis to those from the Portage, and S. shepardn to those 
from the Triassic. It is probable, also, that a name should be given 
to forms collected from other horizons, say S. arizomcus to the form 
from the Grand canon in Arizona. 

Several objections may be urged against such an arrangement. 

3 of all value as indicating the age 


nother. This i 

One of these is that it rol 

of the rocks in which it occurs. This is true. It depr.ves &0&/A**, 

too of any value as a means of correlating rocks of I 

t can be brought forward to justify placing the rocks of 
■ ' -ie upon the evidence of 

two widely separated areas in tne same ceriai 
such a form as Scolithus—a. form of indefinite 
features, of perplexing variability, and of wn 
of forms of this sort as a means of correlatioi 
use of lithological characters. Time does nc 

permit men 

242 The American Naturalist. [March, 

erroneous correlations resulting from the use of Seolithvt, but they are 
numerous enough. 

The second objection urged will probably be the multiplication (A 
names resulting. Some will, perhaps, prefer to let Scolithus linearis 
do duty for all the forms if they can be shown to be indistinguishable, 
but this objection does not seem to me to be a valid one. Dr. C. A. 
White, in a paper read before the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science last year and published in volume 39 of the 
Proceedings, in speaking of applying new names to fossils occurring m 
two different formations, says that "if a given formation is found to 
bear a fossil fauna the component members of which, with such excep- 
tion- as have been referred to (i.e. forms considered identical in two 
formations) are all unlike those of any other known fauna, I think it 
admiseable to treat the whole fauna as new and to give a new name to 
each species " (p. 242). My own studies of Scolithus led me to adopt 
this method previous to reading Dr. White's paper, and I have there- 
fore proposed, as seen above, to characterize the species of Scolwt** 
upon the formation, and not, as has been done at times, the formation 
on the occurrence of the species." 

The paper by Mr. James was discussed by N. S. Shaler and E. W. 
Claypole. Professor Shaler advised neglecting altogether the specific 
names for Scolithm, since it is at best only a hole in the rock. He 
also regarded Billings' observations on sponge spicules as valueless, 
because anything so widely distributed as these spicules would be 
swept into small crevices or openings, such as the Scolithus perfora- 
tions. Professor Claypole remarked that Scolithus persists to the 

The Sirocco as a Disintegrating Agent.— Mr. John B. Cooke 
cites a number of facts (Science-Gossip Jan. 1892) to show that the 
sirocco is an important agent in planing down and molding the hills 
and valleys of the Maltese Islands. Its effect may be traced on every 
rock and boulder. Of the exteriors of walls and houses, the side that 
is exposed to the sirocco always presents an eroded and time-worn 
appearance, while the other sides are fresh and unworn. It is not 
uncommon to find stones almost completely worn through. In the 
old fortifications that were erected by the Knights of St, John, such 
phenomena are of frequent occurrence. From a series of calculations 
of the rate of the erosion of the Globigerina Limestone in a number of 
buildings of known ages, Mr. Cooke estimates the denudation due to 
the sirocco at 22 tons of material annually from every acre of surface. 

1892.] Geology and Paleontology. 24:1 

Vertebrate Fossils at Samos.— At a recent meeting of the 

Academy of Sciences of Paris, M. Forsyth Major <:ave a verv nearlv 
complete list of the fossil vertebrates found at Samos. Of the forty- 
represented at 1'ikermi, thirteen at Maragha, seven at Haltavar anil 
seven at Mount Leheron, so that the inference is that these different 
formations are probably of the same geologic age. 

In fact, the author has remarked, in a new communication to the 
Academy, that this fauna can now he trace] coiitinuou.dy from Spain 
to eastern Persia, thus proving continental cunditnuis ; so true it is 
that a marine equivalent is not found in these countries. The uniform- 
ityofthe fauna suggests a uniform environment, and especially of 
climate throughout this great tract of country. Abo. tlie va.-t numher 
of horses and ruminants reveals the existence of plains or plateaus of 
wide extent. AN these conditions permitted the di>trihution of the 

mingling of individuals from localities far distant from each other 
would be another factor preventing a tendency to vary. (Revue 
Scientific, 28 Nov., 1891.) 

Geologic Correlation by Means of Fossil Plants.— In ■ 
paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science at Washington, Aug. 21, 1891, Mr. Lester F. Ward showed what 
an important factor is Paleobotany in the determination of the age of 
deposits widely separated, as well as more nearly related formations. 
For this determination, however, it is necessary to have a body of facts 
i.e. a fair series of good specimens. He instanced, as examples, the 
beds of Chardonet, referred by Elie de Beaumont to tin 
which are now known to be Carboniferous. Or, coming nearer home,, 
the clays of Gay Head, Mass., which geologists had described to be 
of tertiary age, until the discovery by Mr. White of a bed of fossil 
plants which proved to be types of the Amboy clays of New Jersey,, 
and therefore represent the Cretaceous. 

In order to make use of the principles of Paleobotany in geologic 
correlation, Mr. Ward proposed the preparation of tables of distribu- 
tion, (1) American, (2) Foreign which should contain (a) identical 
and (b) related species. The fact to be borne in mind is that correla- 
tion established by such data is homotactic and not necessarily 
chronologic. (Am. Geol. Jan. 1892). 

Petrographical News.— Chrustschoff 2 has re-examined the rock 
of Island Wallamo, in Lake Ladoga, Finland, that was first described 
by Kutorga as a crystallized labrador-granite. Two varieties were 
recognized by Chrustschoff, the one a dark-brown dolerite, composed 
essentially of tabular plagioclase, idiomorphic pyroxene, olivine and a 
little glass, with sanidine surrounding the plagioclase, and quartz crys- 
tals embedded in micro-pegmatite, occurring in the interstices between 
the plagioclase crystals. The second type is a dark-green diabase-like 
rock, whose constituents are the same as those of the first-mentioned 
rock. In this quartz and orthoclase are rare. These rocks are cut by 
narrow dykes and veins of granophyre, without peculiar features. In 
explanation of these phenomena the author states that the original 
rock was an olivine diabase that had solidified, with the exception of 
its glassy ground mass, when it was intruded by granophyre. The 
acid magma partially dissolved the crystals and the unsolidified glass 
of the intruded rock, and so produced an orthoclase quartz aggregate. 
The basic plagioclase was corroded, and sanidine separated from the 
mixture formed by its solution in the acid magma, while the remaining 

acid material cooled as granophyre. Deecke 3 gives a very detailed 

account of the geological and pet rographieal relationships of the gray 
tufa of the Campagna, Italy, which he believes to be a product of the 
volcanoes of the Phlegraean Fields. This tufa now consists of a col- 
orless or pale yellow glass, in which are imbedded fragments an 1 crys- 
tals of a very soda-rich sanidine, augite and biotite. The rock is thus 
an augite-trachyte. An analysis of the crystals of sanidine gave : 

SiO, A1 2 0, FeO CaO MgO K,0 Na 2 Loss Total 
63.79 20.87 1.09 2.06 .41 7.56 3.72 .42 99.92 

Besides the fragments of minerals there i 

are also found enclosed m 

the tufa pieces of augite-trachyte, pumice 

and c 

•bsidian, fragments ot 

hornblende-trachyte, and others of sedime 

n tan- 

rocks. A noticeable 

and very characteristic feature of the tufa 


distinguishes it from 

others occurring in the same region, are tin 

B nun 

lerous geodes distnb- 

uted in great numbers through its mass. 


contain a yellowish 

powder, consisting of sanidine, tufa-fragme 

nts a. 

idfluorite. They are 

. Bayley, Colby Univ 

392.] Mineralogy and !'■ 

apposed to have originated by the gradual deo 
nclosed in the ash. Hatchings' records the ex 

nd garnet in the flags at Shap, England, where th 
iv the intrusion of granite through them. The ti 
n the contact zone within the zone of Bpotted data 

it is probably andalusite. The clay slate needles that arc present m 
large quantity in the unaltered flags continue to exist even in those 
mcks in which brown mica lias hegun to form. In the phases in winch 
brown mica is abundant and newly-formed quart/, is present the 
needles have disappeared, and in their place arc found crystals and 
grains of rutile and sphene. In another stage of the contact action 
groups of large rutile crystals are observed, and in the neighborhood 

of spots are clusters of anatase crystals. In central Liberia are 

mighty dykes and flows of basic rocks, among which Chrustschoff 1 
recognizes ten types of augite — plagioclaae — olivine rocks, containing 
more or less orthorhombic pyroxene and orthoclase. Their structure 
varies from the gabbroitic to the basaltic. Each type i, described in 
detail and a photograph of it appears with the description. ^ Even in 
the most glassy varieties well developed orthoclase exists. The prin- 
cipal structures noted are the gabbroitic, ophitic, with and without 
glassy base, anamesitic and aphanitie. with small crystals of feldspar. 

Mr. Rutley" describes verv briefly a few sections of basalt or ande- 

sitic glass from CaradocHilL in Shropshire, Eng. At present the rock 
contains no olivine, but certain peculiar arrangements of magnetite 
grains indicate its former existence in them. With the glass are a 
basalt tufa and perlitic tebitic rhyolites with obscure flowage struc- 
ture, and some with spherulites. An interesting sphen.Iit.c and per- 
litic obsidian is also described by the same i 

> Pi,,-. \h 


In this the perlitic cracks were certainly tornu 
spherulites, and were afterwards filled with secondary silica and per- 
haps other substances. Much of the so-called anthophylhte and 

the rock s associated with the iron ores of the Lake .super- 
ior region is a monocliuic magnesian amphibole, corresponding togru- 

246 The American Naturalist. [March, 

nerite, according to Messrs. Lane and Sharpless. 1 Its refraction is 1.7. 
It may easily be distinguished from actinolite by its polysynthetic twin- 
ning parallel to °o Ps* and by its optical characteristics. It is color- 
less or pale green or brown, and is only faintly pleochroic. An approx- 
imately correct analysis gave : 

Si0 2 A1 2 3 Fe 2 3 FeO MgO (NaK) 2 H 2 
76.32 .56 .99 6.96 12.47 tr. 2.80 
Fibres of riebeckite or crocidolite have also been discovered by Lane 
as a secondary growth on the primary hornblende of a syenite from 
the S. E. \ of Sec. 17. T. 49, R. 25, W. in Michigan. The princi- 
pal types of olivine and anorthite skeleton crystals in some of the 
Yesuvian lavas have been well characterized by Rinne' 2 in an article 
illustrated by thirty-eight figures. The olivine skeletons are elongated 
parallel to the axis a. Many are twinned, giving rise to various cmsses, 
in one of which, whose arms intersect at nearly right angles, the twin- 
ning plane is «o P2, a new twinning law for this mineral. Intergrowths 
of olivine and plagioclase were noted. The anorthite skeletons often 
show crystallographic faces in grains no larger than .07 mm. in diam- 
eter. Mr. Turner 3 gives a brief account of the geology of Mt. 

Diablo, in California, describing incidentally a uralitized diabase con- 
taining twinned augite, and in some places passing over into a diorite 
whose hornblende may be secondary, peridotites (lherzolites),pyroxen- 
ites (websterite) and gabbros, each of which has given rise to serpen- 
tine. In a supplement to Turner's paper, Dr. Melville records the 
results of the analysis of these rocks together with those of sandstones, 
shales and a glaucophane schist from the same region. The composi- 
tion of the schist is as follows : 

Si0 2 P 2 0. A1 2 3 Fe 2 3 FeO MnO CaO MgO K 2 Na 2 H 2 

47.84 .14 16.88 4.99 5.56 .56 11.15 7.89 .46 3.20 1.98 
— A paleozoic leucite-rock, consisting of sanidine, augite, nepheline, 
and leucite, with the accessories anorthoclase, apatite, zircon and mag- 
netite in a glassy base is mentioned by Chrustschoff 4 from a locality m 
Russia. The rock is aphanitic and resembles in appearance some of 
the Hohentwiel phonolites as well microscopically as in microscopic 

^Anur.Jottr. Sci., Dec, 1891, p. 499. 
'^Neues. Jahrb. f. Min., etc., 1891, II, p. 272. 
3 Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 2, p. 383. 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 247 

structure. Sanidine phenocrysts, augite, anorthoclase aud leueite lie 
iu a ground mass of sauidine, nepheline and the other above-mentioned 

Mineralogical News.— New Minerals.— Xcu-tonite and Rec- 
ton'te.— Messrs. Brackett and J. F. Williams' >n_^v-t that tin- kaolin- 
ite group of minerals consists of four members, each containing one 
part of A1 2 3 , two of Si0 2 , and one, two, three and four molecules 
of water respectively. The best-known of these are kaolin, with the 
composition A1 2 3 2SiO,+2H 2 0, and halloysite, with an additional 
quantity of loosely combined water. The places of two other mem- 
bers they fill with the new minerals, newtonite and rectorite. The 
former occurs in lumps in a clay associated with the shales and sand- 
stones of the Barren Coal Measures on Sueed's Creek in Arkansas. 
It is a pure white, soft, compact, infusible suhstanee, with a density of 
2.37. It is only slightly soluble in boiling HC1, but is easily decom- 
posed by hot H^O, and by boiling NaOH. Under high powers of the 
microscope it appears to form rhombohedrons. Its analysis, calculated 
for the pure dry material, yielded SiO, = 40.88 ; A1 2 3 = 35.85 ; 
Loss, 23.27 = A1 2 3 2Si0 2 + 4H 2 0. Kectorite is found in veins in 
sandstone in the Blue Mountain District, about twenty-four miles 
North of Hot Springs, Ark. It is in soft white plates, closely resem- 
bling mountain leather. Its hardness is less than that of talc, and it 
is infusible. Upon heating it becomes brittle. The analysis, corrected 
for impurities, gives SiO„ = 54.67 ; A1 2 3 = 37.22 ; Loss = 8.02 ; or, 
if the excess of silica be regarded as an impurity, Si0 2 = 49.99 ; 
ALO, = 41.16; H,0 = 8.84; besides 8.78% of H,0 at 110°-115°. 
This corresponds tothe first place in the series, viz.: Alp 2Si< > 
H 2 + Aq. The index of refraction for the substance is low. It 
possesses two cleavages inclined to each other, and its acute bisectrix 
is normal to one of these, p v. The crystallization is thought to be 
monoclinic. Tested in the kiln the substance shows properties qufte 

different from those of kaolin. Plumboferrite.—The discovery of 

this mineral was announced by Igelstrom as long ago as 1881, but 
since it has not been noticed in journals outside of Sweden the dis- 
coverer reannounces his discovery in a recent article in German. 
The mineral belongs to the franklinite group, from the other r 
of which it differs in containing lead in place of zinc ~ * 

'ZtUs./. Kryst, xix, p. 167. 

248 The American Naturalist. [March, 

It is found at Makobsberg in black, platy masses, with a red streak 
similar to that of hematite. As usually found it is slightly magnetic 
in consequence of the inclusion of impurities. It dissolves easily in 
HC1, and by H 2 S0 4 it is changed to a white mass consisting princi- 
pally of Pb S0 4 . 

corresponding to (PbO FeO MnO) Fe 2 3 . Ferro-goslarite is a zinc 

sulphate from Webb City, Jasper Co., Mo., of the composition Zn S0 4 
= 55.2 ; Fe S0 4 = 4.9 ; H 2 = 39.00 ; Impur = .8. According to 
Wheeler 1 it occurs as incrustations on the walls of a large body of 
zinc-blende, with which is associated marcasite and galena. Its for- 
mation is due to the oxidation of the zinc and iron sulphides and their 
subsequent crystallization from solution. It is slightly yellow to brown 
in color, and is brittle. Its hardness is 2.5, and it loses water on expo- 
sure to the air, turning to an opaque, yellow powder in the process. 
Rowlandite. — Associated with gadoliuite and other yttrium min- 
erals in Llano Co., Texas, Hidden 2 has found a pale drab-green sub- 
stance that is transparent in thin splinters, and has a density of 4.515. 
It is easily soluble in acids, leaving a gelatinous residue. Upon altera- 
tion it yields a waxy, brick-red product. A partial analysis showed 
the presence of SiO, = 25.98; T t O a etc = 61.91 ; FeO = 4.69; 
U0 3 = .40; CaO=.19; Loss = 2.01, indicating the formula 
R t "X$i0 4 ) a .— Offrttite* is a new zeolite from the basalt of Mt. Sim- 
iouse, near Montbrison, in France. It occurs in very small, colorless, 
hexagonal crystals, with only the base and prism well developed. Their 
cleavage is basal. Density = 2.13 and composition : 

= (K 2 Ca) 2 Al Si u + 17 H 2 0. 

MoriniU* is a rose-colored mineral with a difficult cleavage par- 

*Amer. Jour. Sci., Nov., 1891, p. 430. 

The first mentions! is a double -ait of mmIiuih nitrate 
the formula Na N0 3 + Na, SO, -f H,0. It contai 
N 2 5 --- 22.26 ; N:i,<) 3S.27: II <> 7.:'.<». The 
.and colorless, and is m quadratic tables. LAnterv 
interesting as being I he first mdate known to Mini 
composition [I = 64.70; CaO 14.95] oorresponda 
occurs in well-developed, large prisms, appara 
imbedded in gypsum or Implanted in the rocki 
pampa. It is transparent and of a yellowish cole 
4.59, and it dissolve- quite rea<iily in water. Iodchr 
liar compound in that it is a double salt of the iodat* 
calcium, of the formula 7 Ca(IO,) 2 + 8 C'a ( V< >,. ( 
I,p 5 r= 58.12 ; OO, == 19.00 ; CaO = 22.01. The 
developed. They are of a deep yellow color, and th 

in water. Paramelaconite and Footeite.— Dr. 

obtained from Bisby, Arizona, several specimens a 
minerals that have been examined by Koenig. 2 C 
pyramidal crystals, set in a mass of indigo blue need 
a mammillary substance composed of a mixture of 
onite. The dark crystals, named paramelaconite, an 
a pvramidal habit resembling that of Brazilian anat 
ratio a : c = 1 : 1 .604:3. The hardness of the new n 
as that of apatite. Its streak is black, and its 
CuO = 87.66; Cu,0 = 11.70; Fe 2 3 - .64. Sin. 
such large quantity and .-nice it was found to me u < 
cuprite, the author concludes that the mineral is a 
onite. The indigo blue needles are ruonoclinic 
oo P» , oo P X P, Vac and Pdc , with an hexagona 
the crystals are twins, like those of harmotome. 

*Zats.f. Kryst, xi.x, 1891, p. 447. 

*Z*ts. f. Kryst, xix, p. 595. 

250 The American Naturalist. [March, 

(CuO = 63.7 ; Cu Cl 2 = 13.5 ; H,0 = 22.8) leads to the formula 
8[Cu(HO) 2 ]CuCl 2 + 4H 2 0. The name chosen for them is Footeite, 

after their discoverer. Rumpfite.— On the clefts of pinolite, from 

Jassing, in Obersteiermark, Germany, Firtsch 1 found associated with 
talc a flaky, greenish-white, translucent mineral with a hardness of 
1.5 and a density of 2.675. Under the microscope it appears to be 
uniaxial and hexagonal. Its composition is : 

corresponding to H 28 Mg T Al 16 Si 10 O 65 . It deports itself like a chlor- 
ite. Bolle'de.— Mallard and Cumenge 2 have found among the cop- 
per series of Boleo, near Santa Rosalie, in Lower California, a large 
quantity of a blue copper mineral that often crystallizes in cubes and 
oetohedrons. It is associated with anglesite, cerussite, atacamite and 
gypsum. An analysis of the cubical forms gave: 

Ag Cu Pb CI Aq 0(bydiff.) 

8.80 14.22 49.10 19.48 4.38 4.02, 

corresponding to Pb Cl 2 + CuO H 2 + J Ag CI or 3[Pb Cl(HO). 
Cu Cl(HO)] -f- Ag CI. The hardness of the crystals is but little 
superior to that of calcite. Their density = 5.08 and their index of 
rafraction is about 2.07. Sometimes the cubes are modified by the 
dodecahedron, but the dodecahedral faces have not their usual posi- 
tions, that one most steeply inclined to each axis occurring nearer the 
termination of that axis than the one less steeply inclined thereto, so 
that the edges of the cube are replaced by pairs of two faces making 
re-entering angles with each other. The optical properties of thin 
sections of these crystals indicate that they are tetragonal, negative 
forms that unite to give rise to a pseudo-regular one. The octahedral 
crystals are in reality tetragonal pyramids with a : c = 1 : .9873. 

Boleite differs from percylite in containing silver. Sjogren 3 

describes three new minerals from Sweden. The first, astochite, occurs 
as a coarse, columnar aggregate of a blue or grayish violet color at 
Langban. Its cleavage is that of hornblende. Its density varies 

P . 31. 

The second, adelite, occurs at Laugban and at Nord 
gray color, with a hardness of 5 and a density of ! 
leads to the formula 2CaO, 2MgO, H 2 0, As 2 0,- Tli 
probably an apatite. It is found in colorless he 
Harstig Mine, Pajsberg. a : c = 1 : .714:5. Com 
lOCaO. 3As 2 5 . 

The Sargasso Sea.— In a recent number of PetermannV ' Mitteil- 
ungen ' Dr. O. Krummel states the result of his investigations into 
this interesting marine problem. In the first place, he differs entirely 
from Humboldt as to the shape of the floating mass of vegetation. 
The " great bank of Flores and Corvo" is, he says Humboldt', sum- 
ming up of the observations made by sailing-vessels passing through 
the Sargasso Sea on their way from the Southern hemisphere to 
Europe. These followed with slight variations the same course, and 
their observations were naturally limited in extent. It was on these 
insufficient data that Humboldt founded his theories as to the size and 

shape of the Sargasso J 

■ the aid of s 

ns on these points. On a map which 
he has prepared Dr. Krummel has plotted out the general contour of 
the mass of floating vegetation, and has indicated in what part, ot tla- 
sea the sargasso is found in the greatest abundance. In shape the >ar- 
gasso Sea is a sort of ellipse, the great axis of which aim - 
with the Tropic of Cancer, while the two foci are near long. 4o° and 70 
West. Around this central ellipse others are indicated, larger in -i/, •. 
but with the vegetation much less dense. In their general outline they 
follow with sufficient nearness the course of the prevailing wind* Aa 
to the origin of the alga,, Dr. Krummel is strongly of the opinion that 
they come from the land-m.t only from the Gulf ,f Mexico and the 
coast of Florida, but from the shores of the Antilles and the Bahamas. 
The most recent studies with regard to the origin and course of the 
(nilfStream tend, he think, strongly to support those who assert J 
the alga? come from the land, and to disprove the i 

252 The American Naturalist. [March, 

who support the hypothesis of a marine origin. Now that it is settled 
that the Gulf Stream is n..t a single narrow stream issuing from the 
(iulf of Mexico, but an accumulation of converging currents sweeping 
past the coasts of the Antilles and through the adjoining seas, it is 
obvious that the quantity of algae carried away must be much greater 
than it could have been were the old hypothesis of the origin of the 
Gulf Stream correct. Dr. Kriimmel makes an opproximate calcula- 
tion as to the time occupied by the alga- in reaching the Sargasso 
Sea. A fortnight after reaching the Gulf proper, the weed would, at 
the rate of two knots an hour, reach the latitude of Cape Hatteras. 
From that point its onward motion is slower, and it takes about five 
months and a half for it to reach west of the Azores. After reaching 
the Sargasso Sea the weed continues to move slowly, until, becoming 
heavier as it grows older, it gradually sinks to make way for fresh 
supplies. (Proceeds. Roy. Geog. Soc, Oct., 1891.) 

Ferns of the Black Hills.— Last July while collecting in the 
Black Hills of South Dakota the following ferns were recorded. My 
collecting field was in the central portion of the Hills in the vicinity 
of Harney's Peak. About the same time Professor Williams of 
Brookings, S. D. visited the eastern part of the Hills, and made a few 
notes which I add to mine. This list is interesting inasmuch as it is 
much larger than any yet made for this region, including several 
species not hitherto known to grow this far west. 

Poly-podium vulgare L.— Abundant on the rocks in and about 
Harney Glen, on the side of Harney's Peak. 

Adiantum pedatum L.— Reported on good authority from near Hot 
Springs, but no specimens were secured. 

Pteris aquilina L— Specimens were seen, but not collected, between 
Hill City and Dead wood. 

Cheilanthes lanuginosa Nutt.— On the rocks at Custer ; Professor 
Williams collected it at Rapid City, also. 

Pellcea atropurpurea Link.— On the rocks at Custer. Collected at 
Rapid City also by Professor Williams. 

Asplenium trichomanee L.—On the rocks at Custer, and in tne 
ravines on Harney's Peak. 

Asplenium septentrionale Hoffin.— In the crevices of rocks at < 'u?u% 
and in Harney Glen. This is a most curious fern, resembling a tuft 

Aspidi inn nli.c-ma* ^xnrtz.— In ru 

this variety was collected in Harne 
ceding in haviug more incised pinnu 
on the rhachis. 

Cystopteris frag His Bernli.— In sin 
The s|h cimens collected were coverei 
(P.) D. C— This fern was collected 

Mountain, and in ravines approa 
Onoclea struthiopteris Ilotfiu.— 

City (Professor Williams). 

Woodsia oregana D. C. Eaton.- 

Woodsia seopuUnn I). ('. Eaton. — Common in the crevices of rocks 

Botrychium virginicum Swartz.— Collected at Rapid City by Pro- 
fessor Williams, who reports it to be rare.— E. Bi»iv. 

Notes on the Flora of Western South Dakota.—* Concluded 
from p. 63.)— The time spentin the Black Hills region was too short to 
enable one to form any very accurate ideas regarding its large and varied 
flora. There is a mixture of Rocky Mountain forms with those of the 
astern flora, which with the prairie forms make the Black Hiltaflora u 
very interesting one. The canons are pleasing fields to the student. 
Working up one canon we find in a shady nook Lophani 
on the drier flats are many kinds of Eupntorium and Aster, and an 
abundance of Argemone platyceras, while on several shady banks 
Onoclea struthiopteris grows as tall as a man's head. L p a small side 
canon are found Potentilla fruticosa, Physocarpus monogyniu, Ardo.-ta- 
phylos nva-nrsi, Di^pnrmn trarhycarpo. and Sli^plwrdia rawnitnn*. 
Out into another and darker side canon, and we seePyroh tecunda, I', 
ehlorantha, Muianthemum mnadense. Pterospom androw,,: 
dry bottom of another Mentzelia oligospermia, Geranium r,ch„rd- 
sonii,G. caroliniannm and G. dimectvm were collected. Far up a 
narrow, dark gorge grows Mim d«,. ' km with Coryhu rostral m tn< 
bank above. Along the higher bluffs, Pima ponderosa var. seopal- 

254 The American Naturalist. [March, 

orum makes the greater part of the timber, but lower down in the 
canons are Betula papyrifera, B. oceidentalis, Ostrya virginica, both 
the junipers, Fraxinus viridis, F. pubescens, Populus monilifera, P. 
tremuloides, TJlmus aviericana, and Querents maerocarpa. This last has 
a number of very interesting and perplexing forms. Ribes yracde,R. 
aureum, R. fioridum are very plentiful, and when we were there were 
loaded with fruit, all of which was quite palatable excepting that of 
R. cere urn ; cherries were also plentiful. Rubus strigosus was abund- 
ant in many places, and was loaded with fruit, which was ripe in 

There are a great many introduced plants in the larger valleys, and 
a discussion of their introduction would be interesting were one better 
acquainted with them and their surroundings. 

Quite a number of fungi were found here. Of the lichens I shall 
say nothing now except that the lichen flora is very interesting, and 
that I found many good things. 

When we left the Black Hills for the Bad Land region we followed 
down a stream called Spring Creek. We had been told that there 
was considerable timber on the stream. Most of the way down, the 
wagon road is at the foot of the bluffs at some distance from the stream, 
and no trees could be seen. We concluded that we had been misin- 
formed. By-and-by we turned to cross the stream and found that 
there was a second bottom between us and the stream, and that the 
real valley was hidden from our sight. This was covered with a fine 
growth of elm, ash, haekberry, boxelder, willow, etc. There is wood 
enough along this one stream to keep a whole county in wood if rightly 

The Cheyenne Valley, at the mouths of Spring Creek and Indian 
Creek, differs but little from that in the vicinity of Smithville before 

By following up the Indian Creek Valley one can enter the Bad 
Lands proper in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain. This flora is also 
interesting. All the plants, excepting a few stunted introduced spe- 
cies are of the kinds adapted to a dry climate and poor soil. The 
chenopods are well represented by Atriplex nuttallii, A. argentea, A. 
patula, var. hastata, Sarcobatus vermieidutus and several species of 
Chenopodium. Atriplex nuttaltii and Sarcobatus vermiatfatus are most 
plentiful on the sterile sides of the buttes and hills, both becoming 
quite shrubby with age. The old stems are often well covered with 
several species of lichens. Along the sides of Sheep Mountain and 
some other of the more favored places .ho,i[,rni.< cirginiamt is quite 

abundant. The valleys bordering the stream.* are sometime* <,uiu> 

well sodded with grass, hut no species of much inijx -rt;i : 

except in the larger valley, or in the basin*. 

the commonest of these grasses. It is of no use at all :i> a 

since stock will not eat it either green or as hay. and Km few machines 

and >'. gracilis and Paa'a-am rirgatum are the principal In rage plants. 

The timber of the Bad Land streams consists chieth 
monilij'era, Sltc)>herdia argent ea and an occasional elm. h<.x-< lder or 
ash. Physaria didymocarpa is very common throughout the whole 
region, its thick, fleshy leaves reminding one of the large leaved 

Astragulus is represented by A. itisulcatus, A. scri'-okuru.*, A. grar- 

along the Cheyenne, gets up into the woodlands in many 
Cacti are represented by Opuntia rafui<s<pt<i, O. jragili.-. and 0. mis- 
suriensis, in many puzzling forms, Mamillaria vivipara and M. mis- 
suriensis. All these are plentiful, 0. fragilis and 0. raPni.«ptei appar- 
ently preferring the higher tabledands and the others the basins and 
lower tabledands. Rhus radicans and R. canadensis var. trilobata 
occur in many places. 

Almost in the centre of the Great Basin there is a veritable oasis. 
At the base of a long hill of considerable height there is a cluster of 
springs known as Iron Springs, from the peculiar taste of the water. 
The entire hill seems to be made of better soil than the surrounding 
country, for it is covered with a fine growth of grass, including many 
of the best species, as Boutelua racemosa, Andropogon furcatus. A. 
nutans, A. hallii and Panicum virgatum. Here we ah- ■ f und En ■ .,ti« 
lanata, Psoralen cuspidate, P. lanceolate. P. argophvU", /'. 

P. tenuiflora, Aster multiflorus, Artemisia hd> > ". 

A. filifolia, Agropyrinn glaucum, A. tenerum and many other prame 
Along the more abrupt sides of the hill grew 1. efa o<n<. »- 

, Juniperus virginiana, Popu. 

,P. mm 

ana, Acer negun 

nridis and F. pubescens. In the immediate vi, imn -t tl e -] ring* 

great many plants were found that one would hardly expect. Some 

of the finest plums, either wild or cultivated, that I have ever eaten 

grew on bushes fringing the spring,. Here also were eln,. 

berry, cherry, box-elder, willow, 4«ij 

R.doridum,R. gracile, Panehtri ' ' : '"'P Ue ""-'' 

256 The American Naturalist. [March, 

dentalis, Polygonum dumetorum var. scandens, Phryma leptostachya, 
Distichlis maritima. Lemno minor, L. polyrrhiza, Mimulus jomesii, 
Spartina cynosuroides and gracilis, with other species common to prairie 
and timbered regions. Many of the species found at these springs 
were found no nearer than the Black Hills or the Missouri River, yet 
here they seemed to nourish in the very centre of the great Bad Land 

I append a list of a few of the more characteristic species of each of 
the three regions. 

The Range. — Stipa comata, Boutelua hirsuta, Boutelua oligo- 
staehya and B. racemosa, Agropyrum glaucum, A. repens, Yucca nricpisti- 
folia, Sophora sericea, Shrankia uneinata, Psoralea argophylla, ten- 
uiflora, cuspidata and esculenta, Astragalus caryocarpus and fiexuosus ; 
Gutierrezia euthamice, Solidago missouriensis, canadensis ami scroti na; 
Helianthus petiolaris, Marsilia vest it a. 

The Black Hills. — Onoclea struth'mpb-ri.-, Jan i pern.-- communis 
and virginiana; Picea alba, Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum, Behda 
aotwt, Ottrya nryimro, 
Corylus rostrata and americana ; Pyrola chlorantha and secunda ; rter- 
ospora andromeda, Androsace septentrional is, Hedeoma drummondu, 
Lophanthus ..herdia cana- 

densis, Euphorbia dictyosperma, Sambucus canadensis and racemosa; 
Aralia nudicaulis, Aetata rubra and alba; Disporum trachycarpwm, 
Geranium richardsonii, carolinianum and dissectum ; Mentzeha ohgo- 
sperma, Quercus macrocarpa. 

The Bad Lands.— Spartina gracilis, Sporobolus airoides, Sporobo- 
lus asperifolius, Androp la didymocarpa, Astraga- 

lus sericoleucus, Astragalus caespitosus, Astragalus gracilis, Astragalus 
p t (E otl?racaespitosa,Sarcobatusvermiculatus,Atriplc.riiott<!/hi, 
Parmelia molliuscula, Urceolaria scruposa var. gypsacea, Ulceolaria 
scruposa, var. parasitica, Tylostoma mammosum, Geaster delicatus.— 
T. A.> 1 -- 


Work of Earth-worms in Yoruba Country, West Africa. 
—In the Proceedings of The Roval Geographical Society October 
1891, Mr. Alvan Millson gives the following account of the' extraordi- 
nary work done by West African earth-worms. 

"Northward from Ihadan. which may he described as the centre of 
the chief military and commercial power in Yoruha, two days journey 
— about forty miles — through many villages, and a landscape -lotted 
far and near with oil-palms i FJ"h gitlnccnxiij, along a road thronged 
with travelers, brings one to the capital of central Yoruha, ()y<> 
(Awyaw). On leaving Ibadan I passed ill the course of our morning's 
march over 4700 men, women, and children, hurrying into the great 
city from the farm villages, with loads of maize, beans, vams, vain 
flour, sweet potatoes, fowls, pigs, ducks; or driving cattle, sheep, and 
goats; or mounted on small native horses which amble quickly along 
under the combined influence of an Arab ring-hit and an armed spur 
which leaves its traces in deep scores along the flanks of the poor 

" Far and wide the land has, for generations, and indeed for centur- 
ies, been cultivated by these industrious natives. The hatchet, the 
fire, and the hoe have removed all traces of the original forest, save 
indeed where a dark trail of green . wu where 

the valley of some narrow watercourse or larger river is hidden among 

" For two or three years at most the land is allowed to lie fallow, 
while for three or four years double or treble crops are raised with no 
further cultivation than an occasional scrape with a hoe. and .luring 
it- fallow time no further care is taken of it than to let a rank growth 
of reedy grass spring up some six or eight feet in height. Among this 
grass can be seen the seedlings and young plants of a new forest which 
would rapidly take possession were the laud to be permanently 

" In spite of this careless and exhausting method of cultivation the 
crops maintain an excellent average, and the same plot of ground 
serves for generations to support its owners. 

"The following extracts taken from notes taken at the time will serve 
to explain the apparently inexhaustible fertility of a soil which does 
not at first sight show any signs of unusual richness. 

" Were one to visit Yoruba during the early part of the rainy sea- 
son only, it would appear impossible to account for these facts 

while under our feet unnoticed was going on the ceaseless labor of the 
real fertilizers of the land. 

" In the dry season the mystery is at once solved, and in the sim- 
plest and most unexpected manner. The whole surface of the ground 
among the grass is seen to be covered by serried ranks of cylindrical 
worm casts. These worm casts vary in height from a quarter of an 
inch to three inches, and exist in astonishing numbers. It is in many 
places impossible to press your finger upon the ground without touch- 
ing one. For scores of square miles they crowd the land, closely 
packx-d. upright, and burned by the sun into rigid rolls of hardened 
clay. There they stand until the rains break them down into a fine 
powder, rich in plant food, and lending itself easily to the hoe of the 
farmer. Having carefully removed the worm casts of one season from 
two separate square feet of land at a considerable distance from one 
another, and chosen at random, I find the result to weigh not less than 
ten and three-quarters pounds in a thoroughly dry state. This gives 
a mean of over five pounds per square foot. Accepting this as the 
amount of earth brought to the surface every year by these worms, we 
get somewhat startling results. I may say, speaking from the result 
of numerous experiments, that five pounds is a very moderate yearly 
estimate of the work done by these busy laborers on each square foot 
of soil. Even at this moderate estimate, however, of the annual result 
of their work, we have a total of not less than 62,233 tons of subsoil 
brought to the surface on each square mile of cultivatable land in the 
Yoruba country year after year, and to the untiring labors of its 
earth-worms this part of West Africa owes the livelihood of its people. 
Where the worms do not work, the Yoruba knows that it is useless to 
make his farm. 

" Estimating one square yard of dry earth by two feet deep as 
weighing half a ton, we have an annual movement of earth per square 
yard to the depth of two feet, amounting to not less than forty-five 
pounds. From this it appears that every particle of earth in each ton 
of soil to the depth of two feet is brought to the surface once in twenty- 
seven years. 

" The earth-worm which produces such surprising results has been 
identified as a new species of Siphonogaster, a genus known hitherto 
only in the i^ile Valley." 

1892.] Zoology. '_>">! 

The Worm Gymnorhynchus Reptans.— M. Moniez ha: 
recently found a perfect specimen of Oymnorhynehw reptnm ii 

(h-i/rhiiKi i/Iaiira. This genus h distinguished from other sj*ecies o 
Tetrarhynchides, kpown in the larval state, by a curious app. a 
the end of the sac into which the animal can retract the anterior par 
of its body as in a ey-t. This appendage, about one meter in length 

Van Beneden, the sac into which the anterior part of the larva' ii 

this very long animal there remains only the neck and that small por- 
tion of the tissues attached to which the name "zone generatriee " ha: 

rings which complete the animal. 
M. Moniez consider^ igi eomparabU with tha 

found in several Cestodes of the tvpe of Tcenia serraUi. (Revue 1 >i<-l 
Jan. 1892). 

New Fishes from Chihuahua, Mexico.— During the month: 
of July and August, 1891, some collections of fishes were made by tin 
author at several points in Mexico, from Orizaba to Chihuahua ; man} 
interesting specimens were taken, several of which are believed to b* 
new to science. The specimens here described were taken from tht 
Rio de las Conchos at Chihuahua. The river bed here is half a mih 
wide in places, with numerous sand bars and depressions. It is little 
more than a river bed however, owing to the almost total lack of rain 
fall throughout the entire year. The water in this large river bed is 
reduced to a very diminutive stream that is brought from the moun 
tains ten miles away by an aqueduct to supply the city with water. 

A mile below the city the stream is dammed, in order to use th< 
water for irrigating purposes. Here on one side the bank is high and 
rocky and the water is entirely too deep to be seined. The other bank 
is composed of sand, sloping gradually to the deeper water, and ii 
easily accessible. The bottom is covered with several inches of mud 
and in many places the shallow parts are thickly grown with vanom 

These quiet waters swarm with fish, for the most part of the minnow 

At the upper end of the pond the water was shallow, dear, and n 
places swift enough to form ripples, here a number of Cyprindontida 

and two species of darters were taken, making about sixteen species 
in all. 

Notropis chihuahua sp. nov. — Body elongate, back little elevated, 
rising gradually from snout to front of dorsal; head large; 
snout blunt ; mouth nearly horizontal, slightly oblique ; maxillary 
scarcely reaching to front of eye ; eye large, averaging 3f mm. longer 
than snout, but not quite equal interorbital space ; anterior part of 
dorsal midway between snout and caudal ; scales deeper than long, not 
crowded anteriorly ; lateral line straight, nearly every scale with 

Color, light brown above ; edges of scales above the lateral line 
with small but closely placed black dots ; body also above the lateral 
line thickly but irregularly sprinkled with dark brown spots, these 
gradually becoming more numerous toward the median line of the 
back, where they form a vertebral line; the side of the body with a 
plumbous lateral stripe, of about the width of the eye; this lateral 
stripe can be traced through the eye and around the snout, thickly 
sprinkling the upper lip with small dots, but not touching the lower 
lip ; the lateral stripe terminates in an irregular spot at base of and 
between the lobes of the caudal ; sides below the lateral line silvery ; 
belly, plain white. The fins are plain except the dorsal and caudal 
which are dusky but without di-tind markings; teeth 4-4; hooked 
grinding surfaces very narrow. 

Following are measurements of a few specimens in mm., the length 
being taken from snout to base of caudal fin. 

Length. Head. Depth. Eye. Lat. line. Dorsal. Anal 
58 15 15— 4 34 8 7 

58 15 15— 4 37 

- ^vellii sp. nov.— Body stout, head large, snout 
abruptly decurved, back but little elevated, caudal peduncle broad, 
spinous dorsal low. Body covered with about ten bands, la mm. wide, 
of a dark purplish cast, olive between ; the first, second and fifth 

1892-] Zoology. 261 

extending over the back. Pectoral and ventral fins plain, spinous 
dorsal bordered with black, also an imperfect stripe close to hack ; 
soft dorsal with two imperfect dark stripes; caudal frequently barred. 
Mouth horizontal, lower jaw included, maxillary reaching a Uttlfl hark 
of front of orbit, nearly to edge of pupil. Lateral line incomplete, 
reaching to about midway of the soft dorsal. 

Measurements taken as in specimens described above. 

Length. Head. Depth. Lat. line Dorsal Anal 

(total) scales. rays. rays. 

33 10 7 64 XII- 9 I-* 

33 10 8 64 XII-11 I-n 

—A. J. Woolman, South Bend, Indiana. March, 1892. 

Description of a New Mouse from Southern California. 
— Seventeen specimens of a long-tailed Vesperimus collected at Dul- 
zura, San Diego Co., Cal., belong to a species very different from any 
hitherto described. In size and general characters they agree closely 
with V. eremicus, but the color is curiously like that of V. californicus. 
The species may be known by the following characters: 

Vesperimus fraterculus sp. nov. Size medium, tail decidedly longer 
than head and body, thinly-haired and without pencil ; soles naked ; 
ears rather large and very thinly-haired except at base and ttlong ante- 
Adult male and female ( 9 No. VW collection of G. S. Miller. Jr., 
Dulzura, San Diego Co., Cal., January 7, 1892. Charles ft Mar-h. 
collection S No. HH same locality and collector, January 15, 1892) ; 
fur everywhere, except in region of mouth, slaty plumbeous at base ; 
ventral surface dirty yellowish-white, becoming purer on throat i 
chin ; a distinct fulvous pectoral spot ; 
stripe extending from region of eye: 

stripes of the two sides meet ; this fulvous area almost entirely with- 
out black-tipped hairs and sharply defined against the color of the 

262 The American Naturalist [March, 

belly, but shading insensibly into that of the back ; dorsally yellowfch 
wood-brown, becoming grayish between the ears and over the head and 
muzzle, everywhere much intermixed with black-tipped hairs which 
produce a decided blackish shade throughout the region from shoul- 
ders to base of tail and well down over the sides ; a narrow dusky ring 
around eye; tail brownish, slightly paler ventrally, without distinct 
line of demarkation ; whiskers reaching about to shoulders, mixed 
dark-brown and silvery gray ; dorsum of manus and pes white ; color 
of sides extending about to wrists and ankles, which latter are dusky 

Measurements taken from the fresh specimens by the collector: 

Jan. 15, '92 
Nov. 23, '91 
Nov. 28, '91 

VsV $ Jan. 7, '92 180 103 20 18 

VW S Jan. 8, '92 182 102 20 15 

W 9 Nov. 21, '91 188 105 20 16 

%V 9 Dec. 8, '91 200 113 22 16 

Wi 9 Jan. 7, '92 192 110 20 15 1 

\rW. 9 Jan. 12, '92 185 105 20 — 

It will be seen that Vesperimus fratercuhis agrees very closely in 
size with V. eremicus? The very much darker color of the former 
will, however, serve to distinguish the two species at a glance. 

The series show but little individual variation in color. The color- 
ing of the dorsal surface is remarkably constant, the variation among 
the adults being practically confined to the amount of shading pro- 
duced by the black-tipped hairs. They are tolerably evenly distri- 
buted and do not tend to form a dark dorsal streak. Three specimens 
younger than the rest are grayer, but have the fulvous lateral stripe 
nearly as well developed as the adults. The dirty yellowish white 

WW.] Zoology. 263 

tinge on the belly is more pronounced in some specimens than in 
others, and in most there is a tendency for the fur in the region of the 
anus and genital organs to become pure white. The fulvous pectoral 
spot is absent in two specimens, and in the others varies from a mere 
trace to an irregular stripe 25 mm. long and about one third as broad 
in the widest part. The dusky mark at the ankle is conspicuous in 
some individuals and nearly absent in others. 

The skull of Vesperimus fraterculus resembles so closely that of 
V. eremicus that I can find no character by which to distinguish 
them. The number of specimens of eremicus at my digpoea] is, 
however, too limited to furnish satisfactory data. As compared with 
skulls of V. americanus, those of V. fraterculus average shorter, with 
brain case of about equal width and rather flatter. The nasals end 
in an obtuse angle about 1 mm/short of the premaxillaries. They are 
narrower than in americanus. The incisive foramina extend about to 
first third of anterior molar. The articular process of the mandible 
is shorter, and the coronoid occupies a more posterior position. The 
posterior upper molar is relatively smaller than in americanus. The 
following are some cranial measurements of seven specimens of V. 

Number tWf rWV t¥A t 9 ^ tWV rttt tWt 

Sex 2 <? <? £ 9 9 9 

Basilar length 21.4 19 19.8 19 21 20.6 20.8 

Basilar length of Hensel 19 17 17.6 16.4 18.8 18 18.4 

Zygomatic breadth 12.6 12 11.8 11.4 12 12.6 

Interorbital constriction 4 4 4 3.8 4 3.8 3.6 

Greatest length of nasals 9.6 8.6 8.4 8.2 9 8.6 8.4 

Incisor to molar (alveola?) 6 5.2 5.4 5.4 6 5.8 6 

Incisor to postpalatal notch 10.2 8.2 8.8 9 9.2 9.8 9.2 

Height of crown from inferior 

"lip of foramen magnum 7.6 7 7 7 7 6.8 7.4 

Length of upper molar series 

along crowns 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.6 

Length of mandible, exclusive 

of incisors 13.2 11.5 12.6 12.4 13 13 13.2 

Length of lower molar series 

along crowns 4 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.6 

— Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., Cambridge, Mass. February, 1892. 

264 The American Naturalist. [March, 

Zoological News. — A list of a single day's dredging at Port 
Jackson, N. S. Wales, shows 106 mollusca and sixty-one gen 
brata exclusive of mollusca. Among the Crustacea was that rare and 
interesting species, Dromia sculpta Haswell. The specimens obtained 
enabled Mr. Thomas Whitelegge to settle the question regarding the 
identity of ( Vera Henderson, described in vol. 

xxvii. of the Challenger Report with Dromia sculpta Haswell. He 
sees no valid reason why they should be regarded as distinct 
(Records Aust. Mus, vol. i., No. 4.) — The Entomostracans recently 
collected in Russia and Siberia by M. Charles Rabot include nineteen 
species of Copepods and twenty-seven Cladocera. Although none of 
them are new to science they are of interest since they are the first 
reported from that region ; and also they afford another proof of the 
wide geographical distribution of European species. (Bull. Soc. Zool. 
1891.) — A new species of Tortricidse, Palceobia longistriata, from 
N. S. Wales has been described by J. H. Durrant. This species agrees 
in nervation and structure with the typical forms, but can hardly be 
said to have the apex of the forewings produced. (Proceeds. LinD. 
Soc, N. S. W., vol. vi.) 


Anatomy of a Human Embryo. 1 '— Dr. F. Mall has made a verv 
complete study of the anatomy of an embryo of 7 mm. having ahout 
27 somites and an age closely di termined u twenty-ox days. 

The embryo was cut into 351 transverse sections and every other 

one of these drawn upon wax plates 2 mm. thick. The wax actions 
were kept in normal relative position in a plaster mould while the 
various internal organs, wen- gradually directed out. 

In this way a complete model of the internal organs, as solid bodies 
seen by removing the overlying tissues from one side of the body, was 
obtained and subsequently reproduced in a colored lithograph. 

A most striking and instructive demonstration of the anatomy of the 
embryo at this early period is thus represented in Plate 30. The brain 
and medullary tube, spinal ganglia and auditory vesicle, digestive 
tract with its branchial pouches, bronchi, pancreas, liver and cloaca 
together with the Wolffian bodies and ducts, the venous and the 
arterial parts of the heart and vascular trunks are all represented as 
solid objects seen in perspective and in a distinguishing color for each 

The body cavity wi m permanent metal casts 

made by first casting the hollowed out space in the wax model with 
Wood's metal, then making a plaster cast of this and finally filling the 
plaster cast with solder. In this way is shown the origin of the lesser 
peritoneal cavity as a right diverticulum, near the stomach, communi- 
cating with the main eoelom by a constriction that remains as the 
foramen of Win slow. This becomes of considerable intere.-t from the 
comparative stud v made l»y the author in a preceding number of the 
same journal, for it is there shown that the single right diverticulum 
of higher mammals is found in some lower ones and the chick, along 
with a left diverticulum that early disappears. In some reptiles again 
both right and left diverticula remain in the adult though even here 
the right is larger. The ichthyopsida appear to have neither of those 

Thyreoglossal Tract and the Hyoid. 1 — From the study of 
sections of a human embryo of 16 mm. Prof. His is led to bring his 

•This department is edited by Prof. E. A. Andrews John, Hopkins IniveH y. 

266 The American Naturalist. [March, 

views regarding the connection of the median anlage of the thyroid with 
the csecal foramen of the tongue into harmony with the anatomical 
facts revealed by A. Streckeisen. In this embryo the hyoid comes 
into intimate contact with the epithelial connection of csecal foramen 
and median thyroid and is thus well placed for the formation of those 
inclusions of gland-tubes within the hyoid described by Streckeisen. 
Incidentally the study of another embryo of 9*1 mm. leads the author 
to infer that this median anlage may aid in the formation of the lateral 

Origin of Spinal Ganglia in Man. 1 — Study of a human 
embryo of 2'5 mm. leads Dr. M. V. Lenhossek to the follow- 
ing conclusions: The medullary plate is at first a median 
thickening of ectoblast with no thin central region to give it a 
bilateral or double character. The material for the formation of 
spinal ganglia first appears as a strand of rounded ectoblast cells, not 
segmented, along each side of the medullary plate. As the medullary 
plate closes these two strands unite to form a wedge-shaped mass 
appearing as cross section as the keystone of the closed medullar y tune. 
Though thus closely united with the tube these spinal gangliau cells 
grow out again and allow the tube to close a second time without t»«f 
aid. In this outgrowth the first segmentation appears, the outgrowth 
being greater in the mesoblastic somite regions, hence the spinal 
ganglia are from this first appearance intervertebral in position. I^ter 
stages are not given, but with the aid of sections of chick and of 
Siredon the author extends the above view to all vertebrates, explain- 
ing away the difficulties offered by certain observations of others ; 
harmonizing the ideas of His and Balfour and in general results 
agreeing with Beard. 

Somites of Human Embryos. 2 — From the embryo mentioned 
in the last notice and three others of 4'25, 45 and 10'2 mm. and with 
the aid of a comparative study of some lower vertebrates, J. Kallmann 
obtains facts and explanations of facts that form an interesting contri- 
bution to the subject of metamerism in higher vertebrates, though the 
evidence presented is not all of as convincing a character as might he 
desired. The chief points may be briefly outlined as follows: 

The myotomes (protovertebne) have at first a cavity, royoccel, 
which is subsequently filled by an ingrowth of the inner wall. The 

* Archiv. f. Anat. Phys., 1891, 44 pps., 2 Pb. 

inner wall splits open an-i tin- in-n.wth of' cells [.asses out and ventral 
to the medulla as the sclerotome or anlage of the vertebra. The split 
becomes the intervertebral cleft or foramen. As the myotome gives 
rise directly to the sclerotome there is no secondary segmentation of 
the vertebral column, but rather a proximal dislocation of each 
sclerotome by the length of half a myotome. After this ske!etegem>us 
material has left the myotome its walls give rise t<> muscles; the inner 
wall first, forming the dorsal part of the lateral musculature ; the outer 
wall, in man, growing ventrally to furnish muscles for the ventral 
body wall, digestive tract and also the limbs. The muscles in the 
limbs are formed from several myotomes, are representations oi several 
metameres, moreover all the segmentation seen in the ventral region 
and in the limbs is not formed from the lateral plate, but in the above 
outgrowth into them of parts of the axial myotomes. These muscle 
buds growing into the limb surround the axial anlage of the future 

Sections ofthe embryo of 2-5 mm. with 13 somite,, shou a marked 
modification of the ectoblast near the intermediate cell mass, becoming 
a cellular ingrowth posteriorly in older embryos. This is regarded by 
the author as undoubtedly an ectodermal component of the Wolffian 

Descriptions of New North American Bees.— The follow 
ing species of Halidm have the head and thorax and sot 
abdomen, greenish or bluish, the surface of mewthoraa 
roughened, except in 5, and with a distinct puJ 
with few long teeth; and are arranged according to - 
with the largest. The following synopsis may aid in separating them 

Mesothorax coarsely reticulated on the sides ; 

Head greenish, thorax bluish, legs dark, ] ■ ™**T* J? 

Head and thorax bluish, legs mostly yellow, 

Mesothorax punctured, not reticulated ; 

Head, thorax and abdomen greenish ; 

Pubescence of abdomen yellowish, thin, not con- 

ceahng surface, J 

268 The American Naturalist. [M ar C h, 

Pubescence of abdomen white, dense, concealing 

surface except of 1st and 2d segments, 4. pruinosus. 

Head greenish, thorax hardly metallic, shining, 

face very broad between mandibles, 5. eephalicixs. 

Head and thorax greenish, abdomen black or brown, 
sometimes with a bronzen reflection ; 
Two submarginal cells, 10. anomalus. 

Face rounded, clypeus not strongly produced ; 

Disc of metathorax without enclosure, 6. obscurus. 

Disc of metathorax bordered by a raised line ; 

Pale greenish, very sparsely punctured, 9. apopkensis. 

More bluish, not very sparsely punctured, X. 

Face long, clypeus strongly produced; 

Wings and nervures dusky, 7. ashtneadii. 

Wings and nervures whitish, 11. longiceps. 

I. Halictus reticulatus. 9 —Head and thorax bluish, the abdo- 
men black, clothed with thin pale fulvous pubescence ; face broad, 
rounded, clypeus not produced ; disc of mesothorax sparsely punc- 
tured, on the sides coarsely reticulated ; metathorax with a sharp trun- 
cation bordered by a salient rim; the disc with a rugose enclosure 
which is triangular, more or less truncate at edge of declivity, the 
enclosure bare, elsewhere the metathorax clothed with long, thin pubes- 
cence ; wings fusco-hyaline, more dusky at tips, nervures and tegula 
testaceous ; legs black, knees, anterior and middle tibiae more or less 
posterior tibiae entirely and tarsi testaceous; abdomen shining, 
impunctate base of second and third segments each with a patch of 
appressed pale pubescence on the sides. Length 7 mm. 

Florida: three 9 specimens taken at Inverness, Citrus Co., Feb. 12 
and 14, on flowers of Primus umbellata. 

This species is distinguished from the following by its less coarse 
sculpturing, its more perfectly defined metathoracic enclosure, paler 
legs, darker wings, etc. Both are distinguished from all other metallic 
Halictu* known to me by their coarsely reticulated mesothorax. 

2. Halictus hartii. 9 — Black, the head greenish, the thorax 
bluish, clothed with thin whitish pubescence ; face broad, clypeus some- 
what produced, punctures dense above antenme, elsewhere sparse, 
vertex shining; mesothorax with coarse sparse punctures forming 
coarse reticulations on the sides ; metathorax with abrupt truncation 
bordered by a sharp rim; the di-c verv ric-m- with enclosure imper- 

1392.] Entomology. 269 

fectly defined, but appearing triangular, truncate or semicircular: 
wings fusco-hyaline, second subraarginal cell narrow, oervures fuscous, 
tegulse black ; abdomen shining, impunctate. Length 7 nun. 

One $ specimen, taken in Southern Illinois, An »■ 11 In Mr (' V 

3. Halictus floridanus. 9 — Head, thorax and abdomen green- 
ish, the legs blackish; above the pubescence is thin and vi llnui-h, 
beneath it is white; face long. Hat. clvpeus stmnglv produced, mandi- 
bles rufo-piceus at tips; disc of mesothorax not inning, minutely 
roughened, closely and finely punctured; metathorax truncate, the 
disc covered with fine wrinkles ; wings hyaline, nervures and teguhc 
testaceous; knees and apical joints of tarsi testaceous; abdomen of 
same color as thorax, more shining, minutely punctured ; cloth, d with 
pale pubescence except on discs of first and second segments, the pubes- 
cence not concealing the surface, as in the next species; apical margins 
of segments testaceous, which with the pubescence sometimes gives the 
abdomen a subfasciate appearance, reminding one of H. fiudatut 
Length 6-7 mm. 

Florida: 16 9 specimens, taken at Inverness from March 7 to 20, on 
flowers of Lupinus villosus and Ceanothns microjihyllu.*. It visits the 
former for stray pollen, the latter for honey and pollen. 

It resembles H. fasriatm Nyl. (= H. fiavipes Thompson) in color 
and in the sculpture of the disc of metathorax. It is smaller, bas a 
longer, flatter face, the mesothorax more finely roughened and there- 
fore less shining, the abdomen without regular apical fascia?, etc. 

4. Halictus pruinosus. $ —Head, thorax and abdomen green. 
clothed with a thin hoary pubescence; face long, finely punctured, 
clypeus strongly produced ; mandibles, except base, ferruginous, flag- 
ellum testaceous beneath ; mesothorax minutely roughened, not shin- 
ing, closely and rather finely punctured; disc of metathorax with 
irregular rugie running from base but hardly reaching apex, which is 
smooth and somewhat elevated; wings whitish, hyaline, nervures 
whitish, tegula> pale testaceous ; abdomen shining, almost impunctate, 
narrow apical margins of segments pale testaceous, all the segments 
except discs of first and second, densely clothed with hoary pubes- 
cence. Length 6 mm. 

£. —Closely resembles the female; clypeus strongly produced, disc 
of metathorax rougher, abdomen also green, more punctured, shining, 
with thin pubescence: arex ufclv,eu«. lahrum. riagellum beneath, 

270 The American Naturalist. [March, 

nervures, tegula?, knees, tibiae at tips, and tarsi pale testaceous; one 
specimen shows the nervures as pale as in female, the other has them 
much darker. Length 6 mm. 

Illinois: 9 9,2 £ specimens, taken from May 19 to June 25, on 
flowers of Oxa/is coniicahitn, MeJUotji* <tli>a, Scutellaria parvula and 
Tradescantia virgin ica. 

In size, color of pubescence and wings this species closely resembles 
H. aUripmws. It is distinguished from that species by its face, which 
is longer, a little more sparsely punctured, its mesothorax more closely 
and finely punctured, its metathorax less rugous, its abdomen green 
and not depressed. 

5. Halictus cephalicus. $ —Smooth and shining, clothed with 
very thin pale pubescence, head greenish, thorax blue-black, abdomen 
brownish; head very large, wider than thorax, strongly produced 
behind eyes, especially the cheeks below ; face subquadrate, finely and 
sparsely punctured; clypeus transverse, truncate; labrum broad, 
short, pointed; mandibles long, ferruginous, except base; flagellum 
testaceous beneath towards tip ; prothorax forming a lateral dentiform 
angle, mesothorax blue-black, shining, sparsely and minutely punc- 
tured, appearing impunctate ; metathorax black, strongly retracted 
and strongly sloping, so that it presents a very small truncation, the 
latter heart-shaped, being divided above by a fissure ; wings hyaline, 
nervures and stigma testaceous ; legs blackish, knees, tibiae at tips and 
tarsi testaceous ; abdomen brownish, impunctate, apical margins of 
segments testaceous, the segments clothed with thin, pale pubescence. 
Length 6 mm. 

S . — Resembles the female, but does not show the peculiar head 
characters, clypeus somewhat produced, metathorax rougher above and 
bordered on each side by a ridge. Length 5 mm. 

Illinois: 19,2£ specimens, taken July 15 at a bank which was 
filled with nests of H. zephyrus. The sexes were taken in copula. 

This species may be easily distinguished by the shape of its head, 
which i3 much like that of the 9 of H. ligatus Say (^(irmotireps 
Cress., texanus Cress., nrmdipes Cress., capitoms Sin.). 

6. Halictus obscurus. 9 —Form rather slender, head and thorax 
dark blue-green, abdomen black, clothed with thin pale pubescence; 
face round, the clypeus somewhat produced ; mesothorax minutely 
roughened but shining, sparsely punctured, the pubescence thin; 
metathorax rather narrow, stn>ngl_\ retracted, truncate, with several 

1892.] Entomology. 27 1 

raised lines proceeding from base, but not reaching truncation : wings 

tarsi testaceous; abdomen Mack. -Inning, clothed will, thin pale puhes- 
cence. Length 5-6 mm. 

Illinois: 22 $ specimens, taken from April 28 to May 12. in wood*, 
on flowers of Jianiuirnlut *c)>teiitrioit<t!l*. Isophyrum hitermriuiu, <i,,i- 
ruphijlhim procumbent, 0,<iaorrhtz« loii;/ii<tiihx. Pn/einomum r&, 
and Ellisia nyctelcea. 

This species closely resembles 11. confu*u*, but is distinguished by 
its more slender form, its darker color, its clypeus more produced, its 
mesothorax more shining, more sparsely punctured, and more thinly 
pubescent, its metathorax longer, less rugose, more truncate, its abdo- 
men darker, more thinly pubescent, etc. 

7. Halictus ashmeadii.9— l^xl a,1(} thorax greenish, t c 
abdomen bronzen, clothed with thin, pale pubescence; face long, the 
clypeus strongly produced; disc of mesothorax minutely roughened. 
not shining, densely and finely punctured on the sides: metathorax 
with a small truncation, the disc finely roughened, more striate later- 
ally; wings subfuscous, nervures dull testaceous, tegula? testaceous: 
abdomen rounded, depressed, shining bronzen, clothed with thin pubes- 
cence ; legs blackish, knees and tarsi testaceous. Length 4-5 mm. 

Florida: 12 9 specimens, taken from Feb. 12 to March 19, on flow- 
ers of Viola lanceolata, Ceanothus jnicrophyllus, Primus umbellate and 
Ilysanthes grandifiora. 

This species resembles H. longiceps (No. 11 J. but is distinguished 
from that species by its larger size, shorter head, more densely punc- 
tured mesothorax, darker wings and nervures, etc. Ded.cated to the 
distinguished hymenopterist, Mr. W. H. Ashmead. 

8. Halictus illinoensis. 9— Face broad, rounded. dypeushardU 
produced; mesothorax shining, minutely roughened, sparsely punc- 
tured, with thin, pale pubescence ; metathorax no! strong 

the disc shining, with several longitudinal raised hues ; in the middle 
is a raised line not reaching the truncation; from the tipot this there 
is a raised line which runs out on either side and forms a superior lat- 
eral angle of the truncation, thence it runs forward, joining two or 
three lines on the extreme side of the disc; wings hyaline, nervures 
and tegul* pale testaceous ; legs more or less testaceous, especially the 
knees and tarsi: abdomen shining, brownish, apical margins ot seg- 
ments clothed with thin, pale pubescence. 

Illinois: 2 9 specimens, taken Aug. 12, on flowers of Malva rotun- 
difolia and Siurn eicnttrjoHinn. 

It closely resembles H. confusus, but differs by its smaller size, 
enclosed metathorax, etc. 

g. Halictus apopkensis. 9 — Head and thorax greenish, abdo- 
men brownish ; face broad, rounded, finely and rather sparsely punc- 
tured, clypeus hardly produced; mesothorax minutely roughened, 
somewhat shining, minutely and very sparsely punctured, appearing 
impunctate, with very thin whitish pubescence ; metathorax shining, 
sculptured as in preceding ; wings whitish hyaline, nervures and stigma 
very pale, tegulse testaceous ; knees and tarsi testaceous ; abdomen 
shining, clothed with thin, pale pubescence, apical margins of segments 
testaceous. Length 5 mm. 

Florida: 3 9 specimens, taken Feb. 12 and 16, on flowers of Prunus 
umbeUai a and Viola lanceolata. Readily distinguished from the pre- 
ceding by its paler wings and more sparse punctuation. 

io. Halictus anomalus. 9 — Head and thorax dull greenish; 
face rounded, clypeus produced ; disc of mesothorax finely rough- 
ened, hardly shining, bare, or nearly so, with sparse, rather coarse, 
shallow punctures ; metathorax shining, not strongly retracted, the 
disc with elevated lines not reaching apex ; wings hyaline, Avith only 
two submarginal cells, nervures and tegulse testaceous; abdomen 
brownish, shining, impunctate, with thin, pale pubescence. Length 
4-5 mm. 

Illinois : 2 9 specimens, taken May 19, on flowers of Hypoxis ereeta. 

ii. Halictus longiceps.9 — Head as' long as thorax, strongly 
produced behind eyes, clypeus strongly produced, eyes long ; meso- 
thorax minutely roughened, hardly shining, finely and sparsely punc- 
tured, clothed with thin whitish pubescence ; metathorax narrow, disc 
finely roughened ; wings whitish, hyaline, nervures and teguke pale 
testaceous, third submarginal cell subobsolete ; abdomen depressed, 
shining, clothed with pale pubescence. Length 4-5 mm. 

Florida : 4 9 specimens, taken Feb. 10 to 18, on flowers of Prunus 

Andrena mandibularis. $ —Black, clothed with long, thin, p*h 
pubescence; head broader than thorax, strongly produced behind 

eyes; face broad, subquadrate, clypeus flat, shining, thinly pubescent. 

1892.] Entomology. 

with sparse, fine punctures; mandibles long, slender 
tip, the extreme base beneath bearing a conspicuous t 
mesothorax finely roughened, opaque, impunctate ; en 
thorax finely roughened, merely marked by absence 
wings long, hyaline, nervures honey-yellow, tcirula- 
legs slender, black, apical points of tarsi testaceous ; a 
impunctate, with very thin fascia?. Length 8 mm. 
Illinois : 2 $ specimens, taken on flowers of Salu 

Calliopsis parvus. 9 —Small, black, opaque, densely and finely 
punctured, almost destitute of pubescence ; mandibles at tips honey- 
yellow; wings fusco- hyaline, a little dusky at tip, marginal cell 
obliquely truncate, second submarginal narrowed nearly one-half 
toward marginal, receiving first recurrent about one-third from base. 
and the second at or near apex ; nervures fuscous, teguhe testaceous ; 
disc of metathorax with a triangular space bearing fine longitudinal 
rugse; abdomen with segments depressed to the middle, the apex with 
thin, pale pubescence. Length 5 mm. 

$ . — Lower corner of face, clypeus, spot on labrum and base of 
mandibles yellow ; flagellum beneath, knees and basal joints of ante- 
rior and middle tarsi testaceous. Length 5 mm. 

Illinois : 3 9 , 1 $ , taken May 28, the female collecting pollen of 
Monarda bradburiana. 

Melissodes palustris. <?— Black, shining, reflecting greenish or 
purplish, especially on abdomen ; head, thorax, and 1st segment of 
abdomen above with thin, rather pale fulvous pubescence, beneath the 
pubescence is paler; clypeus yellow, labrum varying from entirely 
black to entirely pale yellow ; antennae reaching to middle of 2d seg- 
ment, flagellum fulvous beneath, except the last one or two joints, 
mandibles sometimes with a yellow spot at tips; disc of mesothorax 
thinly pubescent, closely punctured, except posteriorly; wings fusco- 
hyaline, nervures fuscous, tegulse testaceous; legs black, tibia at tips 
and tarsi ferruginous, claws, except base, black : bases of 2d and ."3d 
and following segments of abdomen densely and finely punctured, 
opaque, elsewhere shining and sparsely punctured, segments 2-5 each 
with a broad fascia of appressed white pubescence ; that of 2d is 
basal, only reaching apical margin on each extreme side, that of 3d 
is on the middle, also reaching apex on each side ; the 4th and 5th 
segments have broad, interrupted apical fascia?, connected on the mid- 

274 The American Naturalist [March, 

die of the 4th by an arcuate line, sometimes also similarly connected 
on 5th, 6th segment with a triangular tooth on each side, 7th with a 
more slender tooth. Length 12-14 mm. 

Illinois: 10 $ specimens, taken July 5, 9, and Aug. 5, on flowers of 
Dianthera americimt and Ponfederia card<it<t.— Charles Roherhvu. 


Boston Society of Natural History. — February 3d. — The 
following papers were read : Dr. J. Eliot Wolff, The Geology of the 
Crazy Mountains, Montana; Mr. Walter G. Chase, The Scenery, 
Glaciers and Indians of Alaska. 

February 17th. — The following paper was read: Prof. George L. 
Goodale, Illustrations of Vegetation in Ceylon. 

March 2d.— The following papers were read : Prof. W. G. Farlow, 
Notes on collections of Cryptogams from the Higher Mountains <>t 
New England ; Prof. G. Frederick Wright, Invasion of Eastern Eng- 
land by Norwegian Glaciers; Additional Evidence Concerning 
Human Remains Under the Sonora Table Mountains, California. 

March 16th.— The following paper was read : Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, 
The Moki Snake Dance.— Samuel Henshaw, Secretary pro tempore. 

The Biological Society of Washington. — February 20th.— 
The principal paper of the evening was Factors in the Distribution of 
Animal Life as Illustrated by Marine Forms, by W. H. Dall. The 
following communications were read : Mr. F. A. Lucas, On Charchar- 
odonmortoni; Mr. J. N. Rose, The Flora of the Galapagos Islands; 
Mr. John M. Holzinger, On the Identity of Asclepias stenophylla Gray, 
and Acerates auriculala Engelm. 

March 5th.— The principal paper of the evening was Conditions 
Affecting the Distribution of Plants in North America, by Fred. V. 
Coville. The following communications were made: Mr. Charles 
Hallock, The Physiology of a Pocoson ; Mr. Vernon Bailey, The 
Homes of Our Mammals; Mr. Theo. Holm, The Flora of Nova 
Zembla. — Frederic A. Lucas, Secretary. 

The American Physiological Society, which is an offshoot of 
the Society of Naturalists, held its annual meeting on Dec. 29th at 
Philadelphia. Some routine business was transacted, and the follow- 

1892.] Proceedings of Scientific 

ing officers elected for the ensuing year 
Curtis, of the College of Physicians and 
Secretary, H. Newell Martin, Johns Ho 
H. P. Bowditch, Harvard College; R. H 
W. H. Howell, University of Michigan. 

The American Naturalist 


The fourth annual report of the Marine Biological Laboratory at 
Wood's Holl is issued. From it we glean the following statistics and 
other items. The laboratory last year accommodated 67 workers, 
divided as follows : Investigators occupying private rooms, 17 ; inves- 
tigators receiving instruction, 9 ; students, 44. In the report of 1890 
a debt of $5,000 was an unpleasant item. This has all been paid, but 
the laboratory still needs money, not only for an enlargement of the 
building but for a permanent endowment. In its four years the labor- 
atory has turned out a goodly amount of work, no less than 31 papers 
being catalogued as issued or in press which are based upon researches 
carried on at Wood's Holl. The library has been increased by pur- 
chase and gift, and 21 periodicals are regularly subscribed for. In his 
report as director Dr. Whitman indicates the lines for growth. He 
would have facilities afforded for research in what for want of a bet- 
ter name he calls biological physiology! He would have the labora- 
tory kept open the whole year with a corps of paid investigators, and 

the colleges and universities which patronize it. 

The circulars for the coming summer will probably be issued before 
this is read, but any wishing information about the laboratory can 
obtain it by addressing either Prof. C. O. Whitman, Clark University, 
Worcester, Mass., or Prof. H. C. Bumpus, Brown University, Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Recent Deaths.— Dr. Ernst von Bnicke the physiologist, of 
Vienna, January 7th, 1892, in his 72nd year; he was a pupil of 
Johannes Miiller. Louis Francois Heron-Royer, at Amboise, Dec. 15, 
1891, aged 56 years; he was best known for his studies on the life 
histories of the Batrachia. Prof. Armand de Quatrefages, the well 
known Zoologist and Anthropologist, in Paris, January 12, 1892, aged 
81 years. Prof. Edward Brandt, of St. Petersburg, Dec. 12 (N. &), 
1891 ; he was best known for his works on the embryology and ner- 
vous system of the insects. Sir William Macleay, in Sydney, N. S. W., 
Dec. 7, 1891, aged 71 years; he was the most prominent person in the 
development of biology in Australia. 

A large treatise on Zoology is announced as in progress. Of pu°" 
Usher, extent, etc. nothing has yet appeared. The list of authors is as 

follows: Dr. Fabre-Domergue, Paris: Ilhizopodu. Cdiata, Smtoria : 
Prof. Moniez, Lille : Sporozoa, Trematodes, Certodes; Prof. Kiinstler, 
Bordeaux: Flagellata, Anthozoa ; Prof. Vosmaer, Utrecht : Spong<s; 
Prof. Lang, Zurich: Hydrozoa, Siphonophores, Aealophs, Ct. ■nophon -.«, 
Turbellaria; Prof. E. Van Beneden, Liege : Dicycmida. Tunicate : 
Prof. Justin, Liege: Orthonectida, Atnphioxus. ( \ ■■ •! .-t<>m. s : .M. .!«• 
Guerne, Paris: Rotifera and Gastrotricha ; Prof. Iloule, TouIoum-, 
Archiannelida, Sternaspida?, Phoronis; Prof, de Nahais. Bordeaux: 
Hirudinei; Prof. Yung, Geneva: Annelida 

Bryozoa, Echinoderms ; Prof. Joubin. Rennet: Brachipod-, 
ertines, Chaatognaths ; Prof. Pelseneer, Ghent: Molluscs : Prof. Kohler, 
Lyons, Nemathelminthis, Acanthocephali, Enteropneusti : Prof. Vavs- 
siere, Marseilles : Protracheata, Myriapods. Hexapods; Prof, liarrois, 
Lille : Arachnida ; Prof Giard, Paris : Crustacea ; Dr. Dollo, Brussels : 
Fishes, Batrachia, Reptiles, Birds ; Prof. Weber, Amsterdam : Mam- 
mals ; Dr. Denniker, Paris : Primates. 

Dr. Joubin, Palais Universitaire, Rennes, France, wishes to obtain 
all the brachiopods in alcohol possible, so as to study their anatomy. 
Exotic specimens are especially desirable. 

The " Agassiz Club," with a membership limited by its constitution 
to fifteen, has recently been started in Corvallis, O. 

Regular meetings once a month ; extra meetings can be called by 
vote. It is conducted on much the same principles that characterize 
the Zoological Club at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at 
Cambridge, the rooms being open an hour or two hefore presentation 
of regular paper, for perusal of current scientific journals or maga- 
zines. The Club, however, is not alone a zoological club. Interesting 
papers have been read on the following: Electricity, Plant Parasite., 
The Problem of the Soaring Bird, Some Points in the Anatomy of 
the Brain. 

The President of the Club is Prof. G. W. Shaw ; Vice-President, 
Prof. G. A. Covell ; Secretary and Treasurer, Prof. Moses Craig. 

The Oriental History Society of Altenburg will celebrate in the 
Autumn of 1892 the seventy-fifth anniversary of its establishment, 
and will take advantage of this opportunity to pay tribute to three of 
the honorary members of the Society by the erection of a simple, 
worthv monument in the capitol city of Altenburg. They art- Chris- 

278 The American Naturalist. [March, 

tian Ludwig Brehm, his son, Alfred Brehm, aad Prof. Schlegel, who 
died at Leiden. 

The researches of these three men in zoology, and particularly in 
ornithology, are known, not only among their associates, but through- 
out the world, and demonstrate that their memory should be honored. 

The undersigned committee, under the patronage of His Highness 
Prince Moritz of Saxe-Altenburg, also an honorary member of the 
Society, solicits contributions from the friends of these eminent scien- 
tists for the purpose of aiding in the erection of the proposed memor- 

It is respectfully requested that contributions be forwarded to Hugo 
Koehler, Privy-councillor of Commerce, in Altenburg, and that inquir- 
ies and letters be addressed to Dr. Koepert, in Altenburg. 

The Committee : Prince Moritz of Saxe-Altenburg ; Prof. Dr. Bla- 
sius, Braunschweig; Dir. Prof. Flemming, Altenburg ; Major A. v. 
Homeyer, Greifswald ; Hugo Koehler, Privy-councillor of Commerce, 
Altenburg; Dr. Koepert, Altenburg; Prof. Dr. Liebe, Privy coun- 
cillor, Gera; Prof. Dr. Pilling, Altenburg; Dr. Reichenow, Berlin ; 
Dr. Rothe, Privy-councillor of Medicine, Altenburg ; Chevalier von 
Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen, Hallein; Dr. Voretzsch, Altenburg; Dr. 
Leverkuhn, Munich. 

Altenburg, December, 1891. 

£i.60 per Year (Foreign). 





Managing editors: 

31. XXVI. APRIL, 1892. 

No. 304 


Plant Physiology as at 
Germany and England. 

(Continued.) EL Gregory. 279 

(Continued.) (Illustrated.) H. J. Webber. 287 
of the National Academy of Sciences. . . .319 

E N T S . 

Mineralogy anH Petrography.— -Perr 

Positi, . of OrtheloM i - 

^ T LlTERATCRE --Some Recent Zoological Text- 
books— Stam-las Meuru-r\ ■• Methodes de 
Synthese eu Mineralo^ie - The Worms of 
Bonn's Thier-Reichs. " 324 



518 and 520 W 



:f, ; m ^? \j% 

^Fecundation a?id Derefopnenf. 


By E. L. Gbbgory. 

(Continued from p. 217.) 

The nature of the experiments will be best understood 
by a brief statement of the outlines of his theory in regard to 
the processes by which the water is carried up. He regards 
the ducts, and to a certain extent, the tracheids, as reservoirs 
into which the water is passed from the absorbing cells. 
These ducts, except it may be in a certain period of the year 
when the so-called root pressure is taking place, are never 
filled with water but with alternating columns of air and 
water. All who are at all familiar with this subject will remem- 
ber that this was the first argument against the new theory. 
How could the water pass up in the cell lumena when these 
were not themselves filled? It is claimed now that this very 
fact is the one which admits of such a possibility. That is, 
these alternating columns make a combination known as the 
Jaminschen chain, from the name of the Frenchman, Jamin, 
who was the first to compute the force exerted by a chain of 
air and water columns in a capillary tube. Such an apparatus 
was called by his name, and the discovery of such a system of 
chains in the ducts and tracheids of woody tissue has been the 
strong point in the new water theories. The manner of action 
of this chain mav be seen at once, the meniscuses acting as 

280 The American Naturalist. [April, 

forces to prevent the motion of the water which would other- 
wise sink. In other words, the sole function of the chain is to 
prevent the water from yielding to the action of the gravity. 
In this way according to the distribution and tension of the air 
bubbles, the water is more or less evenly distributed through- 
out the whole stem of the tree and is ready for use whenever 
needed at different altitudes. The next step in the problem 
is to discover the factor by which the water is drawn out and 
set in motion upward. It is here that Professor Schwendener 
differs from nearly all the younger men who adhere even too 
zealously to his cause. In short, the last set of experiments 
which he made were for the purpose of disproving the claims 
of those who consider themselves able to follow all the succes- 
sive forces which act in sending the water upward from the 
root hairs to the transpiring leaves. The question of lumen 
versus wall was not at all touched by these experiments. On 
the other hand, they were made to test the length of alternat- 
ing air and water columns, diameter of tube, etc., and from 
these results a series of mathematical computations was made, 
it is true from data more or less uncertain, but yet with such 
allowances for extreme cases as to prove conclusively that 
some other force was necessary than those held sufficient by 
his contemporaries. 

Pieces of wood were taken from the inner portions of the 
trunks of various trees, with apparatus allowing perfectly air 
tight processes. The pieces were transposed from the tube of 
the borer into glycerine or water from which all air had been 
expelled. From these computations it was shown that in no 
case would it be possible for the action of suction caused by 
the evaporation from the leaves to reach down much below 
the crown of the tree, and in case of trees with trunks from 50 
to 100 metres long this might he considered proof against the 
possibility of the force reaching downward until it reaches that 

effected below by the foi 

ees acting in the lower part of the 

tree. The whole labor if 

; merely i„ disprove certain theories 

not to establish new one: 

In conclusion Profess,. 

r Schwendener sayi the results agree 

link because 

distances 1 

e not presenl 

owing to the peculiar quality residue in the' micella- of the 
lignified cellulose, which enables the water molecules to move 

with nival rapidity, when the equilbrium i- one*' (listurl)ed by 
transpiration above. This pen;: lost when 

particle- to move with such rapidity. One of the favorite 
experiments given in favor of this theory is that of Th. 
Hartigwith the stick, which being held upright and a drop 
of water placed on its upper surface, it at once disappears and 

succeeds only when the wood of the stick is saturated with 
water. Schwendener's explanation of this phenone 
tremely simple and takes away all evidence of the rapidly 
moving particles or molecules of water in the wall. In this 
saturated condition, there would be continuous water columns 
inside the tracheids, the cut surface at the top transpires 
enough to form the concave meniscuses for all these columns, 
the added drop is sufficient to destroy these meniscuses, the 
water columns sink until the drop is drawn in and new menis- 

282 The American Naturalist. [April, 

cuses again form, preventing farther sinking. In case the 
wood is partly dried, instead of a drop appearing below, the 
water at the top sinks in without farther visible result either 
at once or slowly. In this case there are no continuous water 
streams as before, they are broken by internal meniscusee 
forming the chain. 

Contrast now the methods of reasoning used in the two 
cases. It is admitted on both sides that all the mechanical 
forces here in play whose action we understand, are not suf- 
ficient to cause the water to ascend higher than about 30 feet. 
Sachs, therefore, affirms the presence of a quality in the 
micella3 of the wood, which if it existed there would account 
for the water rising. There is no other proof that this quality 
exists than simply this fact. This statement, perhaps, should 
be modified by adding, there is no proof which is considered 

On the other hand, the theo 

* taugh 

stops short of the assumption 

of 1 

l mech 

known mechanical forces can b< 

■ loll 

nd acti 

sufficient to explain the result. 


there i* 

of whose manner of action we ar 

e ign 

orant. i 

of living matter, he assumes 


to he 

accomplishes that part of the res 

ult 1 

lot reae 

causes. This inference is supp 


1 by tl 

the living cells in connection < 


the di 

holding the water. For 

e th< 

3 presei 

chym around those ducts whicl 

i are 


tion with the medullary rays. 

In regard to the experiment < 

.I Bl 

irtig b( 

may be of interest to those not 

liar wit 

...m'-'i ''x,a 'n' ",'',;, 'nv^vl,,',' 1 [ 


■ •IXn 

therefore there is the imVrruptio 

l' K tr 


in the otherwise continuous col 



Schwendener's view all that is 


m by 1 

puted questii 

is that the actual growth depends upon and is the result of 
such condition of cell wall. Owing to the pressure within, the 
micella? of the wall are supposed to he separated from each 
other until the extreme limit of elasticity is reached. In this 
way place is made for the new particles of matter between the 

This theory is known in botanical literature as theSachs-De 
Vries theory as it was first suggested by Sachs and afterward 
supported by De Vries. It is often referred to as the one sus- 
tained by Naegeli, but a careful study of his works shows that 
what he says upon this subject has reference to tissue tensions 
for the most part, rather than to simple turgor. 

It is now claimed by Schwendener that there is no proof 
whatever that the surface growth of the wall depends upon 
turgor, and on the contrary, that there is considerable evidence 

that cells having an excess of turgor, are not growing at all, 
while cells are found in a state of great activity whose turgor 
is very small. One and one-half atmosphere is considered 
about the medium for ordinary turgeseent cells. 

Again, in a certain kind of tissue found in stems of water 
plants and others where large air spaces occur, growth of w T all 

284 The American Naturalist. [April, 

takes place in direct opposition ton turgor force, that is, the 
wall grows inward into a cell which is strongly turgescent. 

There is also one other ground for the position taken by 
Schwendener's school in reference to the relation of turgor to 
growth. This is certain facts connected with what is known 
as "Gliding growth," " Gleitendes \Vachsthum." The prin- 
ciple included in this idea may he briefly explained as follows: 

In the early stages of the secondary growth, during the time 
when the new cells are receiving or taking on their final char- 
acter as vessels and lihriform cells, etc., a growth takes place 
by means of the walls of one cell gliding along the wall of 
another. To explain this, it must be assumed that the walls 
of the young cell consist of two lamellae ; whether this is so 
from the beginning or not is entirely unknown, but at the stage 
of the development where the gliding growth begins, the two 
layers are there. These are not to be distinguished by the 
highest power of the microscope, the wall appearing perfectly 
homogeneous under the most powerful lens. The subsequent 

no other assumption could such growth lie possible. 

This assumption has also other and positive facts sustaining 
it, besides the negative one mentioned above. In certain 
cases the thin young walls of cambium cells have been proven 

Now according to this principle there must reside in certain 

mechanical one of pressure. In other words, there is an 
active as well as passive condition of growth and this active 
condition depends on certain properties of living matter and 

we know as mc-hanic-d 'force' Again' we are "brought to the 
same conclusion as before, there is a force residing in living 
matter of whose manner of action we are ignorant. That this 
force exists in this matter we have certain' and positive proof. 
This subject of turgor a~ before stated is one of the most 

standard on i tomena of growth. 

in these questions tin 
school is best expressed 

tions to the whole in a wav to injure the unitv of the e 
subject. Rather than this it may be said he gives the 
place to such questions because be believes this logical < 
of all investigation. 

If the present aim of the scientist be to trace all the pro< 
of living matter back to the action of chemical and prn 
forces, how can this result be reached unless we begin 
the studv of those laws whose action we know and u: 

able to take up the subtle and 
with the action of living matter, 
whose solutions lie nearer to us. ; 
our ability to handle the more r< 
of plant physiology. 

One single illustration of wh 

f the principles of J 

286 The American Naturalist. [April, 

no question regarding the position occupied by Schwendener 
as leading the modern school in Germany. 

In reference to the influence of Sachs on the leading text 
books of the present day, this is even more evident. While 
many other men of eminence in this field have contributed 
the results of their labors, not only by original research but 
also by writing text books, it is as yet true that they differ but 
little in methods of work or in the ivmiIh obtained, from those 
general methods and principles which were fir.-l disseminated 
from the laboratory of Wiirzburg from the pen of the most 
popular and brilliant writer the world has yet produced in 
this special field of investigation. 

In conclusion, therefore, it remains only to contrast once 
more, briefly the leading features of both schools. 

In the one there is a tendency to put mere speculation and 
fanciful conjecture in the place of theory. Rather than to 
admit our present ignorance and weakness, effects are some- 
times referred to causes which cannot be proven in harmony 
with those laws of nature which are recognized in other 
departments of natural science. 

In the other the principal lines of research are in the direc- 
tion of mechanical questions, but at the same time there is a 
clear and distinct recognition of our present limitations and 
of the relative value of such questions in the ultimate dc U i mi- 
nation of the action of forces which are yet beyond our reach. 
To the botanists of the present day and the future it remains 
to verify and reject, choosing the true and rejecting the false 
from both lines of research, till the decisions of the future 
shall make clear how much of error yet clings to the old 
school and the new. 

fta tmd Dcvelom 

stages which we mav .elect, that appear to indicate the proba- 
ble course of the development. 

1. Anion- certain of the M^to-on or M,fs<n„mt,s. tlie Slime 
Molds, we find some very suggestive forms that are appar- 
ently near the beginning of the differentiation. They are 

class of organisms placed in cither kingdom as the lowest 
group, their animal or vegetable nature being in question, 
although authorities seem to incline toward believing them of 
slightly preponderating animal nature. In the lower Slime 
Molds belonging to the group Acrasieas, the life history is 
shortly this: From the spore (fig. 13, a), on germination 
there creeps out a naked motile mass of protoplasm, which 
takes nourishment, grows and reproduces rapidly by divid- 
ing, the products of the division being in each case similar 
swarm spores (fig. 13, b-f). Alter an extended vegetation of 
this sort, a number of the swarm spores collect into a " herd " 
and creep about in company for a time, after which two of 
them, apparently through accident, come closer together and 
adhere. Now the others close in and unite with these two. 
forming what is termed a plftsniudinnt (tig. 13. r». Bur in thi- 
union each swarm spore retains its individuality, the union 
being merely an adhesion, not even a fusion of the individual 
protoplasms." They creep around in this plasm, .dium form for 
a time until ready 'to complete the cycle by forming the mature 

288 The American Naturalist. [April, 

forming a single encysted spore (fig. 13, h). 

Why this mechanical adhesion of the swarm spores into a 
Plasmodium? It would seem a scheme adopted by the plant 
to better protect the enevsted spores. 

2. IntheM!/xr»»!,c«<,s V ro\*r(thi- higher Slime Molds), the 
mode of life is practically the same as in the Acrasiese,hut here, 
when the swarm spores fuse to form the plasmodium ; the fusion 
is complete so far as the protoplasm- are concerned, but still 
there is a lack of a thorough fusion of all the elements as the 
nuclei remain apparently ununited (fig. 14). 

In some Mi/.comiiatts we find an indefinite number of swarm 
spores uniting to form the plasmodium, but in others the 
number thus fusing is reduced to a very few. Thus coupled 
with the growing complexity of the fusion or /)sC(i(h<-co)iju</a- 

ber of elements fusing. 

3. Between this process and that described as conjugation 
there are many interesting intermediate forms. Sometimes 
three or four spores of low Al^e unite as if to gather sufficient 

strength to make a 

combined start in life. In DictyosipH 

hippuroides Areselu 

■ ug 1 has observed and figured the union < 

three zoospores. ] 

hi Acdahiil <rrift mediterranea DeBary an 

Strasburger have the copulation of several swan 

spores (figs. 15 and 

16). This multiple conjugation has ah 

4. In Ulothris we find the d 
ther. Here the protoplasm of c 
divides up into numerous little j 

^reschoug, Nova Acta., Reg. Soc. Ser. ] 
"DeBary and Strasburger Bot. Zeit., Bd. : 

J892.] Phenomena and Development of Fecundation. 280 

on breaking out of the mother cell are seen to possess on their 
anterior end an eye spot and two cilia, hy the rotation of which 
they dart actively here and there. These are the so-called 
miarozoospores. Finally two of them from different parents, hut 
in appearance precisely the same, come together and coalesce. 

here only two uniting: while in the preceding stage there were 

5. The next stage in the development is the union of more 
or less dimorphic elements. Both among plants and animals 

conjugation. Sachs says "this differentiation presents a most 
complete series of gradations between the conjugation of simi- 
lar cells and the fertilization of oospores by antherozooids, any 
boundary line betwen these processes beine unnatural and 

Cutleria, a seaweed of the branch Oophi/tu.i* an interesting 
example of this stage. Here the female zoospores are large 
and borne singly in specialized cells in the parent. These on 
escaping, swim about for a time as do the microzoospores of 
Ulothrix, after which they come to rest. The smaller anthero- 
zooids now approach and conjugation takes place. In Cufhria. 
then, we have a union of differentiated cells for the first time, 
but they are yet both motile. 

6. As an illustration of the next stage where we find com- 
plete differentiation as marked as in man, we select the Moss 
plant. In the mosses, the male and female organs are com- 
monly borne on different plants. The egg cell is located at 
the bottom of a flask-shaped organ, the archegonium (fig. 
18, a). The antherozooids (fig. 18, b) are small headed and 
biciliated, approaching in appearance very near to the sper- 
matozoa of higher animals. In fertilization the antherozooids 
swim to and down the neck of the archegonium, at the bottom 
of which they find the quiescent oosphere or egg cell with 
which they fuse. The sexual cells of the moss plant, it is thus 
seen, unite two and two. as in the last case, but the differentia- 

290 The American Naturalist. [April, 

tion has been carried further, the female having become wholly 
ineap.ihle of independent motion, and the antherozooids have 
been gradually decreasing in comparative size. Here we have 
reached as high a development of fecundation as is probably 
found in the vegetable kingdom. (The stages in this develop- 
ment may be made clear by an examination of tig. 20, which 
is a modification of an illustrativ.> diagram designed bvGeddes 
and Thomson.) 

I trust I have now made clear to you how fecundation prob- 
li'iy mi ioinated, or rather the course it likely pursued in its 
gradual differentiation. Cell division, as we have seen, origi- 
nated in almost a mechanical breaking apart of a mass of pro- 
toplasm. Conjugation and fecundation we now see, probably 
originated in the almost mechanical adhesion of the swarm 
spores of the Acrasiex, followed by the mechanical fusion of 
the swarm spores of My-conn/crt,*, uw\ gradually increasing in 
complexity until there is complete fusion (conjugation), then a 
fusion of elements differing in character. Which is fecunda- 


We may now direct our inquiry to the point in this evolu- 
tion where sex becomes differentiated. In the conjugating 
swarm spores of the Slime Molds there seems to be no point 
where we can detect indications of a difference in the uniting 
individuals. So far as known there is no differentiation into 
male and female. 

In Uothrix (fig, 17) we begin to get a differentiation. In 
the conjugating microzoospores or planogametes (so called 
because of their similar character), it has been observed that 
planogametes produced in the same organ or gametangium 
will not coalesce with each other, but coalesce with planoga- 
metes from other gametangia. Here then, where the micro- 
scope fails to reveal any difference in the conjugating cells we 
nevertheless know from this fact that there must be some dif- 

Edocarpus siliculosus, one of the brown seaweeds, from the 
observations of Berthold, illustrates a rather different feature, 
by which we determine that the planogametes are really male 

1892.] Phenomena and Development of Fecundation. 291 

and female, although from external appearances we cannot 
recognize the difference between them. When the zoospores 
or planogametes are discharged from the mother cell, they do 
not differ by any morphological character. The females do not 
attract the males, but they swim around in the water and pass 
each other unnoticed. After a time, however, sex becomes 
manifest, and notably in accordance with the anabolic character 
of the female. Certain ones of the planogametes become motion- 
less, draw in their cilia and assume a rounded shape ( 1 ( .». 
a-c). The female character of such cells is shown by the 
attraction they exert on the active males which collect about 
them in great numbers (a hundred or more), clustering at 
one side in a half circle. The anterior filament of each male 
is directed toward the female cell and is kept continually mov- 
ing back and forth over it, the object being, it is thought, to 
provoke in the female planogamete genital excitation (tig. 
19, d). After continuing to stroke the female for a time, one of 
the male planogametes leaves the circle and approaches the 
female, with which it gradually fuses, and fertilization is com- 
plete (fig. 19, e-h). 

In the pond scums (Spirogyra, etc.), the reproduction of 
which is probably familiar to all, the filaments appear exactly 
alike, but the female character of one is shown by the cells 
of that filament containing all the spores resulting from the 

In Cutleria, mentioned above, the difference is manifested by 
the size of the conjugating cells, but as we noticed, both male 
and female are still motile. 

In the common rock weed, (Fucus— fig. 21), the differentia- 
tion becomes marked by the external forms of the sexual cells. 
The female cells are large and motionless, while the male cells 
are becoming more intensely male by a comparative decrease 
in size and increase, if anything, in vigor. By the vigor of 
their motions they give the oosphere, around which they col- 
lect in great numbers, a rotary motion for a time until it is fer- 

In the mosses (fig. 18) and ferns, discussed above, we reach 
a complete and highly developed state of sexuality, probably 
more complete than in the higher flowering plants. 

We have now traced hastily the eour: 
into the sexes, but the question " what 

Starting with an amoeboid cell let us see what changes envi- 
ronment might bring about in this direction. We have already 
seen that nourishment evidently has considerable to do in the 
determination of sex. Now the physiological conditions in 
reference to nourishment to which a cell may be subjected are 
evidently three: preponderating anabolism. preponderating 
katabolism or a medium between these when katabolism and 
anabolism are equal. Suppose an amoeboid cellis subject to a 
preponderance of anabolism over katabolism the result would 
naturally be, increase in size, accompanied by a growing regu- 
larity of outline, increase in reserve food material and decreased 
mobility. The result is surely plain, we would have differen- 
tiated an ovum or egg cell. On the other hand subject the 
amoeboid cell to preponderant katabolism, and we would as 
reasonably expect a decrease in size and in reserve materials 
accompanied by increased activity and the development ot 
organs to aid in more rapid motion through the surrounding 
medium. In short in this manner we reach intelligibly the 
differentiation of sperm and ovum, antherozoid and oosphere 
(fig. 60, and explanations). 

In certain of the Red Seaweeds we appear to have the curi- 
ous and unparalleled occurence of two sexual acts in the life 
cycle of the plant, and the manner in which it is lead up to by 
transitional forms is very suggestive. The female reproductive 
organs which are borne on the same plant as the antheridia or 
on different ones consists usually of a group of cells, the pro- 
carpium, from one of which the egg cell proper, a long contin- 
uous closed tube, the trichogyne, grows out. In fertilization 
the spermatia are wafted about in the water until they come 
in contact with the trichogyne to which they adhere. The 
walls at the point of contact are absorbed, allowing the nucleus 
of the spermatia to pass over into the trichogyne and thus 
down to the egg cell, where it unites with the female pronu- 

1892.] Phenomena, and Development of Fecundation. 293 

cleus (figs. 22 and 23). Shortly after fertilization a partition 
forms between the trichogyne and the egg cell, debarring the 
entrance of further sperma I ia and a Hording thus an excellent 
illustration of what Whitman has termed Self-regulating 
receptivity." After fertilization the egg cell does not separate 
from its previous tissue connections, as in the oogonia of other 
green alga?, and the archegonia of the archegoniata, bnt 
remains in continuous connection with the hypogynal cells 
through which it is nourished. 

In the simplest case {HvlwinthodwIU-u) the ovacell develops 
from its surface many several-celled lilaments, t>of>l<istnntix, as 
they are called, which form usually a closely compressed tuft, 
A single carpospore is developed at the apex of each of these 
ooblastema filaments {Nemalion, etc.) In this case, it will be 
noticed, all the ooblastema filaments are nourished through 
the egg cell. 

In the Gelidese, a slightly higher form, the fertilized ova 
from its surface cell develops a single filament, termed the 
ooblastema, which turns toward the axis of the blanch 
and, ramifying abundantly, winds around this, sending 
branches into the highly nutritive outer layer of cells of the 
hranch and connecting with some of these cells by the devel- 
opment of pits. Being thus abundantly nourished through 
this tissue, the branches of the ooblastema filament develop 
from each of the clavate erect terminal branch cells, either a 
single spore or short chains of two or more. In this case it is 
seen the ooblastema filament become- in a sense parasitic upon 
the tissue of the parent plant. 

In the families Crytmemiese and Squatuaricn a single or at 
least few ooblastema filaments develop from the fertilized egg 
cell. These creep about until they come in contact with 
certain specialized cells of the branch known as auxiliary cells. 
with which they enter into connection directly or by the 
development of conjugation processes. In many cases the 
union thus formed is limited to a fusion of the protoplasm 
while the cell nuclei remain separate, (Dudremaya). In this 
case a process issues laterally from that half of the conjugation 

294 The American Naturalist. [April, 

coll which iv}. resents the ooblastema cell which by its further 
growth gives rise to the spore complex (fig. 22). 

In other cases (Gloeosiphonia) when the contents of the 
ooblastema filaments flow into the auxiliary cell, the nuclei 
unite, the fusion or conjugation being thus complete. In this 
case the auxiliary cell .-emirates off as an individual cell ami 
gives rise to a lateral cell which becomes the centre of a spore 
complex (fig. 23). . 

In the above case where the nuclei unite and where the 
conjugation gives an impulse to further development in the 
auxiliary cell, which otherwise would have remained quies- 
cent, we have a case fulfilling all the requirements of a 
true sexual act, — true fecundation, and there seems to be no 
other way to consider this, than that here we have in the life 
cycle of the plant, two entirely different sexual acts, one following 
the other. We are surprised at this unprecedented phenomenon 
but we can not predicate why it should not occur. The reason 
for it we may assign to natural selection and development 
along natural lines. (1) The spores develop at the ends of 
filaments grown out from the egg cell. (2) The filaments thus 
formed begin to attach themselves to cells of the branch for 
nourishment. (3) We find special cells developed which the 
ooblastema filament finds and unites with in one sense but 
giving no nuclear union. (4) The ooblastema strikes a 
specialized cell with which it unites nuclei and protoplasm, 
the conjugation being complete and the further development 
from this auxiliary cell. May we not here in the development 
of the second sexual act of the Red Seaweeds derive a hint as 
to the physiological meaning of fecundation. 

We start in a union for nutrition. We end with conjugation. 


Character of Ovum.— The animal egg or ovum presents all 
the characteristics of a normal somatic cell. The rather large 
nucleus is situated approximately in the centre of the cell, 
surrounded by abundant protoplasm. The abundant chroma- 
tin of the nucleus is arranged as in other cells in the form of a 
tangled coil like a disordered ball of twine. It is thought by 

Phenomena and Develop matt of Fecundation. 295 

tinuous, but by Boveri 
bo interrupted. This 
matters little, however, as the ultimate division of the coil is 
into a definite and regular number. 

When the egg cell lias attained its mature size, a peculiar 
occurence takes place. The nucleus approaches the wall, forms 
a spindle and divides, forming at one side of the large ovum a 
tiny cell, containing half the nuclear matter and a small 
quantity of protoplasm from the ovum. This is not all, later 
a second spindle is formed and again the nucleus of the ovum 
divides throwing off another small cell. These cells thus given 
off from the ovum are known as polar globules. These little 
bodies, long passed by as of no importance, have by the mas- 
terly studies of later authors, foremost among whom are Van 
Beneden, Boveri and Weismann, been raised to a most impor- 
tant position and are intimately connected with late theories 
of fecundation. 

Minot's Theory of Polar Globules.— What we may term 
Minot's theory assumes that in the cells both sexes are potenti- 
ally present. To produce sexual elements the cell divides 
into its parts ; in the case of the egg cell the male polar 
globules are cast off leaving the female ovum. In partheno- 
genetic ova he supposes that enough nude matter is retained 
since only one polar globule appears to be formed. Van Ben- 
eden is also inclined to regard polar globules as i . 
male matter. Minot's theory then is that in every cell of 
every organism having sexual reproduction that there is an 
equal amount of female and of male matter, an equal number 
of male and of female chromatin bands ; and that before the 
egg can be fertilized, it throws off the male matter that it con- 
tains as polar globules, so that the pronucleus consists merely 
of the female matter, of half the ordinary number of chroma- 
tin bands. The spermatozoon which has eliminated all 
female matter, enters and supplies the required amount of 
male matter. So that in the fecundated nucleus thus formed 
we have again the normal number of male and female chro- 
matin segments from the different parents, and this nucleus 
by its segmentation forms every cell of the r 

from this theory we arrive at an intelligible reason why the 
offspring comes to resemble both parents but there are diffi- 
culties ni the way of further tracing heredity which wo have 
not time here to consider. 

Weismann's Theory.— Weismann's view is wholly different. 
He distinguishes in the ovum two kinds of plasm, the germ 
plasm and the histogenetic or ovogenetic nucleoplasm. The 
germ plasm which is at first present in the young egg he con- 
cludes originates first of all a special histogenetic or ovogenetic 
nucleoplasm which controls the egg cell up to the point of 
maturity, enabling it to secrete food material, develop mem-, 
Cranes, etc. At maturity this ovogenetic nucleoplasm is of no 
more use and incapable of retransformation into germ plasm, 
and is hence thrown off by nuclear division forming the first 
polar globule. This is all that is extruded in the partheno- 
genetic ova. The second kind, — his germ plasm, — present in 
the egg, is that which enables the ovum to develop into an em- 
bryo. The second extrusion of a polar globule is a reduction of 
this germ plasm of the nucleus by half and the same must occur 
in the male germ cell also. What is thus lost in the forma- 
tion of the second polar globule, is supplied by the fertilizing 
spermatozoon. The beginning of development depends, accord- 
ing to this hypothesis, upon the presence of a definite quantity 
of germ plasm. This the normal egg attains by first losing 
half and then regaining it ; while the parthenogenetic egg 
attains the same result by never losing any. According to 
Weismann's view we see that only the second polar globule has 
to do directly with reproduction and here we have to look for 
an explanation of reproduction and heredity. As mentioned 
above Weismann looks upon the second polar globule, by 
which the germ plasm is reduced one half, as a reduction not 
only in quantity but above all in complexity of constitution, for 
by this means, he reasons, the excessive accumulations of differ- 
ent kinds of hereditary tendencies or germ plasms is prevented, 
which without it would necessarily be produced by fertiliza- 
tion. With the nucleus of the second polar body as many 
different kinds of germ plasms are removed from the egg as 
Will be afterward added through the sperm nucleus. This 

1892.] Phenomena and Development of Fecundation. 297 

will likely need illustration to make it plain. Suppose we 
imagine an organism in which sex has just arisen and wo thus 
have fertilization for the first time. In the egg cell resulting 
from this fertilization we would have mingled the germ plasms 
of but two parents, or but two kinds of chromatin in the 
nucleus; the chromatin, be it remembered, being the organ to 
which all such phenomena are traced. This daughter organ- 
ism now conjugates with another similar individual which is 
also but one generation removed from the sexual origin. In 
the organism resulting from this union we obviously have 
commingled in the chromatin elements four ancestral tenden- 
cies or idioplasms. It is unnecessary to carry this further, 
obviously the next generation form a similar union, would 
contain 8 ancestral idioplasms, the next 16, the 10th genera- 
tion 1024, and so on, doubling each time with every sexually 
produced generation. It is merely following the well known 
calculation made by breeders who merely differ in that they 
use the term blood, half blood or quarter blood, instead of 
germ, plasm or idioplasms as we have. 

While in each succeeding generation the number of germ 
plasms are doubled, their quantities are reduced by one-half. 
Thus in a series of generations the continually recurring 
divisions of the ancestral germ plasms must theoretically 
ultimately reach a limit. So Weismann argues that the reduc- 
tion in the number of chromatin bands accomplished by the 
formation of the second polar globule is to reduce by one-half 
the number of the ancestral germ plasms in the ovum, and the 
ancestral germ plasm added by the spormato/.oan brings the 
number of germ plasms in the ovum up to the normal num- 
ber which he supposes to be present, This theory is of course 
based on the almost universally accepted theory that fertiliza- 
tion consists in that an equal number of chromatin loops from 
either parent are placed side by side and form the new seg- 
mentation nucleus. 

Character of Sperm.— The character of the spermatozoon is 
familiar to all. It consists of a minute head, composed chiefly 
of chromatin nuclear matter with a minimum allowance of 
cytoplasm and a long contractile tail which working behind 

298 Tlie American Naturalist. [April, 

like a screw propeller, moves the essential head through the 
water or along the ducts. 

Fertilization consists in a union of the spermatozoon with 
the ovum. Many devices are developed to bring the two cells 
near together, but they are then left to conjugate at will, as it 
were. The road that it is necessary for the spermatozoon to 
pass over to reach the ovum is frequently quite long, being in 
the hen about 60 cm. and in large mammifers from 25-30 
cm. But they are katabolic little creatures. It is wonderful 
how such frail creatures can manage to overcome such obsta- 
cles. Henle has seen spermatozoa carry along masses of crys- 
tals 10 times larger than themselves. Pouchet has seen them 
carry bunches of from eight to ten blood corpuscles. They 
have been estimated to carry burdens four or five times 
heavier than themselves without much difficulty or incon- 

Foil's Observations on the Union of Pronuclei? — Herman Foil 
describes the phenomena of fecundation in the egg of the sea 
urchin in about the following manner. The spermatozoon 
five minutes after entering the egg is conical and from its tip 
a small corpuscle, the spermocenter is detached (fig. 24). The 
spermatic pronucleus swells and approaches the female pron- 
ucleus the spermocentre in advance (fig. 25). The ovocenter 
is located on the side of the female pronucleus opposite to the 
side which gave rise to the polar globules. The spermocenter 
becomes placed at the pole on the side opposite the ovocenter 
(fig. 26). There are now two prolonged phases the " solar " 
and the " aureolar ; " at the end of the first of these the ovocen- 
ter and spermocenter becomes divided in the form of" halters, * 
as the author expresses it, which are not placed in the same 
plane. These " halters " come to lie parallel to each other in 
the plane which will be that of the aureole (fig. 27.) In the 
next phase the spermocenter and ovocenter become divided 
(fig. 28) and the halves passing in opposite directions along a 
fourth of a circumference of the combined nucleus arrive at a 
point at right angles to their previous position. This Foil 
calls the " Marche du quadrille. " 

IS92.] Phenomena and Development of Fecundation. 299 

At the moment when the demiovocenters ami demispermo- 
centers are on the point of uniting. the aureole rapidly disap- 
pear and true aster become apparent with their perfectly dis- 
tinct fibrils, much different from the radiations which are 
visible till then (fig. 29). The demicenters unite and fuse to 
form the first asterocenters. 

The author concludes that fecundation consists not only in 
the addition of two nuclei arising from different individ- 
uals of different sexes, but in the union of two demispenuo- 
centers with two demi-ovocentres to form the first two astro- 
centers. All succeeding astrocenters are derived in eqtial 
parts from the mother and father. 

Fecundation in Higher Plants. 
Development of Embryo Sac and Egg Apparatus :— -In the 
higher plants (the anthophytes or spermophytes) we are par- 
ticularly concerned with the embryo sac and its inclosed egg 
apparatus. It is necessary that we should thoroughly under- 
stand its development. The embryo sac first shows itself as 
an enlarged specialized cell in the upper central part of the 
nucellus or body of the ovule (fig. 30, a). In the maturation 
the nucleus divides and the two daughter nuclei thus formed 
travel in opposite directions, one going to the apex, the other 
to the base of the embryo sac which has, in the meantime, been 
growing larger and longer (fig. 31). After reaching their re- 
spective ends each divide again (figs. 32 and 33) and the two 
in each end thus formed again divide (fig. 34) forming a 
tetrad of nuclei at both the apex and the base of the embryo 
sac. Now a very peculiar thing happens. One of the nuclei 
from each tetrad thus formed leaves its position and journeys 
toward the centre of the embryo sac where they come together 
and fuse, forming the nucleus proper of the embryo sac (fig. 
35, c). There is now left at each end of the embryo sac 
three nuclei of the original tetrad. The nuclei of the upper 
end become partitioned off by walls and form the egg ap- 
paratus proper. The two upper cells, the so-called synergidss 
or accessory cells (fig. 35, a) are of doubtful function, being 
merely of secondarv value in fertilization. They are some- 

300 The American Naturalist [April, 

times capable, it has been observed, of being fertilized as egg 
cells and developing embryos (in cases of polyembiyony). 
The lower cell (fig. 35, b) is the egg cell proper. The three 
basal cells become partitioned off by walls also and are known 
as antipodal cells; they appear to have no function in fertiliza- 
tion (fig. 35, d). 

Development of Pollen: — The pollen or male germ cells are 
produced in great quantities in the pollen sacs of the anthers. 
They are formed in mother cells by two successive divisions of 
the nucleus, thus there are four pollen grains produced in each 
pollen mother cell (figs. 49 to 55). Later the nucleus of the 
pollen grains thus formed divides again (fig. 39) forming two 
cells in the grain, a small and a large one, the so-called 
generative and vegetative cells. The generative nucleus 
(fig. 40, b) of the small cell is the one important in fecunda- 
tion. The vegetative nucleus (fig. 40, a) remains in the pollen 
grain having no further role in fecundation, or according to 
Guignard, sometimes passes into the pollen tube in advance of 
the generative nucleus and follows down the tube as it 
lengthens, until the micropyle is reached, when it gradually 
disorganizes and before fertilization takes place has disap- 
peared. At first these two nuclei are separated by a cell 
wall but sooner or later the wall is broken down allowing the 
two nuclei to float free in the protoplasm of the pollen grain. 
Reduction of the Number of Chromatin Elements in Sexual 
Nuclei. — Guignard 1 in a late article has emphasized the fact 
that in sexual cells there is a reduction in the number of the 
chromatin segments. In somatic cells he finds usually 24 
segments, in the sexual cells the number is reduced to 12. In 
the formation of the young tissue of the anther 24 bands are 
uniformly present as far as the mother cells, the nucleus of 
which receives, as have the others so far 24 segments. After 
the complete differentiation of the mother cell it relapses for a 
time into a state of repose before the two divisions which are 
to form the pollen grain. When now the nucleus of the 
mother cell begins to manifest division it shows all the normal 

iG.ii K nnr.1, " Sur la Continue™ <!< s Novaux Pexuel- les Vcgelaux, " Comples *,<: . . . i;,.i. 1. c * 

1892.] Phenomena and Development of Fecundation. 301 

changes of karyokenetic division but when the chromatin seg- 
ments become visible there are only 12. The 12 segments are 
found again in the division which succeeds in order to form 
the pollen grain, Guignard assumes that during the forma- 
tion of the mother cell the segments have united two and two 
either end to end or parallel ; thus giving only 12. He thinks 
it certain that this reduction in number can in no way be con- 
nected with the elimination of nuclear, matter as seen in polar 

In the nucellus of the ovule the nuclei all possess alike 21 
chromatin segments. The cell which differentiates to form the 
embryo sac contains a nucleus which receives 21 chromatin 
segments but when the nucleus of this divides, after a long state 
of repose, they show a reduction, as in the pollen, from 24 to 
12 segments and tiiese 12 segments are found in all the succeed- 
ing divisions in the formation of the egg apparatus. A similar 
phenomenal reduction is said by Hertwig to occur in the 
animal kingdom, in the course of development of Amiris 

Germination of Pollen and Growth of Pollen Tube .-—The act 
ion proper consists in the union of the male nucleus 
of the pollen grain with the female nucleus of the egg cell. 
The mature pollen is transported from the anther where it 
is formed, to the stigma by the aid of insects, wind, water, 
etc. We are all. thanks to such men as Darwin and Lobbock, 
more or. less familiar with the various processes by which pol- 
lination is accomplished. The pollen brought in contact with 
the stigma adheres there, being held and excited to germinate 
by a sticky, sugary exudation which covers the stigmatic 

In germination the pollen grain sends out a tube which 
grows down through the tissue of the style till it reaches the 
micropyle or entrance to the ovule through which it passes, 
enters the nucellus or body of the ovule, and comes in contact 
with the embryo sac, at the upper point where the egg appar- 
atus is situated (tigs. 30 and 37). It may well be asked how 
the pollen tubes in their blind chase downward succeed in 
finding such a small place as the micropyle and a single 

302 The American Naturalist. [April, 

cell in the body of the ovule. How in the inverted ovule 
they grow downward and then turn and retrace their steps 
upward; and the same question mighl properly be asked 
in regard to the lower plants. How does the antherozooid of 
Fucus succeed in finding the oosphere which is floating, per- 
haps, at some distance in the water, or the antherozooid of a 
moss plant, the small mouth of the archegonium which is on 
a different plant. As to this we can only suggest. It has 
boon thought that in such cases the ovum secretes some 
substance which acts as a chemical excitant on the anthero- 
zooids. Pfeffer working from this suggestion, has surely ob- 
served some interesting phenomena, that much strengthen if 
not absolutely confirm this hypothesis. His method of exper- 
imenting was this : — A solution of the substance to be experi- 
mented upon was placed in capillary tubes of from 5-7 hun- 
dredths of a millimeter wide. These capillary tubes dip into 
a watch crystal containing liquid wherein (juantities of the 
antherozoids have been placed. Currants of diffusion will, it 

that in the watch, crystal, and when the substance experi- 
mented upon is the right one the antherozooids are seen to fol- 
low the currents of diffusion and enter the capillary tube. In 
ferns Pfeffer found malic acid or malate to be the effective sub- 
stance attracting the antherozooids. As a proof of this, malic 
acid is found in abundance in prothallium decoctions of ferns 
and is known to be of very common occurrence throughout the 
vegetable kingdom. In the moss plant, cane sugar was found 
to be the effective substance and substances of the closest 
analogy as glucose, levulose, glycogen, etc., were found to exer- 
cise no attraction. Thus Pfeffer formulated an antherozooid 

test for these substances, analogous to the ba 

eteria test for oxy- 

.gen invented by Englemann. 

In the growth of the pollen tube from the downward 

to the embryo sac, a conducting tissue is for 

tried which accom- 

plishes the same purpose. The conducting 

tiesue consists of 

layers of specialized cells which become til 

led with nutritive 

saccharine material and furnishes nourish: 

ment to the pollen 

tube in its downward growth. Frequently 

we find continuous 

1892.] Phenomena and Development of Fecundation. 

tub.-, lined by tliesc s| u i-in 1 i/.'-.l nourishing cells, lea. 
the stigma down to the cavity containing the ovule: 

necessary for many tubes to penetrate the style, as it requires 
one pollen tube to fertilize an ovule and there can be but little 
doubt but that almost every ovule formed in the ovary, receives 
a pollen tube and is fertilized. In the orchids one, by careful 
dissection, can find a silvery bundle of the pollen tubes and 
trace their progress from stigma to ovule. 

leads from the stigma down through the style, in the lower 
portion of which it brandies into three parts, sending one 
branch into each cavity of the ovary. The pollen tubes may, 
with but little difficulty, be traced down through the stylar tube 
to the ovary cavity and found in numerous cases entering the 
micropyle of the ovules (figs. 3G and 37). 

In some cases the irritation produced by the growing pollen 
tube through the tissue of the style, produces profound changes 
even before it reaches the egg cell and empties its contents. It 
has been observed, for instance in orchids, that at the time of 
pollination the ovules are in a very rudimentary condition 
and await the stimulus of the growing pollen tube, to develop 
the egg apparatus and prepare for fertilization. A month 
after the pollen tube starts its growth, the egg apparatus is com- 
pleted and not until five weeks after this is fertilization com- 
pleted. Similar phenomena have been observed in mul lein, etc. 
It must not be thought that fecundation always requires so 
much rime for its consummation, on the contrary it is usually 
a very quick process, requiring only a few days at most in 
flowering plants and much less in lower plants where the con- 
tact is direct. 

Strasburger's Observations on the Immediate Process of Fecun- 
dation.— On reaching the embryo sac, the pollen tube hardly 
proceeds as we would expect. It does not penetrate into the 
egg cell and then burst leaving a free passage for the genera- 
tive nucleus. In most cases, at least, it does not even penetrate 
the embrvo sac but the end of the tube spreads out over the 

304 Tlie American Naturalist. [April, 

apex of the embryo sac, covering the synergidac (fig. 37). In 
some of the lower plants as Peronospora where the antheridium 
develops a conjugating tube, a direct passage is said to be 
formed by the bursting of the end of the tube which penetrates 
through the wall of the egg cell (fig. 59). The further pro- 
cess in flowering plants is, acccording to Strasburger, as follows: 
The nucleus of the generative cell of the pollen grain passes 
into the pollen tube and just before fertilization may be seen 
in the apex of the pollen tube surrounded by protoplasm. 
Before fertilization takes place this generative nucleus divides 
into two nuclei (figs. 41 and 42) and one of these passes out 
through the mucilaginous apex of the pollen tube and travels 
between the disorganized synergidse to the oosphere. The gen- 
erative nucleus then enters the oosphere, leaving behind it the 
protoplasm which had served as a vehicle, and fuses with the 
female pronucleus. Thus fecundation is completed and is as 
we see by this outlined process, a fusion of nuclei which would 
support the view that in reproduction the nuclei arc the all 
important organs. The above description does not consider 
the exisience of attractive spheres in the vegetable cell and as 
stated in our consideration of cell division, Guignard, followed 
by others, has lately asserted their universal occurrence accom- 
panying the cell nucleus. 

Gui guard's Discoveries. 1 — After its introduction into the 
pollen tube the generative nucleus is fusiform and surrounded 
by a layer of differentiated protoplasm. The directive spheres, 
two in number, are generally found at one end of the nucleus. 
When the generative nucleus divides into two, as explained 
above, after it has passed into the pollen tube and is located 
near the apex, the longer axes of the nuclear spindle, is always 
parallel to that of the pollen tube, hence that one of the result- 
ing reproductive nuclei which is nearest the end of the tube 
has its attractive spheres preceding it. While the other on 
the contrary presents them behind the nucleus, where the 
other pole was situated. Thus at the moment when the first^ of 
these cells, which alone is charged with fecundation, penetrates into 


1S02.] Phenomena and Development of Fecundation. 305 

the female apparatus the two directive sp hens which 
precede it. 

In the embryo sac, as explained above, one .-tap- shows the 
nuclei disposed in two tetrads, one at the summit and the other 
at the base. In the apical tetrad the nuclei which belong to 
the synergidoe are formed by a horizontal division (figs. 13 
and 44) and their attractive spheres, therefore, occupy their 
lateral faces. The two other nuclei on the contrary are orig- 
inated in a perpendicular plane (fig. 43). Thus the nucleus 
which goes to form the oosphere, has its two attractive spheres 
above it (figs. 41 and 45, l>) while the ether thai travels to the 
centre of the embryo sac to fuse with a similar one from below, 
has its attractive spheres below it. (Upper nucleus, fig. 44, c 

The male nucleus, which is strongly contracted in its \ assngo 
into the egg cell, increases in size and forms what is qow 
termed the male pronucleus which is preceded, it will be 
remembered, by its two attractive spheres (fig. 45, d). The 
contact first occurs between the attractive spheres. These 
coalesce two by two, male sphere with female sphere (fig. 46). 
They then separate from each other so as to allow the male 
and female pronuclei to pass between them and fuse (fig. 47 
and 48). The male pronucleus unites with the u nude pronu- 
cleus and remains thus in contact but is clearly distinguisha- 
ble until the first segmentation starts. In each couple, formed 
by the union of male and female attractive spheres, tho fusion 
takes place slowly. When thoroughly fused fecundation is 
complete. The two new spheres thus formed will be the origin 
of the poles of the first segmentation spindle. Before the first. 
division they orient themselves in such a fashion that this 
spindle will be parallel to the longitudinal axes of the egg 
cell. It results, from these observations, that the phenomena of 
fecundation consists not only in the copulation of two nuclei of 
different sexual origin but also in the fusion of two protoplasmic 
bodies of equally different origin. 

The process of fecundation in the sea urchin, explained 
above from Foil, agrees chiefly with this. Differing only in 
that the attractive sphere does not divide until it enters the egg. 

Polar Globules in Plants.— Unvc we now anything in the 

306 The American Naturalist. [April 

maturation of the egg cell and the antherozoids that corres 
pond to polar globules in the animal egg ? In short, it i 
thought that we find analogous exudations of nuclear matte 
almost universally in plants. In the development of the 
planogametes of Ulothrix a portion of waste protoplasm b. 
traded with the planogametes containing probably the 
truded nuclear matter. 

Among the well differentiated female gametes, it, is said, Per- 
onospora affords an excellent illustration of what we may term 
polar globules. In the development of the oosphere, accord- 
ing to Wagner, the numerous nuclei which at first are scattered 
uniformly throughout the oogonium (fig. 57) at length ap- 
proach the periphery leaving the central portion of the oogon- . 
ium occupied by large vacuoles, and a email central mass of 
protoplasm connected with the periphery by protoplasmic 
strands. The nuclei now limited to the periphery further 
divide and 2 or 3 (?) finally leave the periphery and approach 
the central mass of protoplasm traveling along the connecting 
protoplasmic strands and supposedly unite in the centre, 
forming the nucleus of the oosphere (fig. 58). While these 
nuclei are thus traveling toward the centre, the cell wall 
of the oosphere begins to form, separating the central mass of 
protoplasm with its two nuclei from the peripheral or peri- 
plasm with' its numerous nuclei, some of which are supposed 
to be used up in the formation of the oosphere wall. The 
nuclei thus relegated to the periplasm have been considered as 
of the nature of polar globules. But with the present light on 
the subject it must remain surely as a very doubtful and 

In the development of the antherozooids of ferns, when the 
antherozooid is set free there is attached to its posterior end 
an appendage which is usually described as a protoplasmic 
vesicle, but Dodel-Port and Belajeff think it to contain nuclear 
matter also from the mother cells. 

In flowering plants the nucleus of the pollen divides 
into two cells (figs. 39 and 40) a vegetative and a gen- 
erative. The vegetative is thought by Strasburger to have 
the function of a polar globule. Again the generative 

1892.] Phenomena and Development of Fecundation. 307 

nucleus after it has passed down the pollen tube divides, 
and only one portion enters the oosphero digs. 41 ;nul -12), 
the other remaining as waste nuclear matter and may ho 
considered as a second polar globule. In the development 
of the embryo sac it is thought the division of the nucleus 
which gives rise to the nucleus of the egg cell and of the polar 
nucleus which travels to the middle of the embryo sac to fuse 
with a similar one from the basal tetrad, is one of the divisions 
sought and that the polar nucleus lias in reality the signifi- 
cance of a polar globule. If a second polar globule is formed 
it is likely the preceding division, that which gives rise to the 
first of the synergidse. If this is the case the regular after 
division that forms the two synergidse may be looked upon as 
corresponding with the rather abnormal but quite frequent 
division which occurs in the first polar globule of many 

The instances cited of polar globules in the vegetable 
kingdom, it will be seen, do not possess that definiteness that 
is found in the animal kingdom. We fain would have greater 
definiteness but further work is here necessary. Doubt clusters 
about many questions connected with fertilization. We must 
be content to take things as they are even if somewhat un- 
satisfactory, until further investigation throws light on the 
obscure points. 

Shaw School of Botany. 
December 16, 1891. St. Louis, Mo. 


The figures are mostly redrawn or adapted from various 
standard investigations. A few are original. 
Plates XI-XIV. 

Fig. 1. A portion of the frond of Caulerpa, natural size. (Re- 
drawn from Sachs.' Phys. of Plants, Eng. Ed. p. 492. 

Figs. 2-9. Iris pumila. Dividing mother cell of a stoma. 
(Redrawn from Strasburger " Zellbild. und Zellteil. " (3rd. Ed. 
1880.) PL yiii). Fig. 2. Resting nucleus. 3. Contraction and 
breaking up of the nuclear thread. 4. Nuclear spindle. 5. 

308 The American Naturalist. [April, 

Separation of chromatin segments. C. Fusion of chromatin 
segments at each pole.. 7 and 8. Organization of the 
daughter nuclei and formation of the cell plate. 9. The two 
resulting daughter nuclei. 

Figs. 10-11. (Redrawn from Watase.— " Karyokenesis " Bio- 
logical Lectures p. 168). Fig. 10. Nucleus dividing, showing 
archoplasmic spheres; (a) centre of archoplasm; (c) cyto- 
plasm. Fig. 11. Division of the archoplasmic sphere. 

Fig. 12. atie outline of nuclear division 

modeled from Guignard's description; (a) centrosome sur- 
rounded by a hyaline circle ; (6) surrounding granular circle ; 
(c) cytoplasm. 

Fig. 13. (Original). Diagramatic outline of the development 
of the Acrasiese ; (a) spore ; (6) escaping mass of protoplasm ; 
(c) swarm spore; (d) swarm spore preparing for division; (e) 
dividing swarm spore; (/) completion of the division; (g) 
Plasmodium; {h) sporangium. 

Fig. 14. (Original). Diagramatic outline of the plasmodium 
formation, etc. in Myoxomycetes ; (a) swarm spores; {b) starting 
of fusion ; (c) plasmodium ; (d) sporangium. 

Figs. 15-16. (Redrawn from Strasburger Bot. Zeit. xxxv, 
(1877) Taf. xiii, fig. 14, f. and i.) Multiple conjugation of the 
zoospores of Acetabularia mediterranea. 

Fig. 17. (Redrawn from Dod el-Port in Vines. Phys. Bot. p. 
606) Planogametes of Ulothrix, one free, others in conjugation, 

Fig. 18. (Uedrawn from Strasburger) Reproduction of a moss 
plant ; (a) arehegonium with enclosed egg cell ; (b) antherozooid. 

Fig. 19. (Redrawn after Berthold in Binet's Psychic Life of 
Micro-Organisms p. 84) Planogametes of Edocarpus siliculosus. 
(a-c) Differentiation of female planogamete ; (d) female piano- 
gamete surrounded by males; (e-h) process of conjugation. 

Fig. 20. (Adapted from Gcddes and Thomson in Evolution 
of Sex.) Diagram of the course of development of fecunda- 
tion, (a) Adhesion of swarm spores into plasmodium, ex. 
Acrasiese; (b) fusion of a warm spores into plusmodium, ex. 
Myzomycetes; (c) multiple conjugation of planogametes, ex. 
Acetabularia; {d) conjugation of two planogametes, ex. Ulothrix; 
(e) conjugation of dimorphic notile cells, ex. Cutlcria; (/) 

1802.] Phenomena and Develop 309 

fecundation proper of egg cell by antherozooid, ex. Moss Plant. 

Fig. 21. (Redrawn from Tlmret in Bessey's Bot. p. 267). 
Oosphere of Fucus vesiculosus surrounded by spennatozoids. 

Fig. 22. (Adapted from Schmitz Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist, 
vol. xiii, Ser. 5, (1884) PI. 1/figs. lG-lfyDudranaya purpuHfera. 
(a) Tricbogyne with adhering spermatia ; (b) egg cell ; (c) con- 
jugating cell cutoff at end of ooblastema filament; (d) auxil- 
iary cell ; (e) later stage after conjugation of auxiliary cell and 
ooblastema filament. 

Fig. 23. (Adapted from Schmitz, 1. c.) Glccosij)honia capillaris, 
(letters as in fig. 22.) 

Figs. 24-29. Redrawn from Foil, Comptes Rend us 1. c.) 
Fecundation of the egg of the sea urchin. 

Figs. 30-35. (Redrawn from Strasburger, Zellbild, und 
Zellteil, 3 Aufiage, Pis. iv and v). Development of the embryo 
sac and egg apparatus of Monotropa hypopitys. Fig. 30. 
Nucellus with embryo sac; and (a) its primary embryo sac 
nucleus. Fig. 31-34, enlargement of embryo sac and for- 
mation of the two apical tetrads of nuclei. Fig. 35. (a) 
synergidse; (b) egg cell; (c) the two nuclei, one from each 
tetrad that fuse forming the nucleus proper of the embryo sac ; 
(d) antipodal cells. 

Fig. 3G. (Origi nal). Camera sketch of a longitudinal section 
of the pistil of Yucca angustifolia, x. about 5 diam. Showing 
the continuous sty ler tube with numerous pollen tubes running 
down to the ovules. 

Fig. 37. (Original). Camera sketch, x. 400 diam. of the ovule 
of Yucca angustifolia, showing one ovule coat, the nucellus, the 
embryo sac with its enclosed egg apparatus, and a pollen tube; 
(c) that has entered the micropyle of the ovule and penetrated 
to the embryo sac. 

Fig. 38. (Original). Conducting tissue. Cross section of the 
style of Yucca angustifolia. Camera sketch, x. 150 diam. 

Figs. 39-42. (Redrawn from Strasburger Befrucht. bei den 
Phaner. Taf. 1.) Fig. 39. Young pollen grain during division 
into generative and vegetative cells. Fig. 10. Mature pollen 
grain; (a) vegetative nucleus; (b) generative nucleus. Figs. 
41 and 42. Portions of the pollen tube with the generative 
nucleus in division. 

Figs. 43-48. (Original). Diagramatic outlines of embryo 
sac and nuclear changes during fecundation modeled from 
Guignard's descriptions. Fig. 43. Division of nuclei to form 
the upper tetrad, showing asters eentrosomes, etc. Fig. 44. (a) 
synergidse; (b) oosphere; (c) union of nuclei to form the 
nucleus of the embryo sae. Fig. 45. (a) nuclei of the syner- 
gidaj; (6) nucleus of the oosphere; (d) male pronucleus pre- 
ceded by its directive spheres; (e) pollen tube. Fig 46. 
Union of the male and female directive spheres. Fig. 47. 
Separation of the directive spheres and union of nuclei. Fig. 
48. Fecundated nucleus ready for the first segmentation, the 
male portion is still distinguishable (the male nucleus in 
the last three colored dark). 

Figs. 49-5G. (Redrawn from Guignard, Annal. des Sci. Nat, 
Bot. Se. 7, T. xiv, PI. 10). Formation of the pollen grains in 
a pollen mother cell of Lilium martagon. Fig. 49. Mother 
cell in resting stage showing chromatin band, nucleolus (para- 
nucleolus) and two directive spheres. Fig. 50. Rupture of 
chromatin filament into 12 segments. Fig. 51. Division 
(longitudinal) of these segments. Fig. 52. The nuclear 
spindle in profile. Fig. 53. Separation of the daughter seg- 
ments and division of the directive sphere. Fig. 54. Two 
cells in the resting stage, completion of the first division. Fig. 
55. Division of these two cells to form the four pollen grains. 
Fig. 56. One of the young pollen grains of the last division 
in a resting stage before the division which gives rise to the 
vegetative and generative nuclei. (See Fig. 39.) 

Figs. 57-59. (Redrawn from Wagner, Ann. of Bot. vol. iv, 
PI. vi.) Fecundation of Peronospora parasitica. Fig. 57. 
Oogonium with antheridium at one side. Fig. 58. Formation 
of oosphere, two nuclei approaching the centre to unite. Fig- 
59. Mature oosphere in process of fecundation, showing the 
antheridial tube grown through the oogonium to the oosphere. 

Fig. 00. (Adapted from Geddes and Thomson, 1. c.) Dia- 
gram illustrating effect of environment on an amoeboid cell. 
On the left, when subjected to preponderating katabolism, 
yielding antherozooid. On the right wlu-n subjected to prepond- 
erating anabolism, yielding oosphere. Medium conditions -in- 
dicated by the central line of amoeboid cells. 

{ai|/i t 

Fecundation and Development, 

Record of North American Y.oolu<<, . 


Patten, W. — Is the ommatidium a hair-bearing sense bud ? 
Anat. Anz., V., p. 353, 1890. — See Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 1084. 

Clarke, J. M. — On the compound eyes of Arthropods. Am. 
Jour. Sci., XXXIX., p. 409, 1890. — Notice of Watase's paper and 
comparison with eyes of trilobites. Eyes of all except Phacopidae 
and Harpidae, like those of Limulus. 

Fernald, H. T.— The relationship of Arthropods. Studies J. 
Hopkins Univ., IV., p. 431, 1890. 

Parker, G. H.— The eyes in blind crayfishes. Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., XX., No. 5, 1890. 


Parker, G. H.— The histology and development of the eye in 
the lobster. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XX., 1890. 

Leidy, J. — Parasites of Mola rotunda. Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 
1890, p. 281.— Conchoderma, Penella, Cecrops, Laemargus, Dine- 

Ives, J. E.— Crustacea from the northern coast of Yucatan, the 
harbor of Vera Cruz, the west coast of Florida, and the Bermuda 
Islands. Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1891, p. 176.— New species are 
Gelasimus speciosus (Yucatan), Palazmonella yucatanica, Cirolana ^ 
mayana (Yucatan), Peneus braziliensis var. aztecus (Vera Cruz), 
Cymodocea bermudensis. 

Edwards, C. L.— Beschreibung einiger neuen Copepoden und 
eines neuen copepodenahnlichen Krebses, Leuckartella paradoxa. 
Arch, fur Naturgesch., LVII., 1891. —Dactylopus da 
Esola (n. g.) longicauda, Rhaphidophorus (n. g.) wilsonii, Dioge- 
nidium (n. g.) nasutum, Abacola (n. g.) holothuria, Leuckartella 
(n. g.) paradoxa, all in body cavity of the holothurian Muelleria 
agassizii, from the Bahamas. 

312 The American Naturalist. [April, 

Bigelow, P. P.— Preliminary notes on some new species of 
Squilla. J.H.U.Circ.,X.,p.93, iS 9 i.—S.polita (Cal.), S. parva 
(Panama), S. panamensis, S. biformis (La Paz). 

Herrick, F. H.— Notes on the habits and larval stages of the 
American lobster. J. H. U. Circ, X., p. 97, 1891. 

The reproductive organs and early stages of the develop- 
ment of the American lobster. J. H. U. Circ, X., p. 98, 1891. 

The development of the American lobster ; /. c . and 

Zoo/. Anz., XIV., pp. 133. 145, 1891. 

Clarkson, F. — Argiope riparia, and its parasite Ichneumon 
its parasite a Chalcid fly. Can. Ent, XXII., p. 

Banks, N. — A new Pseudoscorpion. Can. Ent, XXII., p. i5 2 > 

j 890. — Chernes pallidas, and list of six others from Ithaca, N. Y. 

Stone, W.— Pennsylvania and New Jersey spiders of the family 

Lycosidze. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 420.— New 

species are Pirata elegans, P. marxii, Pardosa nigra. 

Leidy, J.— Hypoderas in the little blue heron. Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., 1890, p. 63. 

Remarks on ticks. Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1 890, p. 278. 

Packard, A. S.— Further studies on the brain of Limidus poly- 
phemus. Zool. Anz., XIV.— See Am. Nat. 

Emerton, J. H.— New England spiders of the families Drassi- 
dx, Agelenidae, and Dysderidas. Trans. Conn. Acad., VIII., p. 66, 
1890.— New species are Micaria longipes, M. montana, Geotrecha 
(nov. gen.) pinnata, Prosthesima depressa, Poecilochroa montana, 
■ Drassus saccatus, D. robustns, Clubiona mixta, C. tibialis, C. cana- 
densis, C. minuta, C. pusilla, C. ornata, Chiracanthium viride, 
Anyphena rubra, A. calcarata, Phryolithus pugnatus, Agrascia pra- 
tensis, Ccelotes longitarsus, C. montanus, C. hybridus, Tegenaria 
brevis, Cicurina complicata, Hahnia bimaculata, H. radula, ri. 


Cook, O. F, and Collins, G. N.— Notes on North American 
Myriapoda of the family Geophilidae, with descriptions of three 

1892.] Record of North American Zoology. 313 

genera. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII., p. 383, 1 891. —New forms 
are Escaryus (n. g.) phylhphilus, E. liber (N. Y.). 

* Wheeler, W. M. — Hydrocyanic acid secreted by Polydesmus 
virginiensis. Psyche, V, p. 442, 1890. 

Shimer, H. — The intra-trarhral cilia of insects. Microscope, 
X., p. 332, 1890. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. — Fauna and flora of Colorado, I. West 
Am. Scientist, VI., p. 103, 1889. — List of 48 Lepidoptera, n 


Coquillet, D. W. — New Coccids from California, and one of 
their Chalcid parasites. West Am. Scientist, VII., p. 43, 1890. — 
Blastothrix yucca. 


Snow, F. H. — Experiments for the artificial dissemination of a 
contagious disease among chinch-bugs. Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci., 
XII, p. 34, 1890. 

Kellogg, V. L.— Some notes on the Mallophaga. Trans. 
Kan. Acad. Sci, XII, p. 46, 1890.— Trachial system of Tetroph- 
thalmus; synopsis of genera; two new genena characterized, not 

Garman, U.—CEbalus pugnax, an enemy of grasses. Psyche, 
VI, p. 61, 1891. 

Coquillet, D. W.— Mealy bugs of the United States. West 
Am. Scientist, VI, p. 121, 1889.— Synopsis of species ; new are 
Dactylopius ryani, D. cravii, from California. 

New Coccids from California, and one of their Chalcid 

parasites. West Am. Scientist, VII, p. 43- 1890— Dactylopius 
ephedrcB, Pseudococms yucca. 

Coquillet, D. W.— A new Rhaphiomidas from California. 
West Am. Scientist, VII, p. 84, 1891.—^. acton. 

Garman, H.— An undescribed larva from Mammoth Cave. 
Bull. Essex Inst, XXIII., 1891. 

314. The American Naturalist. [April, 

Gillette, C. P. — A new Cecidomyiidid infesting boxelder 

{Negundo aceroides). Psyche, V, p. 392, 1890. — Cecidomyia 
negundinis (Iowa). 

Blaisdell, F. E. — Remarks upon the Stenini. West Amer 
Scientist, VII., p. 117, 1890. — Four of Casey's species from Cali. 

Brendel, E., and Wickham, H. F.— The Pselaphidae of North 
America. Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist, Univ. Iowa, L, p. 216; II., p. I, 
1890. — A monographic revision of the family, describing numer- 
ous new species. 

Ricksecker, L. E. — Note on Cybister. Zoe, I., p. 304, 1890. 

Weed, C. M. — New food-plant of Rhodobcenus ij-punctatus. 
Am. Nat., XXIV, p. 1215, 1890. 

A review of some plum curculio literature. Am. Nat, 

XXV, p. 63. 

Popenoe, E. A. — Note on the ovi-position of a wood-borer. 
Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci, XII, p. 15, 1890. — Tragidium fulvipenne. 

Garman, H. — On the life-history of Diabrotica 12-punctata 
Oliv. Psyche, VI, pp. 28, 44, 1891. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— List of the beetles of the genus Amora 
recently taken in Colorado. West. Am. Scientist, VI, p. 47- * 88 9- 

Contributions toward a list of the fauna and flora of Wet 

Mountain valley, Colorado. VIII, Coleoptera. West Am. Scien- 
tist, VII, p. 35, 1890.— Twenty-eight species. 

Howard, L. O. — Some beetles of San Diego county, Cal. 
West. Am. Scientist, VI, 87, 1880. 

Hulst, G. D.— The Phycitidse of North America. Trans. 
Am. Entom. Soc, XVII, p. 93, 1890.— !^ Am. Nat, XXIV, 
p. 1215. 

Smith, J. B. — Contributions toward a monograph of theNoctui- 
dae of Temperate North America.— Revision of the species of 
Hadena referable to Xylophasia and Luperina. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus, XIII, p. 407, 1 89 1. —New species are X. cogitata (Col.), 

1892.] Record of North American Zoology. 315 

X. alticola (Col.), X. nigrior (Maine), X. antennata (Cal.), X. cen- 
tralis (Cal.). 

Smith, J. B. — Contributions [etc.]. — Revision of Homohadena 
Grote. Proc. Nat. Mus., XIII., p. 397, 1891. — New species, H. 
deserta (Colorado Desert). 

Behr, H. H.— Lepidoptera from San Jose del Cabo. Zoe, I., 
p. 246, 1890. — List of thirteen species and comparison of fauna. 

Blaisdell, F. E.— Hints about killing Lepidoptera. West Am, 
Scientist, VI., p. 6, 1889. 

Truman, P. C— Butterflies of San Diego. West Am. Scientist, 
VII., p. 19, 1890. — Nothing important. 

Waters, B. H. — Some additional points on the primitive seg- 
mentation of the vertebrate brain. Zool. Anz., XIV., p. 141, 
1 89 1.— See Am. Nat. 

Herrick, C. L. — Illustrations of the architecture of the cere- 
bellum. Jour. Comp. Neurol., I., p. 5, 1891. 

McClure, C. F. W.— The segmentation of the primitive ver- 
tebrate brain. Jour. Morph., IV., p. 35, 1890.— Vide Am. Nat., 

Rogers, F. A. — The histological difference between bone and 
enamel. Microscope, XL, p. 2>3> 1891. 

Piersol, G. A. — The colorless cells of the blood. Microscope 
XL, p. 1, 1891. 

Eigenmann, C. H. & R. S.— Contributions [etc.].— Additions 
to the fauna of San Diego. Fishes of Napa Springs. Young 
stages of some Selachians. West Am. Scientist, VI., p. 148, 1889., 
New are PI 10 vimts (77^ 1 viiu fhmidci c, ntropleura. 

Eigenmann, C. H.— Coloration of fishes. West Am. Scientist, 
VII., p. 35 , !8 9 o. 

Morgan, T. H. — The anatomy and transformation of Tornana. 
J.H.U. Circ, X.,p. 94, 1 89 1. 


Hopkins, G. S.— Structure of the stomach of Amia calva. (Ab- 
stract.) Proc. A. A A. S., XXXIX., p. 339. ^9° ( l8 90- 

Gill, Theo. — The characteristics of the family of Scatophagoid 
fishes. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., XIII., p. 355, 1891. 

On the relations of Cyclopteroida. Proc. Nat. Mus., XIII., 

p. 361, 1891. 

The osteological characteristics of the family Hemitripte- 

ridae. Proc. Nat. Mus., XIII., p. 377, 1891. 

Gilbert, C. H.— Description of a new species of Etheostoma 
(E. micropterus) from Chihuahua, Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
XIII., p. 289, 1890. 

Eigenmann, C. H. and R. S.— On the phosphorescent spots of 
Porichthys margaritatus. West Amer. Scientist, VI., p. 32, 1889. 

Contributions from the San Diego Biological Laboratory. 

West Am. Scientist, VI., p. 44, 1889.— Notes on eggs and habits 
of several California fishes. 

Contributions from the San Diego Biological Laboratory. 

II., On the genesis of the color-cells of fishes. West Am. Scien- 
tist, VI., p. 61, 1889. 

Contributions from the San Diego Biological Laboratory. 

The fishes of the Cortez Banks. West A m. Scientist, VI ., pp. 1 2 3, 
i 47 ._New species are Myctopham calif orniense , M. townsendii, 
Ditrema orthonotus, Sebastichthys Icevis, S. purpureus, Icelinus 
australis, Paracelinus (g. n.) hopliticus, Zanolepis frenatus. Fifty- 
one species recorded. 

Gage, S. H. — Combined aquatic and aerial respiration in 
Amphibia, and the function of the external gills in Salamanders 
hatched on land. (Abstract.) Proc. A. A. A. S., XXXIX., p. 
337, 1890(1891). 

Gage, S. H. and S. P.— Changes in the ciliated areas of the ali- 
mentary canal of the Amphibia during development and the rela- 
tion to the mode of respiration. (Abstract.) Proc. A. A. N. S., 
XXXIX., p. 337, 1890(1891). 

Gage, S. H., and Norris, H. W.— Notes on the Amphibia of 
Ithaca. (Abstract.) Proc. A. A. A. S., XXXIX., p. 339- l8 9° 

Record of North American Zoology. 

Herrick, C. L. — Topography and histology of the brain of 
certain reptiles. Jour. Comp. Neurol., I., p. 14, 1891. 

Stejneger, L. — Diagnosis of a new species of snake {Lichanura 
orcuttii) from San Diego county, Cal. West Am. Scientist, VI., p. 
83, 1889. 

Orcutt, C. R.— Turtles of California. West Am. Scientist, VII., 
p. 49, 1 890. — Five species. 

Turner, C. L. — Morphology of the avian brain. Jour. Comp 
Neurol., L, p. 39, 1891. 

Thompson, E. E.— The birds of Manitoba. Proc. U. S. Nat 
Mus., XIII., p. 457, 1 89 1. — Valuable paper of 126 pages, with 
notes on habits, songs, distribution, etc., of 266 species. 

Lucas, F. A.— The expedition to the Funk Island, with obser- 
Nat. Mus., 1887-88, p. 493, 1890. 

Lamborn, R. H. — Humming-birds of the Pacific coast, West 
Am. Scientist, VI., p. 109, 1889. 

Minot, C.-S. — On the fate of the human decidua refiexa. Ana. 
Anz., V., p. 639, 1890/ 

Todd, A. — The yellow-haired porcupine. West Amer. Scien- 
tist, VII., p. 122, 1 891. 

Spencer, T. B. — A support for the chorda tympani nerve in the 
Felidae. (Abstract.) Proc. A. A. A. S., XXXIX., p. 339, 1890 

Ryder, J. A.— The eye, ocular muscles, and lachrymal glands 
of the shrew mole [Blarina talpoides). Pro. Am. Phil. Soc, 
XXVIII., p. 16, 1890.— Describes apparatus for forcing tears 
from gland. 

Allen, H.— Description of a new species of Macrotus.— M. 
bulleri, from Mexico. 

True, F. W.— Description of a new species of mouse, Phenaco- 
mys longicandus, from Oregon. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII., p. 
303, 1890. 

The American Naturalist. 

L April, 

Belding, L— The deer of southern Lower California. West 
Am. Scientist, VI. p. 26, 1889. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— Contributions towards a list of the 
fauna and flora of West Mountain valley, Colorado. IV., VI, 
Mammalia. West Am. Scientist, VII., p. 7, 1 890.— Twenty-three 

Stevens, F.— Land mammals of San Diego county, California. 
West Am. Scientist, VII., p. 36, 1 890.— Sixty-two species. 

— It is to be hoped that the alleged intention of the I V-t master- 
General to unify the system of names of post-offices in the I'nited 
States may be carried into effect. The poverty of inventive capacity of 
our people in the matter of the giving of names is remarkable. Many 
places in the Eastern States are named from localities in the < >ld World, 
from which the early immigrants came. This is objectionable, but it 

motive for ransacking the ancient geographies and damping their con- 
tents broadcast over the wilderness. But now we meet with duplica- 
tion after duplication springing up in all the States, south and west of 
the Alleghanies. The settlers and builders of new towns seem to imag- 

refiects on their intelligence and knowledge of geography ; so that 
new Manchester, Birminghams, Troys. Homes, Athenses, Springfields, 
etc., etc., are springing up with a rapidity that is confusing to the 
mind and destructive to any correct knowledge of the whereabouts of 
such places. A little reflection will convince any persons desirous of 
naming a new town or post-office that one of the most efficient ways of 
advertising a place is to give it a name unlike any other; and more- 
over that by so doing much trouble in the matter of future mail deliv- 
ery will be spared them. 

A majority of our naturalists who have namir 
same deficiency. They frequently encourage foolish naming of locali- 
ties by naming species after them. If such local names are changed 
hereafter the scientific names founded on them will be left high and 
dry. But the least excusable form of scientific name is that which 
is taken from a locality whose name is already a duplicate of one in 
the Old World. Who ever heard of Naples in New York ? Yet a 
paleontologist has recently named an important fossil Clymenia neapol- 
itana, which is found in the " Naples shale," in Western New York. 
Another has with equal absurdity named a species from 
Camarella bernensvs. A geologist names a glacial beach the Leipsic 

The American Naturalist. 

[\ r .ril 

beach. There should, of course, be no such names as Naples, Berne 
or Leipsic in America ; but as they are there, it is a conspicuous gau- 
cherie that scientists should seek to preserve them in nomenclature. 
Science is cosmopolitan, and the law of priority should apply to local 
names as well as to anything else. It is to be hoped that the time will 
come when a rule will be added to those in our code, that no name 
shall be given from a locality whose name had a previous existence in 
some other part of the world. 

—We have received a circular from a distinguished member of 
National Academy of Sciences which suggests that the number of 
members of the Academy be reduced to seventy. The number of one 
hundred does not seem to be excessive if we consider the probable 
future of our country, but an increase in the number is clearly inad- 
visable. The proposed reduction seems to us equally so. The change 
most needed is one which shall designate classes of members and thus 
keep deficiencies more clearly before the Academy. Four classes were 
proposed several years ago, with the following proportions: Of the 
100, 35 to represent inorganic science (Sec. A); 35 to represent 
organic science (Sec. B) ; 15 to represent mental and mathematical 
science (Sec. C) ; and 15 to represent applied science (Sec. D). 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. 


Allen H.— Materials for a Memoir on Animal Locomotion. Ext. Rept. Muy- 
bridge Work at the Penn. Univ. From the author. 

Allen, J. A.— Descriptions of Two Supposed New Species of Mice from Costa 

Rica ami M- .... with emukson I/tsptromys nulanophrys of Coues. Ext. Pro- 
ceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 193-195. 

Andrews, E. A.— Report Upon the Annelida Polych.-eta of Beaufort. North Car- 
olina. Ext. Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 277-302. Pits. XII-XVI1I. 
From the Museum. 

Ayres, H.-Concerning Vertebrate Cephalogenesis. Reprint Jour. Morph., Vol. 

IV, No. 2. 

, C-Directions 

ling, 1 

Sparing and Preserving Birds' Eggs 

-., No. 

39. From the Museum. 


G. — Megalodon, ! 


a und 

Diceras. Mit 9 Original Holzschnit- 

Boletini da Commiss 

ao Geographica 

e Geologica do Estado de S. Paulo, 

Brazil, N. ( 

I, 5, G, 7. 

Account c 


Siluroid Fishes Obtained by Dr. von 

Ihering ant 


Wolff in the Prov 

Simony's Lizard. Lacerta Hi 

nonyi. Ex 

t. Proceeds. London Zool. Soc, 1891. 


the Occurrence 

of Discoglossus 

in the Lower Miocene of Germany. 

1st., July, 1S91 . 

the Museum of the Royal College of bur- 


1. Zoo!. So< 

•-, Jan 

. 6. 1891. From the author. 

A.— The Birds c 

,f Indiana. 


Trans. Ind. Ilorti. Soc, 1890. From 

the author. 
Call, F. 

;. E.— The Terti 

ary Siliciru 

d W< 

>ods of Eastern Arkansas. Ext. Am. 

Jour. Sci., Vol. XLII, Nov., 

, 1891. F. 


weichen Theile der s. g. Qberzahligen 

Strahlen an Hand und Fu 
Band 1(3, Afd. IV, No. 8. 

Meddelanden frai 

i Stockholms Ilogskola, No. 113- From 


D.— A Physiolo 

Heal and 

Therapeutic Study of Hydrastis canadensis. 

Ext. Then 


,:,G. K.-De-cnpti nof.V. 
. Rica. Ext. Proceeds. U. £ 

,,1891. From the author 

J. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 337-346. From 

LE, E. W.— On P 


Fish i 

n the Upper Silurian Recks of North 

2'Z The American Naturalist. 

.merica. Ext. Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, Feb., 18S5. From 
—Correspondence Relative to the Establishment of the 

Dall, W. H.— On Some New or Interesting West A: 
rom the Dredgings of the U. S. Fish Commi 
rom other sources. Ext. Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 
Hates V-VII. From the Museum. 

;s XVII, XVIII, XIX, et: 

1 Tilesia or Pleurogadus. Ex' 
Ouachita Mountain System i 

Jones, T K.— Contributions to C nadi:m Min Paleontology, Part III. Can. 
Jeol. and Nat. Hist. Surv., 1891. From the Survey. 
Kei.zii-, J. H.— Solar Heat, Gravitations, Sim Spots. Second Ed., 1891. From 

Knowlton, F. H.— Directions for Collecting Recent and Fossil Plants. Pt. B. 
tall. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 39. From the Museum. 
Lucas, F. A.— Notes on the Preparation of Rough Skeletons. Pt. C. Bull. U. S. 

Lewis, S. H.-Cup-Stones Near Old Fort Ransom, N. D. Ext. Am. Nat., May, 
1891. From the author. 

McCarthy, G.— Some Injurious Insects. Bull. No. 78- North Carolina Exp. 
Sta. From the Station. 

Mercerat, A.— Notas Sobre la Paleontologia de la Republica Argentina. Sinop- 
sis de la Familia de los Protoxodontidse Conservados en el Museo de la Plata. 
Eocene de Patagonia. Extr. Rev. Mus. de la Plata, Tomo I, 1891. From the 

Nehring, A.— Ueber die Gebissentwicklung der Schweine Insbesondere uber Ver- 
i Verspatungen derselben nebst Bemerkungen uber die Schadelform 
Friihreifer und Spatreifer Schweine. From the author. 

Necix, A.-Sopra Alcuni Fossili Raccolti nei Calcari Grigi dei Sette Comuni,1891. 

Ogilby, J. D.-Hand-List of Australian Mammals. Advance Copy, July, 1891- 

1892.] Recent Books and Pamphlets. 

Descriptions of Three New Papuan Snakes. Ext. Rec. Austr. Mu< 

No. 9, 1891. From the Museum. 

PAVLOW, M.— Notice sur ]'I [ippairuii era-sum .in Kou-siilon. Ou 'est 
Cest que l'Hipparion, 1891. From the author. 

Pilsbry, H. A.— On the Anatomy of Aerope caffra. Ext. Proceeds. I'll 
Nat. Sci., 1890. From the Academy. 

Provancher, L'Abbe.— Les Mollusques de la Province de Quebec. 
Partie. Les Cepholopodes, Pteropods et Gasteropods, 1891. From the autl 

Puydt, M. DE ET M. Lohest.—L Homme Contemporaine du Mammoull 
Province de Namur Belgique. From the authors. 

Records of the Australian Museum. Vol. I, No. 9. 

tia, Ungulata, Probascidea, Hyracoidea, Carnivora, Cetacea, Sirenia, Mai 

Scott, W. B.— Notes on the Osteology and Systematic Position of Dinict 
Leidy. Ext. Proceeds. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1889. 

Spencer, J. W.— First Report of Progress of the Geological Survey of Georgia, 

Stearns, R. E. C— List of Shells Collected on the West Coast of South Amer- 
ica, principally between Latitudes 7° 30' S. and 80° 49' N., by Dr. W. H. Jonts. 
Ext. Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV. From the Museum. 

Stefanescu, G.— Ochire Repede Asufra Distribtiunei Grupelor Geologice in 

Stejneger, L. — Description of a New Species of Chameleon from Kitfaaanj ro 
Africa. Description of a New Scincoid Lizard from East Africa. Ext. Proceeds, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, No. 857. 

Directions for Collecting Reptiles and Batrachians. Pt. E. Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. 39. From the Museum. 

Traquair, R. H.— Notes on Carboniferous Selachii. Ext. Proceeds. Roy. Phys. 

Whelpley, H. M m the author. 

Wilder, B.— The Relation of the Thalamus to the Paracoels (Lateral Ventncle). 
Reprint Jour. Nerv. Med. Dis., July, 1889. 

withTspe'cTl reference 6 to the BraiL° Ext. pTceed"!. A. A. S., 1889, p. 26. From 
the author. 

Wood, S.— The Theory of Wages. Ext. Am. Econ. Ass., Pub. March, 1889. 

Woolman L— Artesian Wells and Water Horizons in Southern N. J., and their 
Relation to a'n Immense Diatomaceous Clay Bed. Ext. Ann. Rep. State Geo)., 1890. 


Some Recent Zoological Text-books.— In the last few years 
German zoologists have produced a considerable number of hand- 
books, manuals and compendiums of zoology and its various sub- 
divisions, the majority of which have been issued from a single 
bouse, that of Fischer of Jena. The first requiring mention 
is the zoology 1 by Boas of Copenhagen. This is in reality a second 
edition of the Danish work of 1888, and the author acknowledges the 
assistance received from Prof. Spengel in making the translation. It 
differs from the original in many respects, the most noticeable being an 
added section, entitled "Biologic" The work is divided into two 
portions, general aud special, occupying respectively 90 and 475 pages. 
In the first occur those general statements regarding cells, tissues aud 
organs, the relation of animals to their environment, and the outlines 
of the theory of evolution; which are deemed indispensable in the 
ordinary text-book. In the special portion the various groups of the 
animal kingdom are discussed. As must occur in a work by a single 
author there is considerable inequality in the treatment, while a rather 
reprehensible practice (not however confined to Dr. Boas) of treating 
certain groups as appendages (Anhangen) of others result in some 
rather queer associations. To show the scope and views of the author, 
an outline of the classiBcation followed is here given. 1, Protozoa; 
2, Coelenterates, with the sponges as an anhang ; 3, Echinodermata ; 4, 
Plathelminthes (including Nemertines) with the Rotifers as an 
anhang; 5, Nemathelminthes; 6, Annelida, with the Gephyrsea as an 
anhang to the Chsetopods and separating them from the Hirudinei, 
and with Polyzoa and Brachiopods as an anhang to the whole group ,* 
7, Arthropoda divided into Crustacea, Myriapods, Insecta and 
Arachnids; Limulus being inserted between Cladocera and Ostracoda, 
the Stomatopoda following the Decapods; and Peripatus serving as 
an anhang to the Myriapods; 8, Mollusca, arranged as follows: 
Chitons, Gastropoda, Acephala, and Cephalopoda, the Pteropoda heing 
closely associated with the OpUthobranchs ; 9, Vertebrata, divided 
into Leptocardii, Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammals, 
while the Tunicata occupy the last four pages of the volume of tbe 
work, as an appendix to the Vertebrates. The work of Boas, as a 
*Lehrbuch der Zoologie fur StuJirende und Lehrer, Dr. J. E. V. Boas, Jena, 1890, 
pp. 578. 

1892.] Recent Literature. 325 

whole seems well adapted to replace the well-known " Lehrbuch " of 
Claus. It is possibly not so satisfactory in its treatment of the inver- 
tebrates, but in the vertebrates, as one would expect from Dr. lions' 
reputation, it far surpasses the latter. Its smaller size is distinctly a 
recommendation in its favor. The illustrations, 378 in Dumber, are 
largely diagrammatic, but are not very artistic. 

The fifth edition of Claus's Lehrbuch" has been subjected to only a 
very cursory examination. The additions (92 pages and 77 cuts) "are 
considerable but they seem to be mostly of mi nor importance, while 
the many glaring faults of the previous edition are left unaltered. 
Possibly a more thorough examination would show that the improve- 
ments were commensurate with the increase in size. 

It is greatly to be regretted that the zoology of Hatschek 3 show but 
slight chance of completion, for while the work is scarcely adapted for 
the students of the grade of those in our colleges, it is certainly so far 
as it goes, most suggestive to the more advanced morphologic. That 
very wealth of theory, which spoils the work for the beginner, opens up 
new vistas to his instructor. Yet, if it never be completed, it will 
long have its value for the student, just as has the still uncompleted 
vertebrate volume of the Handbuch der Zootomie of Stannius. An 
analysis of the work is next to impossible in its uncompleted 

One familiar with Schmidt's small Comparative Anatomy would 
never recognize it in Lang's new edition, 4 in which, to our minds all 
reference to the previous editions should be omitted. The two parts 
which have already appeared discuss those groups which are usually 
included under Protozoa, Ccelenlerates, Worms, and Arthropods ; and 
here as in Hatschek's work, the subject is allowed to logically develop 
itself, there being no distinction between general and special portions. 
Thus in Lang's work there are first a few words upon the cell and 
then the account of the unicellular animals, the tissues and organs of 
the many-celled forms being described and elucidated later as the 
occasion demands. Between Hatschek's and Lang's works there are 

2 C. Claus. Lehrbuch der Zoologie. 5 Aufl. Marburg, 1890, pp. xii, 958, xx. 

'Lehrbuch der Zoologie, eine morphologische Ubersicht des Thierreiches zur 
aschaft von Dr. Berthold Hatschek. Erste 
bis dritte Lieferungen Jena, 188S-1S91, pp. iv, 432. 

'Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie zum Gebrauche bei vergleichend anato- 
mischen and zoologischen Vorlesungen von Dr. Arnold Lang. Neunte ganzlich 
umgearbitete Auflage von Edward Oscar Schmidt's Handbuch der vergleichenden 
Anatomie. Erste und zweite Abtheilungen. Jena, 1888-1890, pp. iv-5(iG. 

32G The American Naturalist. [April, 

many contrasts. Where Hatschek is brilliant, Lang is conservative; 
Hatscliek gives generalizations ; Lang offers a mine of detail ; Hat- 
schek has many novelties in classification ; Lang follows rather the 
beaten track. In short Lang's work stands to-day the most useful 
compendium of invertebrate anatomy in existence. When the other 
portions are finished (which we learn from the author will be in 
about two years) the whole will take a front rank among the text- 
books of the world. 

Another work of somewhat different scope which deserves praise as 
high as Lang's Anatomie, is the Comparative Embryology of the 
Invertebrates 5 of Korschelt and Heider, of which two parts have 
already appeared. In opening a work of this character one naturally 
compares it with the classic work of Balfour, issued ten years ago. 
Until the whole work is completed a satisfactory comparison cannot be 
made, for while Balfour scattered many of his generalization- through 
the accounts of the different groups, the young Berliners reserve more 
for the special portion which has yet to appear. It is interesting to 
compare the size of the two volumes in some detail as follows, keeping 
in mind the fact that the page of Korschelt and Heider contains 
about 25 per cent more than that of Balfour. 

Balfour. Korschelt & Heider. 

Sponges 12 pages. 18 pages. 

Coelenterates 31 " 84 " 

Annelids 38 " 65 " 

Other "worms" 47 " 80 " 

Enteropneusti 4 " 11 " 

Echinoderms 31 " 50 " 

Arthropoda 137 " 600 " 

This conveys some idea of the amount of literature which has been 
boiled down into these two parts, for they must be regarded rather as 
compilations than as philosophical works ; the philosophy is to come 
later. We learn that the concluding part will include the Molluscs, 
the Tunicates, Balanoglossus and Ampbioxus, in other words all that 
are not in the strictest sense vertebrates ; as well as the general portion, 
and that a year or two more must elapse before the whole is completed. 
Thus it, together with the somewhat older Lehrbuch der Entwick- 

Dr. E. Korschelt and Dr. K. Heider. Specieller Theil. Erstes und zweiies 


- ^ 

A % 





Fecundation and Development 



lungsg, >ehichte of Oscar Hertwig, will form a compendious account of 
Embryology as it is understood to-day. 

Last in our series comes the Zoology 6 of Richard Hertwig, of which 
the second and concluding portion is promised immediately. From 
the reputation of the author and from the compact size of the volume 
we had hoped for much in this work, but to us it seems far less satis- 
factory than any of the other works enumerated. All of the others 
bear a I tundant evidence of careful preparation hut this shows on every 
page haste and carelessness. This shows itself not only in matter but 
in typographic arrangement. Thus the chapter on the Development 
of Systematic Zoology is made of equal rank to the section headed 
" History of Zoology." On the textual side adverse criticism is easy. 
Thus the account of the theory of evolution, though nearly thirty pages 
in length, contains no mention of the post Darwinian labors. Ten 
pages are devoted to the cell and cell division but no mention is made 
of the part played by the centrosome. The account of coral forma- 
tion (p. 210) is unintelligible and misleading. The Narcomedusaj 
are ignored. A lack of proportion is everywhere noticeable. Thus 
the Protozoa have 33 pages accorded them, while the Annelids have 
but 12. These are but samples. The book, on the other hand has its 
good features. We have been pleased with the concluding portions of 
each section, entitled " Zusaramenfassung der Resultate," where in 
categorical form the author has brought together in condensed shape 
the most important facts regarding the group, and which might 
almost be used for a syllabus of lectures. 

The text-books which have been mentioned are all in German, but 
two of them are announced for English translation — Korschelt and 
Heider's Embryology and that of Oscar Hertwig, while a portion of 
Lang's Anatomy has already been issued. With this German zoologi- 
cal vitality the English language offers nothing in comparison. No. 
text-book has been issued from England or America in the last five 
years and the long advertised zoology by an English zoologist will 
hardly appear for five years to come. But Germany still puts out 
new books and new editions. In the early future we are promised a 
new Comparative Anatomy by Gegenbaur, new editions of both the 
"Lehrbuch" and the "Grundriss" of Comparative Anatomy by 
Wiedersheim, while Prof. Lang of Zurich is contemplating an 
abridgement \ aatomy as soon as the larger work 

is complete. The proposed edition of Balfour's Comparative Embry- 

"Lehrbuch der Zoologie von Dr. Richard Hertwig, Erste Theil. Jena, 1891, 
pp. 320. 

ology revised to date is abandoned for the present, while a new work 
on the Embryology of the Vertebrates,' by Dr. C. S. Minot will appear 
at an early date. — J. S. Kingsley. 

Stanislas Meunier's 7 " Les Methodes de Synthese eu 
Mineralogie " is a monumental work worthy alike of the author 
who wrote it and of the subject of which it treats. Nearly all books 
on the artificial production of minerals that have heretofore appeared 
have been simply lists of products obtained in the laboratory 
under the titles of the natural products with which they are identical. 
In the present volume a notable improvement has been made in the 
method of presenting that most fascinating of all mineralogical prob- 
lems — the manufacture of minerals and the bearing of the processes 
involved therein upon the great geological questions relating to 
metamorphism, the production of mineral veins and the formation of 
ores. Instead of briefly mentioning the different methods by which 
the several minerals have been obtained, the author discusses the 
methods themselves, and illustrates them by citing the many products 
which eaeh yields. He then points out the manner in which the 
processes throw light on the origin of mineral names in the earth's 
crust, and shows the relations existing between them. The study of 
chemical geology must receive a new impetus if the volume before us 
is made of as much use as it deserves to be. Geologists will thank the 
author for the suggestive hints that are so abundant throughout his 
book; mineralogists will welcome the appearance of a volume that so 
clearly describes the processes by which so many interesting minerals 
have been manufactured ; chemists, if they will only think so, may 
find given in the treatise many reactions that will help to clear up the 
difficult problem of the constitution of inorganic compounds, and so 
will join with the mineralogists and the geologists in according the 
work a hearty reception. 

The historical method of development of the subject is followed iu 
most instances. After classifying the methods that have been 
employed by the many workers in this field, Meunier begins by giving 
a very detailed account of the different processes as they were first 
used, and then mentions their modifications, in each case referring 
briefly, or at length, as occasion demands, to the minerals yielded by 
each. Before taking up the subject proper of the work, the author 
describes the conditions under which minerals are being formed at 

1892.] Recent Htm 

present in various portions of the en 
account of the accidental syntheses th 
„ those resulting during the burning i 
produced by action of the moisture of 

the 'rational syntheses ' that have heei: 
all the minerals formed by dry fusion, 
tion of a ' mineralizer,' describes the \ 

The Worms of Bronn's Thier-Reichs.— This volume wa* 
commenced by A. Pagenstecher who wrote ''Licferungen 1-ti" and 
was then obliged to give up further work on account of ill-health. 
Prof. Max Braun 8 ofKonigsburg (i, Pr.), Germany ha- uini< -i taken 
the task of completing the treatise and up to date has issued Lief. 7-16. 

Lief. 1-7 are given up to a hi-; - I p.), while 

the remainder of the work which has thus far appeared is occupied 
with a discus-ion of th< nogeuea. 

The system thus far adopted is : 

Mionelminthes: I. Rhornbozoa, 1. ord. Heterocyemida (genera 
Conocyema, Microcyema), 2. ord. Dicyemida (genera Dicyema, Dicye- 
menned). II. Orthonectida (g. Rhopalura). Trichoplax. 

Plathelminthes : I. Trematodes, 1. Monogenea ; families: Tem- 
nocephalea;, 1 genus; Tristomese, 3 sub-families with 14 genera; Poly- 
stomese, 4 sub-families with 18 genera. (It will be noticed that 
Braun does not use the ending idea determined upon by the Inter- 
national Congress as the ending of the family name). 

The work is well written, finely illustrated and contains a very full 
bibliography with short reviews of every paper. This book will be the 
most complete treatise in existence on the group Vermes, and is indis- 
pensible to those who wish to work in that subject. The Reviewer urges 
all Americans who publish on the group, to aid Prof. Braun in the 
rest of his work by forwarding to him reprints of all the papers they 
his line. 

The monograph costs 1 mark 50 pro Lieferung, and is published by 
C. P. Winter, Leipzig and Heidelberg.— C. W. Stiles. 

"Braun's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs : Bd. iv. Vermes. 

The American Naturalist. 

(general Kotes. 


The Eocene of the United States. 1 — The present essay is the 
fourth of a series devoted to the discussion of the correlations of the 
formations found in the different parts of the country with one another, 
and with formations in other countries ; and to the discussion of the 
principles of geologic correlation in the light of American phenomena. 
Mr. Clark thus describes the scope of the work. 

" This essay comprises, first a general discussion of the lin 
the term Eocene as employed in American geology. The two-fold 
character of the Tertiary (1. Eocene, 2. Neocene) in America is 
insisted on. 

After a somewhat extended review of the literature, in which the 
various opinions upon disputed points are especially considered, a 
general study of the Stratigraphical, paleontological, and topographi- 
cal characteristics of the Eocene in the various portions of the country 
is undertaken. 

The description of the Eocene of the United States falls naturally 
into the three distinct regions, viz: The Atlantic and Gulf Coast 
region ; the Pacific Coast region, and the interior region. 

Following a study of the stratigraphical relations of the Eocene of 
the Atlantic and Gulf Coast region, an attempt is made to correlate 
the very diverse formations of this great area. Four provinces are 
provisionally established (1. New Jersey province, 2. Maryland- 
Virginia province, 3. Carolina Georgia province, 4. Gulf province,) 
though fuller knowledge may break down their bounds. The general 
similarity of the deposits and their fossils to extra- American Eocene is 
shown, but detailed correlation is not considered feasible. 

The meager knowledge of the Pacific Coast Eocene precludes any 
general discussion of the stratigraphical and paleontological relations 
of that horizon. The local peculiarities, shown both in fossils and 
deposits, are referred to, and the close relationship existing between 
the Eocene and Cretaceous is dwelt upon. Their separation 
matter of some uncertainty with our pre; 
bulletin of the United States Geological Sur\ 
papers. Eocene. William Bullock Clark. 


189 2.] Geology and Paleontology. :}3l 

points of identity with Eocene deposits elsewhere are mentioned. 
Two groups of strata are recognized, one marine (Tejoo group), the 
other brackish (Puget group). 

region were accumulated and the interesting buna and flora that they 
afford are fully discussed in the linal division of the essay. The -.'enoral 
relations of the fauna and flora of the Eocene of the interior to that of 
other regions is pointed out, though no attempt is made at a detailed 
correlation of its various members. The Laramie problem, although 

is here referred to, and the facts are given which are said to show- 
that the Laramie is in part Loccne. The eontlict between the evidence 
afforded by animals and plants is stated with the consequent hindrance 
to satisfactory correlation. 

Dr. Clark incidentally to the subject gives a historical discussion of 
the Laramie formation which he finally excludes from the Eocene 
series. This discussion is of much interest as showing the growth of 
opinion based on accumulating evidence. He might have been a 
little more explicit in his reference to the first determination of the 
Cretaceous age of the Laramie formation. He says, (p. 114), "Prof. E. 
D. Cope (Amer. Philos. Soc. Trans, xiv, 186-9, pp. 1-252) raises a 

doubt concerning the Tertiary age of the entire lignitic series by 

Leidy from the 'Great Lignitic' 
of Nebraska as perhaps of Cretaceous age, and Hadrosaurus t occiden- 
tal's Leidy from the 'Cretaceous beds of Nebraska.' " etc. There was 
however more than the " raising of a doubt " expressed in the memoir 
by Cope thus quoted. He says, p. 98; " I instituted an examina- 
tion of the forms brought by Dr. Hayden from this locality [Nebraska] 
and first of that most characteristic animal the Ischyrotherium of 
Leidy. This, as has appeared on the preceding pages I believe to be 
a reptile allied to Plesiosaurus, a conclusion which at once ettabHAtA 
Mesozoic age of the bed. It coincides with the presence of Hadrosaurus 
in indicating Cretaceous or upper Jurassic age." 

We observe with surprise that Dr. Clark does not include the 
Plistocene in the Cenozoic series. We suppose he would relegate this 
age to a distinct realm, the so-called Quaternary. But the propriety 
of such a classification has, in our opinion yet to be shown. 

Dr. Clark remarks (p. 16) ; "the term Eocene which is retained as 
equivalent to Lower Tertiary, may or may not coincide with the 
division so " We would suggest 

then why adopt the term Eocene at all? One is led to suppose from 

332 The American Naturalist. [April, 

tiii- and the [mi ; i_i:inh [(receding it that the term had been originated 
by the U. S. Geological Survey. The article then goes on to say ; 
" the attempt at a detailed correlation of American formations with 
European, so often made in the past on insufficient data, is greatly to 
be deprecated." This is the language of a strati grapher, but not of a 
paleontologist. The correlation of horizons the world over is one of 
the raisons d'etre of the science of geology, and it is chiefly to be 
accomplished by the aid of paleontology. The paleontologic correla- 
tion of the American Wasatch with the French Suessonien for instance 
is so clear, that some day, in a comprehensive system they may be 
called by the same name. Various other cases are equally clear. 
In fact the language quoted is the expression of a chauvinism which 
has been characteristic of the U. S. Geological Survey, but which we 
hope it will outgrow. A favorable symptom is the very full consider- 
ation given to the work of its predecessors in America, as exhibitep 
in this able monograph by Prof. Clark. 

In conclusion, an alphabetical list of the leading articles upon the 
Eocene of the United States is presented. 

A Florida Lake Basin.— In a recent letter from Gainsville, 
Florida, Mr. Henry Bomford gives the following description of an 
interesting phenomenon : 

"There is a prairie within three miles of this place that is fifteen 
miles in length, with an average width of five miles. Twelve years 
ago it filled with water to a depth of eight to twenty feet, varying 
according to high and low ground. This water stood undisturbed for 
this twelve years space of time until last August, when it suddenly 
disappeared in two days, leaving two small holes of water not exceed- 
ing ten acres area, and a few ponds here and there of sizes too insig- 
nificant to mention. 

"The soil here is principally sand, underlaid at varying depths by 
very soft sand and limestone. There is some flint at great depths. 

" Near the location where the water is thought to have made its 
exit the country is literally dotted with deep holes, varying from ten to 
forty feet in depth ; the sides are steep and precipitous. These holes 
are commonly known here as sinks, and are sometimes formed in a 
single night. 

" For days after the escape of the water from this prairie the stench 
of putrid fish was intolerable. The farmers hauled them off in wagons 
for fertilizers. 

"On the prairie anywhere turtle shells can be seen, with here and 

1892.] Geology and Paleontology. :■,:;.; 

there the skeleton of some unfortunate alligator that has been killed 

by some marksman or bv soiik' stray hunter." Sdrntitir Amrricnu 

April 2, 1892. 

Xanthidia.— Mr. E. W. Wetherell reports the occur* 

thidia in the London clays. He has succeeded in isolating min- 
ute fossils, and finds that for the most part they follow m 
distinguishable, although there are manv minor vara l',. - 
them. These organisms are often found joined together in pair.-, or 
with five or six individuals massed together. 

Their characters are as follows : Shape, lenticular ; some specimens 
far flatter than others, perhaps owing to pressure; spines around the 
edge and springing obliquely from the flattened sides: or, around the 
edge only. The length, thickness and number of spines gives rise to 
the two types. The diameter is about A nun. When viewed by trans- 
mitted light the body portion is of a distinct green color, marked with 
black spots. Glycerin shows the whole form better than anv other 
medium.— Geol. Mag., Jan., 1892. 

Geological News. Paleozoic. — A microsaurian is reported from 
the Lancashire Coal field. The fossil comprises the head, abdominal re- 
gion and base of the tail ofa small animal ■■< scupying the whole of an elon- 
gated split nodule 0.08 m. in length. It has been assigned to Hylono- 
mus by A. Smith Woodward under the name H. wildii. Among distinc- 
tive specific characters may be enumerated the form and proportions 

of the mandible and dermal armor. (Geol. Mag., May, 1891.) 

Mr. Malcom Laurie has described some Eurypterid remains from the 
Upper Silurian deposits of the Pentland Hills, Eng., one of which has 
been made the type of a new genus, Drepanopterus. This form is 
characterized by the great breadth of the carapace, aud by the shape 
of the single limb which has been preserved. The limb is long and 
narrow, and ends in a slightly expanded sickle-shaped segment. The 
genus seems to be intermediate between Ewjptertu and S 

(Proceeds. Koy. Acad., Dec, 1891.) A new Clymenia has been 

discovered in the Naples Beds of Western New York. It is described 
and figured by J. M. Clarke under the name C. neapolitana! The 
genus Clymenia has been considered a horizon-marker of the upper- 
most Devonian, and its discovery in a lower Upper Devonian in com- 
pany with Goniatites intumescens and representatives of the 
of European Upper Devonian fauna sugge-t- t lie idea that the fauna of 
the Naples Beds may be a condensed time-equivalent of a - 
differentiated in the transatlantic Upper Devonian succession. Am. 
Jour. Science, Jan., 1892.) 

334 The American Naturalist. [April, 


Petrographical News. — Still another attempt to arrive at a just 
view concerning the chemical relations of eruptive rocks has been 
made, this time by Lang. 2 Calcium and the alkalies are regarded as 
the best indicators as to the relationships of the rock masses, and in 
this respect the new investigation departs widely from older ones, in 
which the silica was alwa\ aps the most character- 

istic of a rock's chemical constituents. After citing a large number of 
analyses of rocks chosen from carefully examined types of all classes, 
the author divide rock magma> into four great groups, viz : Those in 
which the proportion of K,0 present exceeds that of CaO and Na 2 
combined, or K 2 > CaO + Na 2 0, and those in which the propor- 
tions of the components correspond to the following formulae : Na 2 0>, 
CaO + K 2 0, Na 2 + K 2 > CaO and CaO > K 2 + Na 2 0. Each 
of these groups is then subdivided into types. In the first group, for 
instance are two orders in one of which Na 2 > CaO, and in the other 
CaO> Na 2 0. In the first order fall the Cornwall granites with 
CaO : Na 2 : K 2 = 1 : 4 : 14 ; the Heidelberg porphyry with an 
alkali ratio of 1 : 1.5 : 8 ; the dyke granite type with a' ratio of 
1 : 3.7 : 6, the granite-rhyolite type with a ratio of 1 : 2 : 4, 
and the orthophyre type with 1 : 3.8 : 7.3. The second order 
includes the Hesse granite, syenite and bolsenite, with the respective 
alkali ratios CaO : NaO : K 2 ==2:1:6, 2.5 : 1 : 4 and 1.9 : 1 : 4.8. 
The other groups are likewise subdivided into orders, and in each of 
these are ranged the types. Brief notes accompany the descriptions 
of each type, and a table giving the percentages of the principal con- 
stituents of 247 fresh rocks closes the paper. Some of the relation- 
ships brought to light by the author's discussion are so unexpected 
that it may safely be affirmed that the views put forth in his article 
will meet with much opposition among petrographers. The granites, 
for instance, are discovered to occur in different orders, under differ- 
ent groups, the types being often further removed from each other 

than are normal granite and phonolite. The new rock iohte, 

described by Ramsay and BerghelP fills the place in Rosenbusch's 
scheme that was h- ft. for the plutonic . univalent of the nepbelinites. 

tion of the Mo 


1392.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 

It consists essentially of nepheline and pyroxen. 
titaniferous garnet ), apatite, sphene and eancrini 
allotriomorphically granular, though the pyroxen. 
or more crystallographic faces. In the finer -rain 

occurs in large quantity. The pyroxene is zonal, 
orless nucleus, surrounded by six or seven colored 
extinction is high and the color some shade of g 
occurs either as isolated grains in the nepheline n 
grains in this mineral. Cancrinite is not present 

relationship of the iolite to nephelinite is shown 
session of a titaniferous irarnet, but in its ehein 

In consequence of a recent expedition into the Peninsula < f Kola, 

in Northwestern Eussia, the senior- 1 of the two authors last mentioned 
has had an opportunity to make a partial geological examination of 
this little-known territory. He finds the greater portion of the penin- 
sula to be underlain by gneisses, mica schists and Devonian sedimen- 
tary beds. The mountains in the neighborhood of Lake Imandra are 
composed largely of an eleolite syenite, consisting of an intergrowth 
of albite and microline, eleolite, aegirine, arfvedsonite. eudialite. ainig- 
matite and a number of other rare and some new species. The aegir- 
ine forms long prisms whose extinction is about 4-5° and whose optical 
angle exceeds 114°. Sometimes a nearly colorless zone surrounds a 
dark-green kernel, but usually the prisms are dark throughout. An 
analysis of isolated material gave : 

The arfvedsonite is rare in the normal rock, but is common in its 
peripheral phases in prismatic grains, whose extinction is 10°30'. The 
eudialite often possesses an idiomorphic outline bounded by OK, R 
andooP 2 . Its double refraction is usually positive, but 
some portions of its grains are negative and other portions isotropic. 
'Fennia. Bull. d. la Soc. d. Geog. de Finlande,3, No. 7, p. 1. 

336 The American Naturalist. [April, 

This phenomenon leads the author to the assumption that eudialite 
and eukolite are the end members of an isomorphus series, of which 
the isotropic substances intermingled with the eudialite are interme- 
diate members. Ainigmatite is found only in the peripheral masses as 
allotriomorphic grains with a pleochroism A = black > B = brown- 
red > C = carmine. One of the new minerals occurring in the 
coiir-t-irniiiicii mck has the composition: 

It is isotropic or weakly doubly refracting. It shows no cleavage, 
is hard, and has a density of 2.753. Its color is light-red except in 
certain star-like areas where it is more deeply colored. It is one of 
the youngest of the rock's components. In the normal rock these 
constituents are so aggregated as to produce the trachytic structure. 
In the peripheral varieties aegirine, nepheline and the feldspar- are in 
two generations. These minerals and eudialite occur as phenocrysfc 
in a fine-grained green ground mass of the first three mentioned com- 
ponents, sodalite and the new minerals above referred to. The struc- 
ture of this aggregate is intermediate between the hypidiomorphic and 
panidiomorphic. A dyke eleolite syenite from the same region has a 

thoroughly panidiomorphic ground mass. In the course of 

a very exhaustive geological article on Mite Vulture, in Basd- 
icata, Italy, Deecke 1 describes the products of the volcano as 
lavas and tufas. The former, with the exception of the hauyne- 
trachyte of Melfi, all possess a similar appearance. They are 
dark, compact or slaggy rocks with phenocryst- 

a ground mass of leucite, nepheline, feldspar, augite, biotite, melilite, 
containing sometimes olivine, garnet, apatite and magnetite. The 
augite is in well formed idiomorphic crystals, both in the lava- and « 
the tufas. These are zonal with a yellow augite surrounded by a 
greenish zone, the material of which also separates as small crystal! !11 
the ground mass. The hauyne is the next component in abundance. 
It possesses the usual characteristics of this mineral, and alters into 
zeolites, of which the most important is natrolite. The leucite, nephe- 
line, plagioclase and sanidine are usually in such small grains as to be 
visible only under the microscope. The latter mineral occurs also as 
an essential constituent in 1 cm. long crystals in the phonolite ot 
LeBraidi, East of Melfi, and in some of the tufas. Olivine is found 
'Neucs. Jahrb. f. Min., etc., B. B. vii, p. 556. 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 3 

only in the rock of the crater and in bombs, though it was pmbal 
more abundant during the first stages of consolidation of nearly all t 
lavas. Melilite and biotite are also rare, and both seem to have mid. 
gone more or less resorption. In addition to the minerals above im 
tioned bronzite is sometimes found in the olivine h 
lite, phillipsite, gypsum, serpentine and kaolin as alteration pmdin 
of other minerals. The most abundant lava of the volcano is h-ueii 
tephrite, with nepheline, leueite. plagioelase and -anidine in rami 
proportions. A phonolite dyke was discovered at Leliraidi. as alna. 
stated. Otherwise phonolitic material is known only as tufa. 
Melfi occurs the unique rock, many times described as a melili 
hauynophyre. According to the author it should 
hauyne-melilite-nephelinedeueite-tephrite. Basanites rut the ..1<] 
tephritic lavas in the crater of the volcano. ( Massy base was detect* 
only in some of the lapilli. The bombs thrown out during the aeti\ 
period of the volcano's history are either olivine bombs or agirregat* 
of augite, biotite and hauyne. In the former the components ai 
olivine, bronzite and biotite, the latter in micropegmatitic intergrowt! 
with the other two. The tufas fall into two classes. In one sanidir 
and melanite are abundant ; in the other hauyne predominates. Tl 
first is the older, and includes the trachyte tuffs of earlier authors. ] 
is a tephrite tufa, which sometime- contain- little rounded grains < 
quartz. The hauyne tufa is more widely spread than the tephriti 
varieties, and is probably connected geneticallv with the phonoliti 

Mineralogical News — General. — Analyses of langbanite hav- 
ing led Flink to the complicated formula 37 Mn 5 SiO s + 10 Fe, Sb t 8 
as expressive of its composition, Backstrom 1 has thought it worth 

tionship to other nearly allied t 

Since chlorine is evolved when the mineral is treated with hydro- 
chloric acid, the author concludes that the manganese is principally in 
the form of Mn 2 3 , while the remainder of the metal is present as 
MnO. The conclusion reached is to the effect that langbanite is not 
isomorphous with any known mineral, but is an isomorphous mixture 

338 The American Xutum/id. 


of MnSi0 3) M-Sio : ,„.l Mn S1,0,. A large number of chlorite 

analyses are communicated by Ludwig, 1 to wbom material was fur- 
nished by Teshermak. Among the varieties whose composition was 
determined are pennine, from the Zillerthal, cronstedtite, from Pri- 
bram, korundophilite, from Chester, Mass., metachlorite, from Elbin- 
gerode, daphnite, from Penzance, tabergite, from Taberg, prochlorite, 
from the Zillerthal and the Fischerthal, leuchtenbergite, from Amity, 
N. Y., and clinocldor, from Achmatowsk, Russia, and from Kariet, 
Greenland. The figures for korundophilite and leuchtenbergite fol- 

SiO a Al-A FeA FeO MgO H a O Sp. Gr. 

Korund 23.84 25.22 2.81 17.06 19.83 11.90 2.87 

Leucht 30.28 22.13 1.08 34.45 12.61 2.68 

These analyses of Ludwig and others that have recently been reported 
have afforded Tschermak 2 data for the elaboration of a theory con- 
cerning the constitution of the chlorites, according to which the mem- 
bers of this group of minerals are regarded as consisting of mixtures 
of six molecules, four being represented by the known minerals ser- 
pentine, amesite, strigorite and chloritoid, and the other two being 
hypothetical Dr. Clarke' takes exception to Tschermak's views and 
shows that upon his own theory (that the chlorites are substitution 
derivatives of normal salts) the composition of these complicated 
minerals becomes simple, and that his theory is as closely in accord 
with the facts known as to the structure of the chlorites, as is the 
theory of the Vienna mineralogist. In a discussion as to the rela- 
tions of the recently discovered minerals pinakiolite and trimerite to 
well known groups Brogger 4 places the former among the rhombic 
aluminates, and the latter, as a pseudo-hexagonal species, between the 
olivine and the willemite, groups. He further points out the simi- 
larity in morphological properties between all of these groups and 
ascribes their differences to morphotropic action. He regards all the 
silicates of the general formula R 4 Si0 4 as composing a morphotropic 
group, in which trimerite is triclinic because R is replaced by two 
elements, viz: Be and Mn— Several micas, vermiculites, and - h ' ' '^' 
have been investigated by Messrs. Clarke and Schneider 6 by the 

Mineralogy and Petrography. 

methods 1 already noted in tins*- pairt 
to be composed simply of mica niol 
intermingled with molecules posses.-i 
chlorite. • Many analyses of vermicu 
of them bear evidence of careful w 
phite 2 occurs in the Leadhills. South* 
au irregular fracture. It melts easil; 
and dissolves in hydrochloric acid, le 
sity is 6.9-7.0, and in composition it 
and phosphorus partly replaced by a 


Crystallographic— Barite crystals from veins cutting limonite and 
siderite, forming lenticular masses in limestone, interstratificd with crys- 
talline schists at Huttenberg, Saxony, have been studied by Biunlecb- 
ner 3 . They are supposed to have originated by the leaching of barium 
silicate and its decomposition through the agency of carbonic acid into 
barium bicarbonate and silica, and by the further action of iron sul- 
phate upon the barium salt. Well formed crystals are rare, but the 
author has succeeded in detecting upon them twenty-nine forms, of 
which the following are new: ocPV', oo P22, oo P30, x P44, x V-. 

16P^, 20P^ and 4P|. An examination of the crystals of uUnvm- 

ite from Sardinia, in the possession of the British Museum, inclines 
Miers 4 to regard them as interpenetration twins of tetartohedral form.-. 
whose apparent holohedral symmetry is due to twinning about the 
dodecahedral axis. If this is so, ullmanite is the first regular tetarto- 
hedral mineral known. Melville 5 has investigated the dial 

tals in the cavities of the quartz diaspore rock of Mt. Robinson*. One 
type consists of light-brown transparent forms, elongated parallel to c. 
Its planes in the order of their development are oc P^, oo P, oo P2, 
oo Pf, oo P|, P^T, P and P2, with the axial ratio = .6457 : 1 : 1.0689. 
A second type comprises almost white, opaque crystals with a stout 

pyramidal habit, bounded by oo P2, Pj and oo P^. A very elabor- 

^merican Naturalist, 1891, p. 830. 
a ColHe: Jour. Chem. Soc, lv, 1889, p. 91. 
3 Min. u. Petrog. Mitth. xii, p. 62. 
4 Min. Magazine, ix, p. 211. 
5 Am. Jour. Sci., June, 1891, p. 470. 
' «Cf. American Naturalist, 1892, p. 166. 

340 The American Naturalist. [April, 

ate paper on the vesuvianite crystals in the serpentine of Testa Ciarva, 
Alathal, Piedmont, adds but little to our knowledge of these. The 
results recorded in it but confirm Zepharovich's observations. The 
crystals examined by the author, Striiver 1 , numbered 123, each one of 
which was carefully measured, both as regards its dimensions and the 
planes occurring upon it. The number of forms found on each crys- 
tal is stated, and the number of crystals upon which each form was 
observed is mentioned. A plate appended to the article contain.- thirty- 
two figures, showing the arrangements of striations and the shapes of 
elevatinii mid depres-i'. nut faces. In the sec- 

ond part ol his article on the symmetry of crystals Beckenkamp gives 
us some exact information concerning the vicinal planes and the etched 
figures of the aragonite of Bilin and the neighboring localities in 
Russia, and discusses the polarity of the crystal molecule, with espe- 
cial reference to the explanation of the electrical properties of the 
carbonate and of its vicinal planes. The axial ratio of the aragonite 

crystals examined is .6228 : 1 : .7204. In a recent article Sohncke 3 

explains the structure of circularly polarizing crystals on the basis of 
his point-system theory of crystal-structure. He succeeds in showing 
that circularly polarizing crystals may be regarded as composed of 
thin lamellae of doubly refracting substance, in which the different 
layers are revolved a certain number of degrees around their common 

axis. Some very complicated twins of feldspar from the Pantelleria 

rocks are described by Foerstner*. They exhibit in the same group 
combinations of all the pri - known for the species. 

The calcites of fifteen localities in Baden have undergone the 

same exhaustive examination in the hands of Sanson! 5 as have those 

of so many other well known occurrences. Miers 8 has measured the 

fourth crystal of krennerite (Au 3 Ag ;i Te 6 ) reported in mineralogical 
literature. It is from Nagvag, Hungary, and contains six new forms, 
viz. : 2P^, 3P^, 4P^, 2P2, 3PS and AP*. The axial ratio is 
1.0651 : 1 : .5388. 

Miscellaneous. — Following the work of Clarke and Schneider on 
l of the natural silicates comes the report of a series of 

investigations on similar bodies made by Thuirutt 1 in iWpat. The 
author recounts the results of his experiments of digesting certain 
compounds with water and various chemical* for a long time at a high 
temperature, and describes minutely the products formed. Bv using 
the proper ingredients a series of sodalites was produced, in which 
sodium silicate, the corresponding selenite, sulphite, chlorate and other 
>alts take the place of the chloride in the must common sodalite. The 
details of the experiments cannot be given, although thev areextremelv 
interesting. The formula thought to represent best the chemical prop- 
erties of natural sodalite » U Na < ). A I . 2Si< >./. -f L' Na ( "]. 'i he 

and alkaline carbonates shows clearly that ei 
hydrating the substances upon which it acts, 
of interest are reached through the author'] 
cannot be mentioned here for lack of space. 


Myriostoma coliforme Dicks, in Florida.— A note upon the 
rare occurrence of Geaster coliformis may be seen in the ninth volume 
■ r < Mevillia. It was found in England and first recorded in Ray's 
'Synopsis in 1724: with long intervals it has been seen a few times since. 
It has been met with in a few localities on the continent. When I 
wrote the article on N. A. Geasters in The American Naturalist 
in 1884, I was not aware that Myriostoma coliforme had ever been 
found in this country, but that paper brought out the fact that a speci- 
men which came from Colorado was in the N. Y. State Museum of 
Natural History. This I noticed in the Journal of Mycology, Vol. I, 

Last summer Prof. L. M. Underwood found a nest of this rare and 
curious fungus in the vicinity of Eldorado, Fla. Through his kind 
consideration and liberality, I have come into possession of three speci- 

As no account of the internal structure has ever been given, I was 
eager to examine its interior and proceeded shortly to carve the largest 
specimen. A study of this enables me to fortify the opinion of Des- 
vaux that this interesting species of the tribe Geaster should of itself 
constitute an independent genus. But let us examine it carefully 
beginning with the mycelium and the external surface. 

^ineralchemische Studien, Dorpat, 1891, p. 128. 

342 The American Naturalist. [April, 

Contrary to my surmise from the published d< • 
is not invested with a thin frail cuticle emitting from all points of the 
surface slender filaments which bind it to the soil, as in Geaster lim- 
batus, but a fibrous rooting mycelium proceeds from the lowest central 
point of the base, as in Geaster saccatus; hence the cuticle is persistent, 
A stout fibrillose layer succeeds forming the main structure of the 
plant and connecting with the inner peridium at the base by the num- 
erous pedicels. These are angular or prismatic in shape, sometimes 
rather flattened and just about 2 mm. in length. A thin fleshy 
layer lines the inner surface, which is not at all hygrometric as in 
Astrazus. The inner peridium is depressed-globose and has the silver- 
gray lustre mentioned by the old botanists ; the surface also is 
roughened with minute pointed warts, as noticed by Plowright, and 
this fact leads me to infer that the inner and outer peridium are at 
first united by what De Bary terms a split-layer, as is the case in 

Now as to the internal structure. There is no columella such as we 
find in all true Geasters. The inner peridium has a soft fleecy lining 
of fine slender threads, in the dry state much curled and entangled. 
By careful manipulation, I found each thread to be a long simple 
structure, brownish in color by transmitted light, 3-4 n in thickness 
in the middle and tapering to a fine point at each extremity ; it is 
attached to the membranous wall by one end and of course is free at 
the other ; so far the agreement of the threads is with those of Geaster, 
but a peculiarity now occurs. 

The pedicels fuse at once into the wall of the peridium and are not 
erected in any way into one or more columellas. Instead the threads 
of the fleecy lining concentrate at numerous points upon the base, 
elongate and becomes compacted together forming several irregu- 
lar branched processes, which attain half the height of the perid- 
ium. These processes remind me forcibly of the numerous dendroid 
columellas which are erected from the base in the Myxomycete, Rett- 
cularia lycoperdon ; indeed the silvery surface of the peridium in the 
two is altogether similar. 

Mingled with the spores, I find numerous free threads similar to 
those which grow upon the inner face of the wall but much shorter; 
I suspect that these grow upon the traraa along with the spores and are 
left free by deliquescence as in Bovista. If this is true it is a unique 
feature. But I am not able to assert this positively from the mature 

either in number or position to the pedicel. It is doubtful to me 
whether they are determinate, but tlicv seem rather to he ruptures at 
thin and weak spots between the warts. At anv rate thev are not 
regularly fimbriate as in many of the ( Masters, hut such a' fimbriate 
appearance as may be seen i> due to the protrusion of the threads of 
the fleecy lining by the emission of the spore* 

It is therefore most probable that Gettrter cohanimhi* Lev. must he 
included in the species under discussion, and there is hence but thi> 
one unique species as yet known in the world. — A. I'. M<>k<;an, 
Preston, O. 

Notes on Ginseng (AroHa quinqtufolia).— (Jinseng root is now 
dug in large quantities in Canada and exported from Canada to the 
United States, to supply the demand among the Chinese. In order to 
prevent its eradication the parliament of Ontario has found it neces- 
sary to pass a law prohibiting the digging of it except at certain 

This trade is a revival of one of which formerly existed. In 1715 
Pere Lafitan, a Jesuit father, who was stationed near Montreal, saw a 
letter of Pere Jartoux, who had seen ginseng in Tartary a few years 
before and gave a description of it. Pere Lafitan, ascertaining thai 
the root was worth its weight in gold at Pekin, and that there was 
" large money " in it, searched the country, and inquired from the 
Indians, in order to find it, which he succeeded in doing. A company 
was formed to export it to China, Japan and Tartary. The price at 
Quebec was from thirty to forty cents a pound. At first anyone was 
allowed to sell it, but as its value increased the company exercised its 
monopoly rights, and in 1751 undertook to exclude all others from the 
trade. As the demand increased the care exercised in procuring and 
preparing the root relaxed. It was dug out of season, and imperfectly 
dried in stove ovens. As a result the value of the export fell off from 
five hundred thousand livres in 1752 to thirty-three thousand livres in 
1754. Canadian ginseng came to have such a bad reputation that the 
export ceased entirely. 

When the trade was at its height it was considered more profitable 
to dig ginseng than to cultivate the farm, and agriculture was almost 
entirely neglected. For a time the trade was hardly less important 
than that in fur. 

The revival of the demand has caused great activity in the search 
for ginseng, especially in the country to the north of Kingston, Ont.,, 

,344 The American Naturalist. [April, 

where it is said to abound. The average wholesale price is one dollar 
per pound, while it retails at five dollars. In the desire to participate 
in the large profits made in this trade some curious mistakes have been 
made. A man who thought he had a rich find in Manitoba, dis- 
covered . after buying several tons, that he had not the right article, 
having probably confused gentian with ginseng. 

If the trade is to be preserved care will have to be exercised in dig- 
ging and preparation. The root does not reach any great size in one 

The Chinese word genseng and the Iroquois word garent-oquem, the 
Indian name of the plant both signify " a man's thigh," and have 
doubtless been applied because of a fancied resemblance of the human 
body. Upon this coincidence Pere Lafitan based an argument that 
America had once been joined to Asia, and that the inhabitants of the 
former had migrated from the latter before the continents had become 
separated at Bering Strait. 

Panax fructicosus and Panax coehleatus, fragrant aromatics, ulmh 
grow in the Moluccas, and are used by the native practitioners of 
India, are plants somewhat akin to ginseng. The native Chinese 
ginseng is probably another species of the same genus as that founcl 
on this continent.— J. Jones Bell, Toronto, Canada. 

Popular Botany.— It is a good sign of the increase of biological 
ideas in connection with botany when one finds such a book as "A Song 
of Life," which has recently came from the pen of Margaret Warner 
Morley, and which A. C. McClurg has brought out in such an attrac- 
tive form. The first chapter only, " Flowers," relates to plants, the 
others dealing with fishes, frogs, birds, etc., but in spite of its title it 
discusses flowers less, and plant life, and reproduction more. The 
illustrations are very good, and most artistically arranged below, 
above and through the pages of poetically worded, and withal quite 
exact text. We hope to see more of such books. 

Jane Newell's "Flowers and Fruits," recently brought out by G«"» 
& Co., continues the pleasant and instructive lessons begun a coup e 
of years ago. They are designed " for the use of teachers, or mothers 
studying with their children." The book will be useful.— Chables 
E. Bessey. 

Fresh-Water Sponges.— Prof. I). S. Kellioott has arranged the 

fresh-water sponges collected by the late Henry Mill- and lias pub- 
lished an account of rliem 1 with a kcv to the trenera. Sixteen species 
are enumerated. Prof. Kellicott regards the region around 
Buffalo bay as affording ideal conditions for a fresh-water fauna as the 

moderate changes in temperature. 

Parasites of Salmon.— F. Zschokke, 3 after a careful study of the 
parasites of Salmo salar, the author comes to the following conclusions: 

1. Thirty-three species of helminths infest the salmon; 2. The 
habits of S. salar differ in different bodies of fresh water, for (a) the 
absence of fresh water parasites in the Rhine salmon shows that in this 
stream no food is taken by them, (b) the occasional presence of fresh 
water parasites in the salmon of the Tay proves that food is occasion- 
ally taken in that stream, (c) while the very frequent presence of 
fresh water parasites in the salmon of the Baltic Sea shows that it is 
the regular custom of this fish to feed in the rivers and brackish water 
of that region.— C. W. Stiles. 

Anatomy of Stenostoma. — H. X. Ott publishes 3 a preliminary 
note on the structure of this Khabdocoelous Turbellarian which is 
essentially like most Microstoraida?, the relations of the muscles of the 
body walls which is called peculiar, being the normal condition in the 
Turbellaria. The olfactory pits are imbedded directly in the brain. 
In fission a constriction of the ectoderm precedes alteration of the 

The Systematic Position of Orthelosoma.— L. v. Graaf has 
had an opportunity to study the type of this genus in the British Museum, 
described by the late J. E. < iray as a slug. He finds* that, as Leuck- 
art had previously supposed, this so-called mollusc is in reality a 
land Planarian, closely allied to Rhynchodesmus. Von Graaf states 

bulletin Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci., V., p. 99, 1891. 

2 Die Parasitenfauna von Trutta salar, in Centralblatt fur Bakt. u. Parasiten- 
tunde, 1891, Vol. x, No. 21-25. 

3 Zool. Anz. xv., p. 9., 1892. 

*Zool. Anz. xv., p. 8., 1892. 

that the type of Guilding's Herpa from the West Indies is not to be 
found. It was also described as a mollusc, but it has Planarian 

Haplo discus.— L. von Graaf 1 gives his opinion of Weldon's Hap- 
lodiscus piger from the Bahamas, which was thought by its describer 
to be possibly allied to the Cestodes or Trematodes. It is, says von 
Graaf, an acoelous Turbellarian, with zooanthellse, with ceutral mouth, 
two genital openings and apparently with a chitinous terminal portion 
to the bursa. These characters would assign it to the genus Convoluta. 

Echinorhynchi in America.— It has long been known that the 
swine in this country are commonly affected with these parasites. Dr. 
C. W. Stiles has recently solved the problem of the intermediate host 
of the worm (Zool. Anz. xv, p. 52, 1892). In Europe it had been 
demonstrated that two or three of the Scarabaeid beetles acted as such 
host and so they were used as the basis of experiment here. Eggs of 
Echinorhynchus were sprinkled on the food (tender roots, etc.) of the 
larvae of Lachnosterna and subsequent investigation showed that the 
larvae were distended with the young. As farmers are in the habit 
of turning their hogs into fields which are infested with the 'white 
grubs ' — larvae of the June bugs — it is easy to see how the parasites 
can be communicated to the swine, provided, of course, that the grubs 
be affected. On the other hand the grubs may be readily infected 
from the faeces of a single infested hog. 

The Species of Panopaeus.— James E. Benedict and Mary & 
Rathbun monograph 2 the species of this essentially American genus of 
Cancroid Crustaceans. Eurytium and Eurypanopeus are included as 
synonyms. Twenty-four species have been examined and as a supple- 
ment a list of fifteen more nominal species is given of which no speci- 
mens have been seen. Some three thousand specimens were examined 
in the preparation of the paper. The present writer once studied this 
genus but did not publish his results. He is of the opinion that the 
number of species here admitted is about three times too large, for the 
species are very variable.— K. 

Pycnogonid Studies.— Schimkewitsch 3 revises the species of the 
genera Phoxichilus and Tanystylum. In the introduction Wilson's 
'Zool. Anz. xv., p. 6, 1892. 

genera Anoplodaetvlus and S C a>orln 

Of Phoxichilidium ami Kuryovde >v" 

Gamasid Mites and Ants.— J 

before the Zoological Society of 1... 

following conclusions: (1) That tin 

Gamasids and Ants; (2) That a spe 

with one or two species of Ants prcf 

of ants nests are not usually found » 

abandons the nest if the Ant does; | 

friendly terms with the Ants j Thai 

sites; (7) That they do not injure tli 

the Gamasids will eat dead Ants, ai 

Lepidoptera of Buffalo.— E. P. van Dune publishes 1 a list of 

the Macro-Lepidoptera of the vicinity of Buffalo, N. Y. In all 777 
species are enumerated. In the arrangement W. H. Edwards is 
followed for the butterflies and Aug. Grote for the Moth- 
the Sphingidse and Agrotida?, where J. B. Smith has been followed. 
and the Phycidse, which are arranged according to G. D. Hulst 

The Position of the Solenoconchse.— Dr. L. Plate, 2 after a 
brief account of the structure of Dentalium, Siphonodentalium. Bip- 
honentalis and Cadulus, concludes that the.-e forms -how more rela- 
tionship to the Gasteropods than to the Lamellibranclu in "(1) the 
unpaired shell; (2) the radula ; (3) the jaws; (4) the tentacles, which 
can only be homologized with those of tli.- ( rastemp<.d> : .', ■ the body 
retractors, which in origin and position correspond to the spindle 
muscles; (6) the pleural ganglia, which among the Lamellibranchs 
occur only in the Nuculid*, forms which -: 

similarity to the Dentalia; (7) the strong development of the buccal 
nerve centres ; (8) the oesophageal irlamb. which from position are to 
be homologized with the salivary glands of the Gasteropods. Grob- 
ben's hypothesis that 'the Dentalia are to be regarded as the survivors 
of an ancestral form and especially the ancestors of the Cephalopod ' 
is supported [upon the supposition that] the arms of the cuttle fishes, 
as appendages of the head, .are homologous to tentacles of the Soleno- 
conchae. It appears to me that recently the pedal nature of the 
'Bulletin Buffalo Sec. Nat. Sci., V., p. 105, 1891- 
*Verh. Deuisch. Zool. Gestlfech. i. 60, 1891. 

The American Natu 


Cephalopod arms ha< hren certainly shown.' " Prof. Grobben at the 
same meeting replied saying, among <»thei things, that the radula and 
pleural ganglia had no diagnostic value, since there was some evidence 
that the ancestors of the Lamellibranchs had a radula which had 
secondarily been lost, while the existence of the pleural ganglia in the 
Nuculida?, the oldest of existing niolhws. had great weight. He had 
no ground to alter his previous view that the Dentalidse were the 
modified descendants of the group from which the Cephalopods had 
sprung. The arguments advanced by Plate for regarding the arms of 
the cuttle fishes as pedal were not conclusive. Profs. Biitschli and 
Leuckart spoke to a similar effect, the latter assigning these forms a 
middle position between Gasteropods and Lamellibranchs. 

The Genera of Enteropneusta.— Prof. Spengel 1 recognizes 
among the 19 known species of this group four genera, separated most 
sharply by the body musculature. In Ptychodera alone is there an 
outer circular musculature; Glandiceps and Schizocardium have 
inner circular muscles, while in Balanoglossus proper no ring muscles 
exist. Other differential characters are given. Cephalodiscus is not 
recognized as a member of the group. No species are mentioned. 

Extinct or Nearly Extinct Vertebrates.— Mr. A. F. Lucas 
has a readable article upon the animals which are recently extinct or 
threatened with extinction as represented in the National Museum. 2 
The West Indian Seal (Monachus tropicalis), is uncertainly placed in 
this category for but little is known of it, and its habits and habitat 
seem favorable for its perpetuation. The California sea-elephant 
(Macrorhini -sibly entirely extinct, none having 

been recorded since 15 were sent in 1884 to the National Museum. 
The walruses, too, are threatened with extinction, the Pacific species, 
Odobeenus obesus, being in greater danger than the Atlantic 0. rosma- 
rus. The source of danger lies in the whalers who capture the 
animals for oil and ivory. Between 1870 and 1880 there was brought 
to market 1,996,000 gallons of walrus oil, and 398,868 pounds of wal- 
rus ivory. In 1879 the ivory was worth 45 cents a pound ; in 1880, 
$1.00 to $1.25; and in 1883, $4.00 to $4.50. The European 

t present restricted to Lithuania 

and the 

Caucasus, is protected in both localities. In 1880 the Lithuania? 
herds numberd but 600 and the number is "smaller at present. The 

Isch. i.47,1891. 

r 1888-89, p. 609, 1891. 

Arctic sea-cow, (Rytina gigas), the hi 

given in 

<mr pages, 1 was exterminated 
; species of birds from the 

extinct. The last ornithological en] 
islands found no specimens of the Ma 
about half a dozen specimens represei 
world. It was probably exterminate* 
the yellow war cloaks of the Sandwic 

small ta 

illes, rail , Punmla tmudubn 

as rare. 

It would appear that nea 

The California Vulture (Pseud onnjphu* cilifornhinusi is now 
extremely rare, and largely restricted to Southern California. "The 
free use of strychnine in ridding the cattle ranches of wolves and 
coyotes has caused the disappearance of this bird, which has been 
poisoned by feeding on the carcases prepared for the four-looted 
scavengers." The Dodo (Did us ineptusj of Mauritius, and the Soli- 
taire (Pezohaps solitaria) of Rodriguez, have a history too well known 
to be recounted here. They are represented in the ^National Museum 
by a few bones. 

So, too, the fate of the Labrador duck (Camptolcemw labradorius) 
and of the great Auk (Alca impennis) has often been told. Of the 
former but 36 specimens are in existence. Two of these in the 
Nation:.; Mu-eiim were collected by Daniel Webster. The last speci- 
men was taken in 1878. Specimens of the Great Auk are not so rare, 
and yet they command enormous prices. Ihe last skeleton sold 
brought $600, the last skin §650 and an egg brought $1500. The 
Great Auk was probably exterminated in 1840. 

Pallas' Cormorant {Phalacrocorax penpieUhOu*) of the region 
around Kamchatka has a brief history. It was kilied h\ man toi 
food. In 1741 it was "frequentissimi" on Bering Island. About a 
hundred years later it was extinct and is represented today by four 
stuffed specimens and twenty-three bones in all the museums of the 

Of the lower vertebrates Mr. True refers to the great Galap«g< 8 
tortoises and their relatives of the Mascarene Islands, and the Tile 
fish. The forms have already formed the subject of a paper by Dr. 
Baur in this Journal 2 and it is only necessary to say that probably 

350 The American Naturalist. [April, 

they are exterminated from another of the Galapagos group. The 
giant tortoises of the Mascarene Islands were extremely abundant in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but their use as food caused 
their extinction at the beginning of the present century. "Save the 
few bones rescued from the marshes of Mauritius and the caves of 
Rodriguez, nothing is left to show that these large and formerly 
abundant tortoises ever existed." 

The history of the Tile fish (Lopholatilus chamceleonticep ) M i 

the strangest known. So far as we have any information, no one, 
fisherman or naturalist, ever saw a tile fish (the common name is an 
abbreviation of the generic) until March 1879, when a Gloucester 
fishing schooner took about 6000 pounds. In the following years 
1880 and 1881 a few were taken by the U. S. Fish Commission 
Steamer. In March and April 1882 vessels arriving in American 
ports reported passing through large numbers of dead and dying fish 
off the southern coast of New England and Long Island. Vessels 
reported sailing for forty to sixty miles through floating fish, (in one 
instance through 150 miles) so that it became evident that a vast 
destruction had taken place. Capt. Collins estimates from these reports 
that an area of 5000 to 7000 square statute miles were so thickly cov- 
ered that the total numbers must have exceeded a billion. The next 
fall the Fish Commission searched in vain for these fish on the ground 
where they were formerly so abundant ; and no one has since reported 
a specimen. 

-Vertebrates.— Carl H. and Rosa H. Eigeu- 
s of South 
1135 species are enumerated. The great richness of the 
fauna in the Nematognathi is here made very prominent, 449 species 
of that order being enumerated. 

Mr. A. J. Allen 2 publishes the first part (Osines) of a catalogue »r 
the birds collected by Mr. Herbert H. Smith at Chapada, Ma«° 
Groso, Brazil. Mr. Smith and his party obtained some »' ,,(l!l - iaIi '*" '" 

present paper. In all the collection represents about o->0 >}»■*■"■'* 

1892.] Zoology. 351 

from the Tertiaries of Northern Italy, containing milk teeth. As 
these teeth showed a masked Selenodont structure it was urged that 
the specimen indicated the descent of the Siren ia from the Selenodont 
Artiodactyle Ungulates ; " an exceedingly improbable suggestion. 

"■an Naturalis 


The Robertson Cyanide Bottle.— Many entomologists have 
experienced more or less trouble in using the commonly recommended 
plaster-of-Paris cyanide bottle on account of the moisture that accumu- 
lates on the inside. I was recently shown by Professor Chas. Robertson, 
of Illinois, a plan he has adopted which is simple, practical, and causes 
no trouble of this kind. He uses wide-mouthed bottles with cork stop- 
pers. He cuts out of the lower side of the cork a hole large enough to 
receive a small pill box. The pill box is filled with cyanide ; a dozen 
pin holes are made through its bottom ; and then it is inserted in the 
hole in the cork. The fumes pass through the pin holes into the bottle. 
Such a bottle can be easily washed out, and has many advantages 
especially for flies, bees and similar insects.— C. M. W. 

Entomological Notes.— Professor A. J. Cook, of Michigan, 
spent the winter in Southern California. * * * Professor J. H. Cora- 
stock of Cornell University has been at the Leland Stanford Junior 
University during the winter, lecturing on entomology. * * * Pro- 
fessor Chas. Robertson, of Illinois, is studying the relations of flowers 
and insects in Florida. * * * Professor J. B. Smith, of Rutgers Col- 
lege, recently visited Europe to study types of Noctuidae.. * * * Miss 
Mary E. Murtfeldt has contributed to the December Insect Life an 
interesting note on the " Hominivorous Habits of the Screw Worm in 
St. Louis." * * * Mr. Albert Koebele, of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture has gone to Australia for more beneficial insects. 

Professor Forbes' Sixth Report.— The seventeenth report of 
the State Entomologist of Illinois for the years 1889 and 1890 has 
lately been issued. Like its recent predecessors it gives evidence of 
the careful, exhaustive work so characteristic of Professor Forbes' 
investigations. The report proper covers about 100 pages with an 
appendix of 40 pages. In the general record for the two years covered 
it is stated that the previous prediction concerning the disappear- 
ance of the chinch bug outbreak had proven correct. Two species of 
aphides (Siphonophora granaria and Toxoptera graminum) had 
appeared in the grain fields ; the former having " inflicted the worst 
injury upon agriculture ever done in Illinois 
species." The general discussions include the fc 

Fruit Bark Beetle " (Scolytus rugulosm), I 
this insect yet published ; "Experiments \ 
for the Plum and Peach Curculio," shown 
beetles to poisoning ; " The American Plun 
funeralis) with description of stages and i 
the Common White Grubs,' an linportai 
known subject; "Additional Notes on the 1 
life-cycle of this pernicious pest : " A Sum 
Root Aphis," " On a Bacterial Disease I 
Worm" and "Notes on the Disease* of 
appendix consists of "An Analytical Li.-t < 
ings of Wm. Le Baron, M. D.. Second Stat 
and is accompanied by a well executed plat 
The report is also illustrated by three colon 
original drawings by Mr. A. fit Wester 
represent the corn leaf louse, corn root lous 

The Illinois Insectarium.— In his recent Btxtb Report, ooocea 

above, Professor S. A. Forbes gives the following account of the 
Insectarium recently provided for the State Entomologist ot Illinois: 
"The experimental work of the office has been greatly facilitate.!, and 
rendered far more accurate and profitable by the new Insectanuni, or 
experimental entomological laboratory, provided for by the Legislature 

date when it was ready for occupancy. 

"The important part of this Insectarium is essentially a conserva- 
tory fifteen feet by thirty, standing entirely above ground with -la- 
roof and brick walls, with the exception of the end wall I 
above the level of the sides. The building stand- nort 
opening to the south with double doors, one of glass and one «.t wire 
gauze. The roof is covered with four rows •»! sash all hin-y^at 
the ends in such a way that the sash of the lower row ran « illei 
at the lower end, while the sash of the upper row may be opened 
widely at the peak of the roof. The glass on the lower row oJ wsfa 
upon each side is deadened with white paint (that of the upper row 
being left clear) and the admission of sunlight is further controlled by 
a screen of cheesecloth sliding on wires extending along the entire 
middle of the room beneath the two central rows of sash. The upper 
sashes are opened and closed by a ventilating apparatu 
all together, while the lower are conv " " J 

ised by 

3 -54 The American Naturalist [Apri i, 

room is divided into two apartments connected with double doors, 
one of which is provided with hot water pipes. 

"With these arrangements it was easy to keep the temperature 
within one or two degrees, above or below, that of the outer air, what- 
ever the weather might be. The interior is furnished with tables in 
benches, work-tables, etc., for breeding-cage and root-cage work, and 
contains a brick-lined trench, three feet wide and fifteen feet long by 
three feet deep, cemented within, and filled with earth, for the larger 
plants, and for small plot experiments." 


Notes on Celloidin Technique.— The high value of celloidin 
as an imbedding mass is well-known, and its superiority over all meth- 
ods requiring heat is unquestioned, yet, from the fact that its manipu- 
lation has been attended by many difficulties, it has not come into 
general use. During the past two years I have tried the methods rec- 
ommended by various authors and have found none entirely satisfac- 
tory, especially where very long series were necessary. The results of 
my experience are embodied in the following method : 

The prepared plates or fragments are placed in an air-tight cham- 
ber; a four-ounce salt-mouth bottle being very suitable for this pur- 
pose. Pour into this bottle just enough ether-alcohol (equal parts 
acid-free sulphuric ether and absolute alcohol) to cover the fragments. 
The ether-alcohol should be added until after occasional shaking no 
celloidin remains undissolved ; this may take several days. It should 
finally possess the consistency of a very thick oil. The solution thus 
obtained may be labelled No. 4. No. 3 is obtained by taking two vol- 
umes of No. 4 and diluting with one volume of ether-alcohol. No. 2 
by proceeding in a like manner with No. 3. No. 1 is a mixture of 
absolute alcohol and sulphuric e th< r in equal parts. 

The saturation and final imbedding is accomplished thus: The 
object is transferred from 95% alcohol to solutions 1, 2, 3, 4 success- 
ively, in each of which it remains from a tew hours to days, depend 
ing opon the size and permeability. For pieces of tissue 2 mm. in 
diameter twenty -four hours in each will generally suffice. For a large 
brain, e. g. that of a cat, a week in each will not be too long. 

In imbedding, unless orientation is desired, the ordinary paper box 
is best. A thin plate of lead is placed in the bottom and the imbed- 

ding solution poured in. The object is taken froi 

needles may be passed through the box t support 

In hardening, the method L r iven bv Yiallan. > o 

roform is preferable, since the operations may be < 

greater rapidity. An air-tight chamber should b 

oiighlv hard, ned, which requires ai>out twenty-foui 
the paper cut from the sides and transferred to 7(1 

clamp of the microtome. Solution No..') i< pou 
into this the celloidin block is pressed, after dippii 
in solution No. 1. Place in chloroform until hare 
Reconstruction points are often very desirable 
the ordinary metallic imbedding box (fig. 1) ma< 
pieces, a and a, heid in place by the overlapping s 
ends and 


I — (-.1 I J | holes should be so drilled that 

After being drawn tightly tin v 
FlG - L are cemented to the sides .if 

the box by a drop of celloidin. Five or six cm. of the thread ahould 
be left hanging. The bottom of the box is made by fitting in a piece 
of heavy blotting paper. The object is placed upon the thread* in the 
desired position, and the imbedding mass poured in. As soon a.- hard- 
ened the celloidin holding the threads is dissolved by a drop of ether. 
The loose ends are soaked in solution No. 2, which has been thickened 
by the addition of lampblack. The threads are then drawn through, 
leaving the lampblack adhering to the celloidin, thereby forming 
excellent reconstruction points. 

For small objects where reconstruction points are not needed the fol- 
lowing method may be advantageously employed. The heads are 
clipped from fine insect pins, which are then placed in handles in such 
a way that they may be easily removed. On these pins the objects are 
oriented in the desired position ; the pins are then removed from the 
handles and fixed in a cork (fig. II, a) previously perforated by a 




somewhat larger j)in. As i:i-t as the pins carrying the objects are 

inserted the cork is replaced in the tube, which is filled 

with alcohol. A half dozen fish or amphibian ova may $9* 

be oriented on the same cork. If desirable to draw the 

objects in situ a piece of lead may be pinned to the cork 

and the whole immersed in a small beaker of alcohol. || I j 

The corks carrying the oriented objects are transferred ||| J 

successively to tubes containing the different solutions. [J J 

When ready for final imbedding a piece of porous paper jfjr- J 

is wrapped about the tubes and cork and pinned. The 

cork is now removed, allowing the imbedding solution 

to fill the paper tube thus formed. A lead is fastened 

to the cork and the whole placed in chloroform until |fjl 

hardened, after which the paper is cut from the mass 

and the pins drawn through the cork, when it is ready t °" \ 

for sectioning. This method offers many advantages in ^- -^ 

that several objects may be cut at the same time, FlG-II . 
drawings may be made after orientation, the ob- 
jects are transferred from one solution to another more rapidly, etc. 
In cutting, care should betaken that the knife is placed as obliquely 
as possible and kept constantly wet with 70% alcohol. For this pur- 
pose an ordinary pipette pr6vided with a large rubber bulb is used. 
As fast as cut the sections are drawn back on the blade of the knife, 
by means of a needle, and arranged in a single row until the blade is 
filled. To remove them a heavy paper spatula is placed directly upon 
the section to which it adheres and may be drawn off the edge of the 
knife and transferred to the slide. By slight pressure together with a 
rolling movement the section is left in the desired position. Sufficient 
alcohol is kept on the slide to prevent drying but not enough to allow 
the sections to float. When the requisite number have been arranged 
they are covered with a strip of toilet paper which is held on the slide 
by winding it with fine thread. The sections being thus firmly held 
in position may be stained, etc. They should not be placed in absolute 
alcohol but cleared from 95% in a mixture of equal parts of bergamot 
oil, cedar oil and carbolic acid. When cleared the excess of fluid is 
removed by a piece of blotting paper ; with gentle pressure sections 
which are by chance loose are firmly fixed in position, the thread is 
now cut, the strip of paper rolled back, balsam and cover applied. 

If the object can be stained in toto, which is often the case, much 
time may be saved by the following method : The stained object is 
imbedded in the usual manner, but after hardening in chloroform, and 

1892.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 

removing the paper, the celloidin block is transferrer 
for twenty-four hours, then to carbolic acid 1 or gly< 
becomes as transparent as glass 2 . The block is fh 

Orientation is now accomplished with the greatest ens 
knife is wet with the clearing medium given above. 
be arranged in serial order on the knife-blade urn 
obtained, when they are transferred, balsam and ooi 
this method long series may be readily bandied ( Hy< 


Boston Society of Natural History.— April 6th.— The fol- 
lowing papers were read: Percival Lowell, Shinto Occultism, God- 
possession of the People ; Harold C. Ernst, Some of the Advances in 
Bacteriology. — Samuel Henshaw, Secretary pro tempore. 

The Biological Society of Washington.— March 19th.— The 
er of the evening was The Biological Basis of Psychol- 
ogy, by Prof. Lester F. AVard. The following communications were 
read: C. D. Walcott, On the Discovery of Certain Cambrian Fossils 
on the Coast of Massachusetts ; F. H. Knowlton, The Fossil Flora of 
the Bozeman Coal Field; C. W. Stiles, Notes .on Parasites. Strongylus 
. rubidus Hassall and Stiles, '92. 

April 2d. — The principal paper of the evening was The Interdepend- 
ence of Plants and Insects, by Prof. C. V. Riley, illustrated by lantern 
slides. The following communications were made : C. Hart Merriam, 
The Distribution of Tree Yuccas, illustrated ; H. E. Van Deman, 
Variations in the Fruit of Hicoria Pecan; C. W. Stiles, Notes on 
Parasites ; Two Stages in the Life History of Distoma magnum Bam 
1875. (D. americana Hassall 1891.)— Frederic A. Lu< AS, Seer* 


Sereno Watson.— On the 9th of March descriptive botany suffered 
a great loss in the death of Sereno Watson, for many years the Curator of 
the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, and since Dr. Gray's death, 
the successor, and botanical executor of the kind-faced master. It was 
hoped that the work which Dr. Gray left unfinished would be com- 
pleted by Dr. Watson, who was so well prepared to do it, but we are 
again left with the work incomplete. Torrey, Gray and Watson all 
worked along the same lines, and may be said to have maintained the 
same school of systematic botany. Had they completed the " Flora 
of North America," the impress of their ideas would have remained 
for all time. As it is, the fragments of the work will be gathered and 
arranged by other hands, and the thoughts of other men will be 
wrought into it. 

Born in 1826 in East Windsor Hill, Conn., Dr. Watson was at the 
time of his death in his sixty-sixth year. He graduated from Yale in 
1847, and subsequently taught school for a number of years, at one 
time being a tutor in Iowa College, then located at Davenport, Iowa. 
He studied medicine and was a practicing physician for a time in 
Illinois, abandoning this for other occupations. In 1867, when forty 
years of age he began his first botanical work in connection with the 
United States Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel, under 
the charge of Clarence King. His report on botany in 1871 (vol. v. 
of the series) is a worthy monument to his descriptive ability, and at 
once gave him a prominent place in science. His labors since then 
have been unremitting. The two magnificent volumes of the " Botany 
of California " were largely his work. So too, the "Manual of Mosses'' 
by Lesquereux and James, owes much to him. His " Bibliographical 
Index to North American Botany " will for many years to come stand 
as a monument to his industry, and he will long be remembered 
gratefully by many a botanist who finds here at a glance reference 
which would have taken many hours of searching. )f 

In 1873 he began his series of "Contributions to American Botany 
by the publication of a paper in the May number of this journal 
entitled " New Plants of Northern Arizona and the Region Adjacent. 
The " separates" were designated as No. I. of the series of ^contribu- 
tions. No. III. also appeared in this journal (November, 1873), treat- 

18 9 2 -] Scientific Neius. fUjfr 

ing of the "Section Avicularia of the genus Polygonum." With the 
exception of No. VIII.— "The Poplarsof North America"— published 
in the American Journal of Science and Arts, all other numbers were 
published in the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. These reached to XVIII., which was issued July 31, 1891. 
Personally Dr. Watson was a most genial man, full of a quiet cheer- 
fulness, and good-fellowship which attracted those who knew him. 
His industry was comparable to that of his English counterpart 
George Bentham. The cheerful face, the pleasant voice, the quiet 
steady worker will be sadly missed from the ranks of American 
botanists.— Charles E. Bessey. 

A seaside laboratory of Natural History in connection with the 
Leland Stanford Jr. University, will be opened during the coming 
summer at Pacific Grove, California, on the Bay of Monterey about 
half way between Monterey and the Point of Pines. This laboratory 
will be for the purpose of investigations in the life-history of the 
marine animals and plants of this coast. It will be under the direction 
of Profs. Gilbert, Jenkins and Campbell of the chairs of zoology, 
physiology and botany respectively. It will be open to naturalists 
and others wishing to make special investigations in the anatomy or 
life-history of animals and to teachers of natural science. For further 
details those interested may apply to any of the directors at Palo 
Alto, Cal. 

Mr. G. Pouchet gives in Revue Scientifique the following state- 
ment of reforms which he thinks should be introduced in the Museum 
and Jardin des Plantes of Paris. 

The reforms which seem to be most urgent are as follows : 

1. A more direct participation, more active and better conducted, by 
the official board of the Museum, both in its finances and its several 

2. The restriction of the optional positions to the newly appointed 
professors of natural history. The Ministerial Commission have hith- 
erto jeered at this reform. 

3. The participation of the professors of the Museum who are mem- 
bers of the Institute or doctors of science in the examinations for licen- 
tiate or doctorate of natural science. 

4. The gradual suppression, or at least the transfer, to Vincennes of 
the menagerie. 


360 The American Naturalist. [April, 

5. The publication of an official bulletin instead of the costly 
Annates, which the Museum is reputed to publish. 

6. The suppression of pensioned students and especially the residen- 
tiary canons. 

7. Finally, the non-reeligibility of the director nominated for five 

$4.60 per Year (Foreign). 





managing editors: 


\ Re Ptilia. (Waited.) 4<K) ^^ 



518 and 520 MINOR STREET. 


By F. W. Hutton. 

The Moas belong to a group of birds called Ratita?, to which 
also belong the Ostrich, the Rhea, the Emu, the Cassowary, and 
the Kiwi. They are all birds with rudimentary wings, soft 
fluffy feathers and adapted for terrestrial life. Professor T. J. 
Parker has conclusively proved that the Ratitse are descended 
from flying birds. The structure of their diminutive wings 
and the cellular character of their bones are evidence that the 
ancestors of the Ratitse could fly, but these flying ancestors- 
must have lived a very long time ago, probably in the early 
part of the eocene period. That the Moas have been a long 
time in New Zealand is certain. In addition to the immense 
number of bones found in peat beds and river-alluvia of 
pleistocene age, remains have been found near Napier and 
probably also near Wanganui, which belong to the newer 
pliocene period. The bones of a small species of Moa, found 
two years ago under a lava stream at Timaru, are still older 
and probably upper miocene, while the Hon. W. Mantell 
found in 1849 a fragment of a bone, which probably belonged 
to a Moa, near Moeraki in beds of lower miocene age. 

The Ratitse are generally supposed to have originated in the 
Northern Hemisphere, and to have spread southwards into 
Patagonia, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. But if 
so, how could birds which eoulu not fh ; i ._■ to reach New 

362 The American Naturalist. [May, 

Zealand without being accompanied by any Mammalia! 
Certainly they did not precede the Mammalia, and it is very 
unlikely that they should twice have swum across straits 
which wore impassable to mammals— once from the Oriental 
into the Australian region, and again from the Australian 
region into New Zealand— and there are other reasons for 
doubting the northern origin of the Australasian Ratitse. The 
New Zealand Ratitaa are smaller than any of the others, and 
make a nearer approach to the original flying ancestors; and 
we should expect to find the smallest and least altered forms 
near the place of origin. Now there are in Central and South 
America a group of birds called Tinamous, which, although 
flying birds, have been shown by the late Professor W. K. 
Parker to resemble the Australasian Rati tie in many particu- 

Zealand is well known, it seems more probable that the Moa.s 
originated in New Zealand in the eocene period, from flying 
birds related to the Tinamous, and that they spread from here 
into Australia and New Guinea, than that' they should have 

In whatever way the Moas originated in New Zealand, it is 
evident that the land was a favorable one, for they multiplied 
enormously and spread from one end to the other. Not only 
was the number of individuals very large, but they belonged 
to no less than seven genera, containing twenty-five different 
species, a remarkable fact wh ich is u npara 1 leled i n any other part 
of the world. Africa and Arabia are inhabited by but two or 
three species of ostrich; South America from Peru to Patagonia, 
has only three species of Rhea: Australia has two species of Emu 
and one Cassowary; while < .J lt nth, l sp t ,-ies of Cassowary in- 
habit islands from New liritain to Coram OuCide New Zealand 

perhaps be found 
the Cassowaries, 
different islands, 

elevated, and the islands joine 
would mingle. If the region 
them would be driven to* "the 1 

1 united in the olde 

ancestors of the Moas inhabited New Zeal; 
eocene period they must have been separated 
during the whole* of the miocene, and mingle. 
in the pliocene. In this way — i.e., hv isolatioi 

tion without isolation. As is the ease with 
animals, the Moas varied greatly and, there 
nivorous mammals to hold them in cheek, 
food was abundant, natural selection did not 
and the intermediate forms were not stric 
Under such favorable circumstances the co 

The commonest ki 

364 The American Naturalist. . [May, 

that these Moas died thousand of years ago, long before there 
were any human inhabitants to light fires, it will be seen that 
tli is surmise is quite out of the question. Only two hypotheses 
appear to be possible to account for the facts. Either the birds 
walked into the swamp and were drowned or else their dead 
bodies were washed in. The first hypotheses is probably the 
explanation of the deposit at Te Aute near Napier, because 
many of the leg bones were found upright in their natural 
position. But at Glenmark and at Hamilton the bones were 
lying in all directions, as often upside down as in any other 
position, and the peat-beds were only a few feet thick, and 
filled with bones up to the very top. We cannot, therefore, 
suppose that these Moas were swamped, and there is evidence 
in both of these cases to show that the dead bodies of birds 
were washed in by floods. We find corroborative evidence of 
this in the alluvial plains of Central Otago, for these always 
contain numerous bones wherever a stream enters them from 
the hills. 

But how are we to account for the number of dead birds 
washed down from the hills ? There are two remarkable facts 
connected with these bone deposits at Hamilton and Glen- 
mark. One is the very large proportion of bones of young 
birds from one-half to three-quarters grown ; and the other is 
the absence of Moa egg shells. These two facts seem to show that 
the birds perished in the autumn or winter, when the birds of 
the year were not full grown, and when the females did not 
contain any hardened eggs. Also, it is evident that dead 
Moas could not be washed into swamps under the present en- 
matic conditions, and the explanations of the puzzle must He 
in the fact that in pleistocene times, when these bone deposits 
were formed, the climate was very different from what it is 
now. At that time the eccentricity of the earth's orbit was 
very great, and when winter in the Southern Hemisphere hap- 
pened in aphelion, long cold winters were followed by short 
and very hot summers. It seems probable therefore, that the 
early winter snows killed hir-v numbers of Moas and other 
birds on the hills, that their bodies were floated down by 
summer floods and avalanches caused by the melting snow, 

History of the Moas. 

) to stand thus. 
» of places in wfc 

slight and obscure, -enrrallv. indeed. ti.buUis. There is also 
one very ancient poem culled " The Lament of Ikaheivngatu. n 
in which the pharse " Ka ngaroi te Dgaro a tea Moa " th»-t a< 
tie 1 Moa is lost) occur-, which certainly shows that the bird was 
not in existence when the poem was composed. The so-called 
traditions of its habits appear to be, in large part at least, late 
deductions from these words and phrases, and we must eon- 
conclude that in the North Island, the Moa was exterminated 
by the Maoris soon after their arrival in New Zealand ; that is 
not less than 400 or 500 years ago. 

In the South Island there are no names of places contain- 
ing the word Moa, but here remains have been found — either 
skeletons lying on the surface or bones with skin and liga- 
ments still attached — which give the impression that the birds 
were living here not more than ten or twelve years ago. Now 
the bones which are said to have strewn the surface so abun- 
dantly when the first settlers came, had all disappeared in fif- 
teen years ; so it is plain that either some change in the sur- 
rounding conditions cause the bones to decay, or that none of 
the bones which were so abundant in 1861, were more than 
fifteen years old. But as we cannot believe that Moas were 
abundant in Otago in 1846, we must fall back on the opinion 
that the tires lighted by the early settlers to clear the scrub so 
altered the conditions under which the bones had been pre- 
served that they soon decayed, in which case we cannot say 
how long the bones may have been lying there. It is some- 

366 The American Naturalist. [May, 

thing the same with those bones which still have dried skin 
and ligaments attached. They are so fresh that, unless the 
birds lived a few years ago, they must have been preserved 
under specially favorable conditions; and there are reasons 
for thinking that the small district of Central Otago, in which 
alone these remains have been found, is one specially favora- 
ble for preserving animal remains. If this be so we cannot 
say for how many years they may have been preserved, perhaps 
for centuries, and as we have every reason to believe, upon the 
authority of the Rev. J. W. Stack, that the ancestors of the 
Ngai Tahu, who have inhabited the South Island for the last 
200 or 250 years, never had any personal knowledge of the 
birds, we must allow that the Moa lias been extinct for at least 
that time. On the other hand, it is quite certain that the Moa 
was exterminated by the Maoris, and the Maoris are not sup- 
posed to have inhabited the South Island for more than 500 
years, so that the time of extinction must fall between these 
dates. It seems improbable thai the Ngatimamoe, the last 
remnant of whom inhabited the West Coast sounds a few years 
ago, were Moa hunters. The moa hunters of the South Island 
were not cannibals, and as Te-rapu-wai and Waitaha, the 
tribes who preceded the Ngatimamoe, are said to have been 
peaceful and to have " covered the land like ants, " it lends 
support to the Maori tradition that it was they who extermin- 
ated the Moa and made the shell heaps on the beach. If 
this be so the Moas were exterminated in the South Island 
about 300 or 400 years ago ; that is, about a hundred years later 
than in the North Island.— New Zealand Journal. 

By E. A. Andrews. 

The accumulation of embryological facts and their applica- 
tion to problems of animal morphology from the days of von 
Baer to the period of Balfour's text book of Comparative 
Embryology was carried on with ever increasing speed 
culminating in the present day when the revision of Balfour's 
work by Korschelt and Heider assumes such unexpected pro- 
portions. Though the advance of descriptive emhryology has 
been so great, the phy>iologieal aspects of the subject have 
been but little cultivated, partly to be sure, from the neeessa in- 
dependence of such work upon the anatomical fact- that 
were not at first available. Now, however, when the normal 
development is known for all groups of animals and com- 
parative embryology stands upon a firm basis, the application of 
physiological methods, the introduction of experimentation 
into a field promising much richer harvest than the study of 
adults can hope to yield, may be no longer delayed. Knowing 
the changes of form that ova pass through to attain the 
adult condition may we not both eliminate such changes as 
are unessential and also press nearer to the solution of more 
fundamental questions by varying the condition of environ- 
ment and the physical state of the ovum or embryo ? 

Interference with the normal course of embryological 
phenomena was no doubt often brought about more or less 
unconsciously, or at least incidentally, by many of the older 
embryologists and remarkable results sometimes attained. 
Only, however, within the present decade have systematic 
researches been begun, definite and thought-out experiments 
devised and finally predictable results attained by workers in 
the domain of what may be called experimental embryology, 
though as yet the methods and the subject matter are so 
differently conceived by various authors and the question 
involved so overlaps the regions assigned to other branches of 
Biology that the term has at best but a vague and changing 

The American Naturalist 


Some of the researches in this subject seem to be of such 
interest, though but beginnings and liable to be wrongly 
valued one way or the other, that a review of them here may 
aid in calling attention to a comparatively new line of 
research, one that is as yet in the limbo of pathology and thus 
excluded from zoological and embryological text books. 

Passing over numerous experimental investigations upon 
the hen's egg, some of which appear to have resulted in the 
formation of definite, predictable monstrosities from localized 
interference with the embryo, we will mention only the work 
of Leo Gerlack 1 who finally devised a movable window, 
embryoscope, that allows the chick to be observed and also 
experimented upon from time to time while continuing to 
live, at least for 13 days. 

With the aid of this instrument embryological problems 
such as the origin of the vascular system from parablast or 
from the primitive streak may be approached experimentally, 
by destroying the primitive streak for instance. By similar 
methods the author hopes to produce changes in embryos of 
several successive generations and thus strive towards the 
selection of important questions in heredity. 

It is the frog, however, rather than the chick which has 
given more decided answers to physiological inquiry promis- 
ing to be in its early stages what it has become as 
adult, an easily accessible and not so excessively equivocable 

Professor Pfliiger, 2 starting from the observed facts that 
frogs' eggs taken from the uterus and thrown into water, float 
at first with variously inclined axes but after fertilization 
turn so that the black pole is uppermost and the white pole 
downward and that when cleavage takes place the first and 
second planes are vertical, the third horizontal was led to 
inquire what connection there may be between cleavage planes 
and gravitation. 

The method of investigation was simply to remove ovarian 
eggs with their gelatinous capsules and fix them by their own 

• Archw.f.Phjrfc.m, 1883"; 

, 1888, pp. , 

ize them artific 
does not chang 

ch inverted eg* 

normal egg with black |>«.le uppermost. 

An entirely different problem was also solved by the 
method. Seventeen eggs fixed in normal positions and 
three days till the neural groove and ridges were formed, 
the direction of the median plane of the future frogs, 
plane of the first cleavage furrow having been prevr 
indicated by lines on the glass the eggs were stuck to, il 
found that in twelve cases the median plane of the ar 
coincided with the first cleavage plane, in four it mad 
angle of 30°-60° and in one an angle of 90°. 


second paper 3 that normal larva' both of Ham* txrnlnttn and of 
Bombinator ignens were raised from eggs held inverted as well 
as some larva? partly white on the dorsal surface and not 

The medullary folds, normally upon the black pole, may be 
made to appear upon the white pub' by inclining the egg axis. 
The author concludes that the egg is directed by gravity so 
that cleavage may take place in various planes of the egg 
according to the position of its axis with reference to the lines 
of gravitation or vertical plane. Moreover, these effects are 
seen later, the author thinks, in the origin of the blastopore 

3<"0 The American Naturalist [Maj, 

just ventral to the equator of the egg. Normally the blasto- 
pore appears just ventral to the equator and passes, so Pfluger 
maintained, across the white pole to the opposite side of the 
equatorial region. In unusual positions the blastopore also 
appears just beneath the horizontal equator, whatever part of 
the egg this equator may be in the given inclined position. 

Pfluger came thus to regard the essential elements of an egg 
as having no more prearranged relationship in position to the 
part of the future embryo than do "snowflakes to the ava- 
lanche they may give rise to." Gravity acting to arrange the 
parts of an egg according to circumstances, much as snowflakes 
may be collected by gravity to form an avalanche, under 
certain circumstances. 

The fundamental character of these experiments seems to 
be upheld by the fact presented in a third paper 4 that eggs 
thus held in oblique positions actually developed as far as the 
adult shape, quite normal toads being reared from eggs of 
]!'iml,;,i<itcr igneus. 

Moreover other forces than gravitation act in the same 
directive fashion upon the cleavage, for Pfluger mentions his 
repetition of certain experiments of Rauber upon trout eggs, 
using eggs of both Rana and Bombinator and finding that in a 
rotating machine the centrifugal force controlled the appear- 
ance of cleavage planes. 

Frog's eggs compressed between vertical plates of glass 
cleave at right angles to the plates and generally in the 
vertical plane also, but in exceptional cases al all angles to 
the vertical plane: here pressure is assumed as a sufficient 
determining influence. 

The frog's egg is thus regarded as directly influenced by 
external forces and fundamentally altered in the arrange- 
ments of its constituents. The egg is like a mass of porridge 
with its outer part firmer and its main mass perhaps traversed 
by some reticulum of firmer material, but still so mobile that 
the heavier yolk can sink to the bottom and the less heavy 
remain above it, much as sediment falling in a liquid. 

u„t!T fl ?3 er p-Y eber , die EUiwirkung der Schwerkraft and andcrer Beding- 

ungen auf die Richtung der X. ; , ; s . . , ,,. niu-tilb. 

Kept rimcntal Embryology. 

upon wh; 

ing become grey in from three quarters of an hour to two 

tidal layer of the ego;, white or dark on opposite poles. The 
dark colored material of the egg is not confined to the surface 
of the dark pole, but there penetrates far towards the center 

center of the dark pole. 

When the egg is inclined this darker material rises upward 
along one side of the sphere, carrying the enclosed white yolk 
with it. while the heavier white yolk flows down on the other 
side of the sphere from its forced position to a more normal 
one. Thus the material normally at the upper pole is brought 
there again, though covered over still by some superficial 
white yolk that remains over the white pole, now become 

When this rearrangement takes place at so late a stage that 
the nucleus is dividing as it rises, then the first plane is not 
necessarily vertical: gravitation acting only indirectly, while 
other causes determine the direction of the first cleavage 

Roux 6 had drawn the same inference as to the insignifi- 

HV. Roux B q "• U Q el f die 

372 The American Naturalist. [May 

cance of gravity as well as light, heat, magnetism in directing- 
the cleavage processes from rotation experiment upon frogs' 
eggs. Using a vertical wheel, revolving rapidly enough to 
produce centrifugal effect, about double that of gravitation, he 
found the eggs develop normally, though constantly present- 
ing their white poles away from the centre of the wheel and 
being thus acted upon alternately above and below, by 
gravitation. Having eliminated the constant action of grav- 
ity as a directive force, he concluded it was unnecessary for 
the appearance of cleavage planes and assigned this to causes 
within the egg. 

By numerous other contributions and complete devotion to 
a definite line of embryological research, this author has be- 
come as it were, the apostle of a new branch of embryology, 
Entwicklungsmechanik. Judging from the heterogenous char- 
acter of the 262, 384, and 277 works for. 1 887, '88, '89, ranged 
under the above heading, as forming a separate department 
in Hermann and Schwalbe's Jahresberichte we conclude that 
this term is by no means synonymous with physiological or 
with experimental embryology, but has a much wider applica- 
tion, including the last as one of its subdivisions. 

The first definite use of the term together with outlines of 
the problems to be attempted in this pre-determined field of 
work was made by Roux in 1885 7 . We there find Entwick- 
lungsmechanik to be the science of the character and action of 
the combinations of energy which produce development. Also, 
development being the origin of observable multiplicity, there 
may be either read production of or merely transformation of 
non-observed into observable manifoldness. Epigenesis is 
then the actual creation of complexity : Evolution only the 
sensualization of latent diversities. 

The key to the causal knowlege of development lies in the 
determination of the relative value of two possibilities: self- 
differentiation : interaction with the environment. Self-differ- 
entiation of a system of part is the result of the energy of the 
system itself. Correlative differentiation is the change of a 

1892.] Experimental Embryology. 373 

system from loss or advent of energy from without, provided 
these changes are specially determined by this outside energy. 

To determine what external forces might he at play in 
embryologieal phenomena he had thrust large pins into frog 
larvae, fastening them to wax under water, in the expectation 
that any electrical condition of the surface wuuld he changed 
by the addition of a good conductor. As some of the tad- 
poles developed normally he inferred the electrical state of tin- 
surface of the body was not a determining cause in the pro- 
cesses of growth. In this work he found certain abnormal 
changes in the surface cells when death took place and subse- 
quently made use of these as a means of determining the con- 
dition of cells in early stages where there were no movements. 
The chief result appears, however, to have been the suggestion 
of a method afterwards very extensively employed. 

Thus as early as 1882 he thrust needles into frogs' eggs to 
see if the protoplasm were arranged corresponding to the 
future differentiations, though recognizing the roughness of 
such attempts which he likens to the casting of a bomb into a 
factory, in hopes of drawing conclusions from the resulting 
changes in productivity, as to the character of damage 

On withdrawing the needle point from an egg a mass of 
black, or black and white yolk exudes at once and may 
afterwards be increased. This extraovate either remains con- 
nected with the wound by a narrow stalk or else separates and 
leaves no discoverable trace of the wounded spot. In extreme 
cases, one-fourth to one-fifth of the bulk of the egg may be 
thus lost, yet development may proceed. 

Regarding the effects of wounding we find, in general, a 
large number of eggs develop normally, though many em- 
bryos formed are weak and small, but there are many abnor- 
malities, some of which are like those often met with in eggs 
not operated upon, while others are rarely if ever found in 
nature. Operation at different stages produces results as 
follows : 

Injured before cleavage had begun the eggs developed 
abnormally in many cases, forming larvae with deformed 

374 The American Xutumlis 


heads,"absent medullary folds, etc. After the first cleavage 
the second plane often passes through the wound and after 
the second.'cleavage one plane sometimes changed so as to 
pass through the wound now made. The resulting embryos 
often have circumscribed areas of deficient development. 
When injured after the equatorial plane was formed normal 
tadpoles were found amidst abnormal ones. 

Operations after the fourth, fifth and sixth planes have 
appeared show that injury to the black pole produces defects 
in the region of the medullary folds. Blastuke injured nine- 
teen hours after fertilization show fewer cases of circumscribed 
defects. In addition it is to be noted that the exuded part 
of the egg may undergo by itself, a sort of cleavage resulting 
in the formation of a mass of numerous cells. 

It thus appears that all the material of an egg is not neces- 
sary to form a normally shaped embryo: that rough me- 
chanical disturbance of the egg material does not produce 
complete irregularity in the subsequent arrangements of 
organs: that circumscribed injuries often produce circum- 
scribed defects and that about the same eilect results what- 
ever stage of cleavage is injured. 

The author, however, does not know why the defects are 
sometimes absent, nor can he produce the same defect at 
pleasure, in different experiments. Yet the methods of injur- 
ing definite areas of the egg is made use of in referring the 
cleavage planes to the axes of the subsequent embryo. Thus 
when eggs in the two celled stage have the needle thrust into 
them in the black pole, at the uppermost part of the border 
between black and white, the egg being naturally inclined, a 
circumscribed defect appears posterior to the middle of the 
medullary folds, whence we see that the posterior part of the 
medullary folds were formed over what was the white pole 
and the third plane divides head from tail substance. 

But this question of axes and position of embryo will he 
dealt with later on in connection with other experiments. 

The gastrula also was injured by the needle, but with con- 
flicting results as to the circmnseribed nature of the resulting 
defects. Deep cuts made into tin- ^inl, vield the interesting 

K.rperhneitfiil Embrij'.ilmjij. 

result that each n& 
the medullary folt 

Lioux sees in many of the above 

the importance of self differentiatioi 
ology, and also emphasizes the self 
as the most essential conn o cl 1 . 

The interaction of the various pa 
under various heads not understood 
methods insisted upon by Roux. 1 
tation, struggle of organs, and mech 

This last factor was emphasized b 
upon the elasticity of the germ lave 

resulted if there had been a tens 
a chick forty hours old the ren: 
any gaping open of the rnedu 
expected if lateral pressure had 
a younger embryo proceeded 


376 The American Naturalist. . [May, 

Then His' derivation of the the fourth ventricle from a 
bending of the brain, is not supported by experiments upon 
frogs and chicks in which, to be sure, a ventricle-like fold was 
produced by actual bending ; but this was not in the position 
of the fourth ventricle and was, moreover, the result of the 
reaction of the living substances, not simply mass correlation. 

An ingenious research into the cause determining the 
direction of the first cleavage plane in the egg and hence the 
median plane of the adult frog, as it is thought, was subse- 
quently published in full by Roux 8 in 1887. 

The method employed was simply to place eggs from the 
oviduct upon glass, white pole downward and allow them to 
adhere. Then sperm was added either by touching a cut 
made in the jelly with a brush moisteneil by sperm or else by 
introducing sperm through a capillary tube into one point of 
the jelly. Examined at frequent intervals the appearance ot 
the cleavage planes was noted and referred to marks made 
upon the glass or paper under egg. 

When the eggs were fastened in the normal position and 
were not eggs laid late in the season, when abnormalities are 
frequent, the following results were obtained : 

Before fertilization but one axis of the embryo is indicated 
in the egg : the main axis of egg, that from black to white 
pole representing the ventro-dorsal axis of the actual embryo, 
which the author believes has its neural folds formed upon 
the white pole when held in a normal position. Yet this axis 
corresponds to a cephalo-caudal direction of the embryo when 
we consider the rearrangement of material that takes place 
during gastrulation. Of the infinite planes passing through 
this axis that one becomes the median plane of the frog which 
is determined by the plane of copulation of the male and 
female pronuclei. This plane of copulation in turn is not pre- 
determined but may be put in any meridian by localized 

The side selected for entrance of sperm becomes the ventro- 

8 W. Roux: Beitrage zur Entwicklungs mechan.k ties Embryo. 

-.-■•■■'■• ■ " 

Jaeger. 2. Chilonyx Cope. 3. Pariotichua Cope. 
4. Pantylus Cope. 

1892.] Experimental Embryology. 377 

caudal and tlu> opposite the dorso-cephalic side of the embryo. 
An examination of these e^'s by sections shows that the 
course of the sperm as indicated by the trail of dark pigment 
left behind it is first a long radiating line from the black pole 
near the white rim to a layer deep within the egg in which the 
copulation of nuclei takes place, then a short course towards 
the female nucleus. 

The author then points out that the cleavage in the plane 

both pronuclei, provided they are not intermixed in copula- 
tion, half of each being readily moved into each of the result- 
ing cells. 

When, however, the eggs are held inclined more than •Ju c - 
30° the above rules do not hold good. Though even here the 
first cleavage seems to coincide with the plane of copulation 
of nuclei, yet these are often at right angles to the future 
median plane of the frog, though they may coincide with it in 
some cases. This is to be explained on the assumption that 
gravity acting upon yolk and nuclei determines a rotation of 
copulation direction. 

Again in these much inclined eggs the lowest side of the 
black pole becomes the ventro-caudal part of the embryo, pos- 
sibly because the formative yolk may accumulate t her- 1 and 
influence the nuclear cleavage. 

The most interesting of Roux's contributions appeared a 
year later. 9 In this he follows out the question of self-differ- 
entiation of the embryo, seeking to determine the amount and 
character of interaction of the part of an egg by destroying 
or injuring definite cells during cleavage. The eggs of Rana 
mmlenta in the two celled stage were at first simply stabbed 
by a fine sharp needle, thrust into one cell, but as this did not 
produce much injury the needle was heated and often moved 
about inside the cell. Of such eggs about 20 per cent, devel- 
oped only from the uninjured cell, others went to pieces or 
else developed normally. It is to be noted also that at this 

9 V. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsmechanik des Embryo. Ueber die kunstliche 
Hervorbringung halber Embryonen durch Zeistotung einer der beiden ersten 
ler fehlenden Korper halite. 
VircWi Arch 291. PI. 2-3. 

378 The American Naturalist. [May, 

time of year, the latter part of the spawning season, some 
similar abnormalities were found in eggs that had not been 
operated upon at all. The various stages of abnormal growth 
were hardened, stained and sectioned. The results of such 
injury may be considered, first as relates to the uninjured and 
then to the injured half of the two celled stage. 

The single cell by side of the injured one develops in many 
cases into a half embryo, first a half blastula, a half gastrula 
then a half embryo with medullary fold, archenteron, chorda, 
mesoblast and metameres representing only half of the normal 
condition of these organs. 

In the four-celled stage injury to both posterior cells some- 
times resulted in formation of only anterior half of medullary 
folds. Injury to three or to one of the cells resulted cither 
in one-fourth blastula; or in the other cases three-fourths 
embryos. Finally injury above or below the first horizontal 
furrow gave rise to some cases of upper half blastuke. 

He concludes that as each of the first two cells may develop 
up to stage of medullary folds without aid from the other, 
there is marked self-differentiation and that the cleavage 
planes separate the material qualitatively and thus determine 
the subsequent position of the organs. The last experimeot 
also indicates that the gastrula or embryo is a mosaic made 
up of at least four vertical elements or independent parts. 

Turning now to the complex phenomena that take place 
in the cell operated upon, regarded by Jtoux as dead, though 
evidently this is scarcely justifiable from its subsequent history 
we find three series of events taking place: 1st disintegration, 
2nd reorganization, 3d post generation. 

In the first category are included, a vacuolation of the yolk, 
the appearance of a net work within it in places and the for- 
mation of peculiar bodies regarded as nuclei derived from the 
original nucleus of the operated cell. Here again we must 
not overlook the fact that some eggs found at this season do 
not develop but have similar abnormal nuclei. Only about 
one-third of the eggs operated upon and subsequently sec * 
tioned present these phenomena of disintegration. 

edeggs tin 

third process in the reorganization-, namelv the <jro\vth of 
cells from the uninjured half over the injured half or at least 
over such parts of it as present vacillated yolk. All three pro- 
cesses may take place at once or separately. 

Post generation is the completion of the half of the embryo 
in which the above nuclear changes have regenerated the mass 
apparently killed by the injury of operation. It is externally 
manifested by the format ion of a layer of pigmented cells over 
the operated half, the formation of the missing medullary fold 
which grows from before backward or of the posterior parts of 
both folds when we have an anterior half embryo. The com- 
plete tadpoles resulting are in part active, in part weak, easily 

The internal changes that take place in tins post generation 
as revealed by sections are the growth of a new eetoblast and 
mesoblast into the previously imperfect cellular mass by a 
process of successive rearrangement and differentiation of the 
yolk cells, adding themselves to the edges of the advancing 
layers in such wise as to form parts symmetrical with those in 
the uninjured half of the embryo. The entoblast also is 
formed from the free edge of the entoblast of the perfect half 
by rearrangement of yolk cells and there is no invagination. 
no gastrula nor blastula cavity formed in this newly forming ' 
half of the embryo. The germ layers thus form by a sort of 
regeneration from the interrupted surfaces of the old germ 
layers, but as the material comes from the new half of the 

380 The American Naturalist [May, 

embryo the old half may be regarded as exercising a sort of 
formative or assimilative action upon the irregular mass of 
yolk cells in the new half. 

To recapitulate the chief re- 
sults with the aid of fig. 1, A, 
B, C : A, being a half blastula 
resulting from injury of one of 
the first two cleavage cells and 
as yet not reorganized, seen in 
section: B, a right half lnrva 
from dorsal view and C are 
anterior-half larva. Injury to 
one of the first cleavage cells 
may result in the formation of 
a half embryo, to one of the 
first four to a fourth embryo, 
to three of the first four to a 
l three-fourths embryo. The 
, dead cells (regarded as dead by 
'the author) may be revived 
and reorganized partly by di- 
al of the nucleus present 
and partly by inwandering of new nuclei and their division. 
The nucleation is followed by a cellulation and this by a re- 
generation of germ layers not following the normal course but 
growing out from the exposed surfaces of the layers already 
formed in the other half of the embryo. This definite process 
of post-generation seems due to the controlling action of the 
formed germ layers upon nuclei and yolk collected by chance 
in the places they occupy before being thus incorporated with 
the germ layers. Thus the reorganized parts are not capable 
of self differentiation as are the early colls in cleavage but are 
dependent upon influences coming from the other half of the 
egg or embryo. 

An earlier paper by the same author, Roux, 1 has ledtointer- 

»W. Roux: II Beitrage zur Entwicklungsmechanik des Embryo jj 
die Bestimmung der Haupt-richtung des Froschembryo im Ei und die erste lheiiuu 6 

BreslauerTr'ztliche Zeitschrifi, 7, 1SS5. 1. nrs, 64-68, 73-77, 87-88, lW-Wl, 

take place as a rule, 
in- about an alterati 

tli rough the egg in 
brought about by tin 

very doubtful, especially when we find that of 47 egg 
formed even the first cleavage plane and the inclin; 
these eight eggs in the gum was so obviously influence 
being 90°, 60°, 50°, 50°, 30°, 20°, 20°, 20°. 

In another part of this paper it is found that fro; 
drawn out to double their normal diameter in narro 
tubes assume a conical or else a lens shape, but cleavt 

,„.,«,„,, A<,nin ,wr„« in WoPT tuU'S WOlllldaboUt 1 

position of organs formed or at least the gastrula mouth J 
however, no reference to the side whence the air supply ca 
With Pfluger, Roux finds the first cleavage plane is 
median plane of the frog, yet not without exceptions since 
normal sequence may be interrupted and the first plane 

382 The American Naturalist. [May, 

ually found separate the anterior from the posterior part and 
thus represent the normal second plane. Raubcr it is to be 
noted, found somewhat similar irregularities. Thus in the frog 
the first plane in seven eggs made the following angles with 
the future median plane of the adult, 90°, 50°, 90, 85°, 0°, 
82°, 90°. In the axolotl the same angles were, 80°, 53°, 90°, 
50°, 90°, 30°, 90°, 2°, 90°, 90°, 70°, 80°, 32°, 90°, 90° in fifteen 
eggs observed. 

Another point that appears to offer unusual difficulties to the 
experimentator is connected with the movement the egg per- 
forms after the embryo begins to form, which render the refer- 
ence of organs to special regions of the egg by no means easy. 
Thus Roux 3 -*' 5 and Schultze working upon similar material by 
similar methods arrive at very different conceptions of the re- 
lationships of the dorsal and ventral parts of the frog to the 
white and black parts of the egg. 

Roux holds that the medullary folds, that is, the dorsal re- 
gion of frog, appear upon the vvliit*- <»r lower pole. This is 
seen when eggs are fastened in normal positions and is also 
inferred from experiments in which injury to the black pole 
remains as injury to the ventral sideot'the embryo. The reason 
other observers find the doreal area on the upper black pole is 
that the egg turns over so that the dorsal field floats upper- 
most. The blastopore first appears just beneath the union of 
black and white, the equator, and then shifts over while closing 
to the opposite side of the equator. Where the blastopore first 

of blastopore ris 
pole where the 1 

Bides of Nomcnchitu 




Translated from the Fret 

,ch by Merit* Fischer. 


1. The nomenclature adopted 

for organisms is a binary a. 

binominal one. It is Latin or 

distinguished by a generic name 

>, followed by a specific nan 

as: Corvus corax. 

2. In case varieties must be di 

stinguished. the use of a thil 

name is permitted, as : Corvus co', 

vu.r ku),,schaticus. 

3. Since it would be wrong to 

write Corvus kamsvhufiviis ti 

insertion of the word varietas or 

its abbreviation var. betwet 

the specific and the varietal nam 

e is not essential. 

4. When the word varietas is i 

ised. the name of the varie 

agrees with it as : Corvus corax i 

ar. kamschatica. If the woi 

varietas is omitted, the varietal n 

ame agrees with the gener 

as: Corvus corax karnschaticus. 

II. Generic 

• Names. 

5. Generic names should consi 

1st of one word, either simp 

or compound, but always writh 

m as one, whether Latin i 


<>. Generic names mav he deri 

ved from : 

(a) Greek nouns. These sho 

old have the correct Lat 

spelling as: Ann/his. Amphiholo 

. Aplysia, PompMyx, Phys 


(b) Compound Greek words. 

In using these the adjectr 

must be placed before the noun 

as : Stenogyra , Pleu ro b ra nchr 

Tylodina, Cychstoma, Sarcocystis, 

Pelorfytcs, Hydrophilus, III 

384 The American Naturalist [Ma v, 

(c) Latin nouns as Ancilla, Auricula, Cnxxis, Com** Dolhim, 
Metula, Oliva. Adjectives (Pmshw) ; ,n.l past participles 
(Productus) should be avoided. 

(d) Compound Latin words as: St;U <r, Thbibrifn- Semi- 
fmu. ^ 

(e) Greek or Latin derivatives expressing diminution, com- 
parison, resemblance, possession, as: Liiigular'ni.% LinguUna, 
Lu.f/ulhiopsi*, Linguklla, Liwjulqriz, Linguist*, all derived from 

(f) Mythological or heroic names as : Osiris, Venus, Brisinga 
Vdleda, Crimora. Such names, if not Latin, take a Latin 
termination as : Aeqiru*. Gondulia. 

(g) Names used by the ancients as: Cleopatra, frlisawis. 

(h) Modern patronymics. These take an ending to indicate 

Patronymics taken from Latin and G« 

ermanic tongues 

retain their original -polling including diaer 

itic marks. 

Names terminating with a consonant tak 

e the ending ws. 

ia, ium as: Srfyxiux, Laimirckio, k'olfikerbi 

, Mulkria, Stalia, 

Kmg, rifi } Ivanezia. 

Names terminating with the vowels e i o, i 

/, take the ending 

us, a, urn as: Blainvillea, Wyvilka, Carol in in 

, Faiiva, Bemaya, 


Names terminating in a take the ending ic 

i as : Danaia. 

Names ending in n or ean follow the precet 

ling rule but take 

a euphonic t as : Payraudeantia. 

(i) Names of ship, which take the same tei 

•m inations as the 

mythological names (Vtga) or the modern 

patronymics as: 

Blahea, Hirondella, Challengeria. 

(j) Barbaric names taken from languages > 

moken bv uneiv- 

ilized races as: Vanikoro 

Such names must take'a Latin endin* 


(k) Words formed by arbitrary eonibinati 

ion of letters as: 

Rides of Nomenclatw 

11. Specific names, whether now 
sist of one word only. It is, howev 
found modern patronymics or ct 
comparison as: sanetii-catarinu, 
'■or-oni/uhvnn, etc. In using compc 
must be united by a hyphen. 

12. Specific names can be divide' 

(a) Nouns and adjectives descrip 
istic of a species (form, color, origi 
as cor, cordiformis, gigas, giganteus, 4 
pi*ciuorus,j!avipnitrtatits, albipennis. 

(b) Names of persons to whom a i 
names must be put in the genitivt 
formed by the addition of i to the i 

tc) Xa 

386 The American Naturalist. [May, 

13. A Latin adjective is best adapted for a specific name, it 
should be short, euphonic and of easy pronunciation. It is, 
however, permissible to use latinized Greek words or indecli- 
nable barbaric words as: hipposid* m*, <<-hirn>r<HTUs, zigzag. 

14. The specific name must never be a repetition of the 
generic name as : Trutta trutta. 

In case a varietal name is used it must never be a repetition 
of the specific name as: Ambbjstoma j<f< r.soaianwm jefferso- 

15. The prefixes sub and pseudo can be used with adjectives 
and nouns only, sub with Latin adjectives, pseudo with Greek 
nouns as: subterraneus, subriridis, jisradacantJius, pseudophis, 

These prefixes cannot be used with proper nouns. Words 
like sub-wilsoni, pseiido-grateloupana are barbarous. 

16. The termination eidos or its Latin form oides can be 
used only with Latin or Greek nouns. They cannot be used 
with proper nouns. 

17. If the specific name requires the use of a geographic! 
name this must be put in the genitive, or its adjective term 
must be used if it was known to the Romans or latinized by 
the writers of the middle ages. Used as an adjective it must 
be written with a small letter as: ant ilia rum. hjbicus,xgyptiam, 
graccus, burdigalensis, iemmsis, piimcurien.-iis, parisiensis. 

18. All geographical names which do not come under the 
preceding category must be changed into adjectives following 
the rules of Latin derivation and retain the exact spelling of 
the radical if this has not been used in Latin as: nco-bataru*. 
islandicus, brasiliensis, canadensis. 

19. If from the radical of the geographical name two Latin 
adjectives have been derived as Inspamis and hispanicus they 
both cannot be used in the same genus. 

20. This rule also applies to common names as : fluciorum-, 
jl a via lis, fluvial His. 

1892.] Rules of Nomenclature. 387 

22. Geographical names derived from names of persons arc 
transformed into Latin adjectives according to rules is and 1!> 
as: edwardicnti*. <Iicmchfnxix, ma<jcllanku*. 

The name of islands such as St. Paul, St. Thomas. St. Helena, 
can retain their noon form but must then take the genitive 
ending as: xancti-jxtiili, sunctn-helense. 

IV. Writing of Generic and Si>kcikic Xamks. 

23. The generic name must be written with a capital letter. 

24. The specific name takes either aeapital 1 or a small letter 
in conformity with the rules of spelling as: viridis, magmis, 
Cuvieri, Caesar. 

25. The author of a species is lie who : 

(a) First describes and names the same according to 

(b) According to the same section names a species already 
described but still unnamed. 

(c) Substitutes for a name not agreeing with Section I a 
name agreeing with said section. 

(d) Substitutes for a specific name used twice a new name. 
The name of the author of a species follows the specific 

name and is written in the same characters as the text : if the 
text is Roman, the name of the species is in italics and vice 
versa as : La Rand esculenta Linne vit en France. 

26. When the name of the author of a species or a sub- 
species is cited and abbreviated, the list of abbreviations pro- 
posed by the Zoological Museum of Berlin must be used. 

V. Division ai 

s t d Consolidation of Species. 

When a genus i 

s sub-divided the old name r 

ed in the sub-divi 
When the origii 

ision which contains the origin 
lal type is not clearly specif 

r who first sub-dr 

rides the genus can apply the ol 

small letter. Otherwise 
lish capitalization we wo 
a would write Cardium 


388 The American Naturalist. [May, 

to whatever sub-division he may select and this application 
cannot be changed subsequently. 

29. The division of species is subject to the two preceding 

30. If in consequence of the division of a genus, a species is 
put into one of the divisions of the primary genus, the name 
of the author of the species must follow the specific name. 
Several notations are in use which we insert below in th.- 
order of their merits, taking as an illustration the old Hirudo 
muricata Linne, 1761, placed in the new genus Pontobdella by 
Leach in 1815: 

1. Pontobdella muricata Linne. 

2. P. muricata (Linne). 

3. P. muricata Linne (sub Hirudo. 

4. P. muricata (Linne) Leach. 

5. P. muricata Leach ex Linne. 

31. A genus formed by consolidation of several old ones 
takes the name of the oldest of them. 

32. This rule applies when several species are consolidated 

33. When, in consequence of consolidation of two genera, 
two organisms, having the same specific name, are found in the 
same genus, the most recent receives a new name. 

VI. Family Names. ' 

34. Family names are formed by adding the ending idse to 
the radical of the genus serving as type. The sub-divisions of 
the family are named by adding the ending h\ie to the name 
of the genus serving as type. 

VII. Law of Priority. 

35. The name originally given to each genus and species B 
permanent, provided : 

m (a) The name has been announced in a publication in wh«* 

(b) The anther has properly ', ppli,!. l' the' rules of binary 
nomenclature.— K. M. Mcsitm iVin.-.-ton \W Jersey, > T ° r * 
14th, 1891. 

Record of North American Zoology. 


Continued from Vol. XXV, p. .1 11. 

Biological Lectures, delivered at the Marine Biological 
Laboratory at Woods Hall in the summer session «.f 1.s'.m>. 
12°, Boston, 1891. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— Additions to the Fauna and Flora of 
Jamaica. Jour. Inst. Jamaica, i, p. 31, 1891. 

Cope, E. D.— An Outline of the Philosophy of Evolution. 
Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, xxvi, 495, 1889. 

Cox, C. F.— Protoplasm and the Cell Doctrine. Jour. N. Y. 
Micros. Soc, vi, 17, 1890. 

Dawson, J. W. — Modern Ideas of Evolution as Related to 
Revelation and Science. London, 1891. 

Fell, Geo. E. — The Influence of Electricity on Protoplasm. 
Am. Ins. Micro. Jour., xi, 169, 1890. 

Gaertner, F.— Vivisection. Am. Nat., xxv, 864, 1891. 

Hornaday, W. T. — Taxidermy and Zoological Collecting; 
a complete handbook for the amateur taxidermist, collector, 
osteologist, museum builder, sportsman and traveller, with 
chapters on collecting and preserving insects by W. J. Hol- 
land. N. Y., 1891. 

Jeffries, J. A. — Lamarckianism and Darwinism. Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xxv, 42, 1891. 

Kellogg, J. L.— Wandering Cells in Animal Bodies. Am. 
Nat., xxv, 511, 1891. 

Kirsch, A. M.— Cytology, or Cellular Biology. Microscope 
x, 360, 1890 ; xi, 41, 65, 106, 140, 1891. 

Leconte, J.— Evolution : its Nature, its Evidences and its 
Relation to Religious Thought. London, 1891. 

Macallum, A. B.— Morphology and Physiology of the Cell. 
Trans. Canad. Inst., 247, 1891. 

Mayxard, C. J.— Contributions to Science, vol. i, 1889-90 

390 The American Naturalist. [May, 

Minot, C. S.— On Certain Phenomena of Growing Old. 
Proe. A. A. A. S., xxxix, 271, 1891. 

Mitchell, H. W. — The Evolution of Life, or Causes of 
Changes in Animal Forms ; A Study in Biology. New York, 

Osbokn, H. L. — Heredity, its Part in Organic Evolution. 
Am. Mo. Micros. Jour., xii, 109, 1891. 

Shufeldt, R. W. — Where Amateur Photographers can be of 
Use to Science. Am. Nat., xxv, 626, 1891. 

Wilder, B. G. — The Fundamental Principles of Anatomi- 
cal Nomenclature. Medical News, Dec, 1891. 


Forbes, S. A. — Preliminary Report Upon the Invertebrate 
Animals Inhabiting Lakes Geneva and Mendota, Wis., with an 
account of the Mi epidemic in Lake Mendota in 1884. Bull. 
U. S. Fish Com., viii, 473, 1891. 

Ganong, W. F.— Southern Invertebrates on the Shores of 
Acadia. Trans. Royal Soc. Canada, vii ; Sec. 4, 167, 1891. 

HoneYman, D.— Glacial Boulders of Our Fisheries and 
Invertebrates, Attached and Detached. Trans. Nova Scotia 
Inst., vii, 205. 

Two Cable Hauls of Marine Invertebrates. Trans. 

Nova Scotia Inst., vii, 260, 1889. 

Linton, E.— On Certain Wart-like Excresences Occurring 
on the Short Minnow, Oyprinodon variegatus, due to Psoro- 
sperms. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., ix, 99, 1891. 

Notice of the Occurrence of Protozoan Parasites ( I'soro- 

sperms) on Cyprinoid Fishes in Ohio. Bull. U. S. Fish Com-, 
ix, 359, 1891. 

Stokes, A. C— Notices of New Fresh-water Infusoria. Proc. 
Am. Phil. Soc, xxviii, 74, 1890. 

Notes of the New Infusoria from the Fresh Waters of 

United States. Jour. Roy. 
r species; Trichototaxis n. g. 

'.»:.— !■-• 

1392.] Record of. North American Zoology. 391 


Dendy, A.— Observations on the West Indian Chalininc 
Sponges, with Descriptions of New Species. Trans. Zoo). Soc. 
London, xii, 349, 1891. 

Kellicott, D. S.— The Mills Collection of Fresh Water 
Sponges. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Hist., v, 99, 1<S91. 

MacKay, A. H.— Fresh Water Sponges of Canada and New- 
foundland. Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, vii. See. 1. 85, L880. 


Agassiz, A.— On the Rate of Growth of Corals. Bull. M. 
C. Z., xx, 2, 1890. 

Fewkes, J. W. — An Aid to a Collector of the Ccelenterata 
and Echinodermata of New England. Bull. Ksscx Inst., xxiii, 
1, 1891. See Am. Nat., xxv, 995. 

McMurrich, J. P.— Contributions to the Morphology of the 
Actinozoa; On the Development of the Hexactinia?. Jour. 
Morph., iv, 303, 1891. 

The Development of Cijanea arctica. Am. Nat., xxv, 287, 


Phylogeny of Actinozoa. Jour. Morph., v. 125, 1891. 

Smith, F. — The Gesticulation of Aurelia flavidula Per. and 
Les. Bull. M. C. Z.. xxii, No. 2, 115, 1891. 

Wilson, E. B.— The Heliotropism of Hydra. Am. Nat.. 
xxv, 413, 1891. 

Fewkes, J. W.— An Aid to a Collector of the Ccelenterata 
and Echinodermata of New England. Bull. Essex Inst., xxiii. 
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Ganong, W. F.— Zoological Notes. Bull. N. H. Soc. New 
Brunswick, No. 9, 49, 1890. 

Honeyman, D. — Nova Scotia Echinodermata. Trans. Nova 
Scotia Inst., vii, 253, 1889. 

Ives, J. E. — Echinoderms and Crustaceans Collected by the 
West Greenland Expedition of 1891. Proc. Acad. Phila., 1891, 


Graff, L. v.— fiber Haplodiscus piger Weldon. Zool. Anz, 
xv, 6, 1892.— Is an Accelous Turbellarian. 

Hassall, A.— A New Species of Trematode Infesting Cattle. 
Amer. Veto. Review. 208, 1891.— Fasciola americana. 

Linton, E.— Notice of Trematode Parasites in the Crayfish. 
Am. Nat., xxvi, 69, 1892. 

On Two Species of Larval Dibothria from the Yellow- 
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A Contribution to the Life History of Dibothrium cor- 

diceps, a Parasite Infesting the Trout of Yellowstone Lake. 
Bull. U. S. Fish Com., ix, 337, 1891. 

Ott, H. N.— A Study of Stenostoma leucops. Zool. Anz, xv, 


Atkinson, G. F.-Note on a Nematode Leaf Disease. Insect 
Life, iv, 31, 1891,-Aphelenchus. 

Leidy, Jos.— Notice of Some Entozoa. Proc. Phila. Acad, 
234, 1891.— None new. 

Stiles, C. W.— Notes on Parasites, III. On the American 
Intermediate Host of Echinorhynchus gigas. Zool. Anz, xv, 

Burn, W. B.— Some New and Little-known Rotifers. Am. 
Ins. Micros. Jour., xii, 145, 1891. 

Andrews, E. A.— Compound Eyes of Annelids. Jour. 
Morph, v, 271, 1891. 
11 ~ Re P roducti ve Organs of Diopatra. Jour. Morph., v, 

On the Eyes of Polyclinic. Zool. Anz, xiv, 285, 1891. 

Pelycosauria. 2. Pseud omchia. 3. Rhynchocephalia. 
5. Lacertilia. 6. Ophidia. 

1892.] Record of North American Zoology. 39 

Report upon the Annelida Polychetae of Beaufort, Nort 

Carolina. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus, xiv" 277, 1891. 

Randolph, H.— The Regeneration of the Tail in Lumbrici 
lus. Zool. Anz., xiv, 154, 1891. 

Shipley, A. E.— On a New Species of Phymosoma, with 
synopsis of the genus and sonic account of its geographic: 
distribution. Quarterly Jour. Micro. Sci., xxxii-iii. lstM.— /'. 
irddoni, from the Bahamas. 

Treadwell, A. L.— Preliminary Note on the Anatomy an 
Histology of Serpula dianthus (Verrill). Zool. Anz.. xiv, 27 

Whitman, C. 0.— Spermatophores as a Means of Ilypode 
mic Impregnation. Jour. Morph., iv, 3151, 1891. — In Iliri 

Description of Clepsine plana. Jour. Morph., iv, 40 

Davenport, C. B.— Observations on Budding in Paludi- 
cella and Some Other Bryozoa. Bull. M. C. Z., xxii, 1, 1891. 

Jelly, E. C— A Synonymic Catalogue of the Recent Marine 
Bryozoa. London, 1889. 

Beecher. C. E.— Lingua] Dentition and Systei 
of Pyrgula. Jour. N. Y. Micro. Soc, vi, 1, 1890. 

Brooks, W. K.— The Oyster ; a popular summ 
tific study. Baltimore, 1891. 

Henchman, A. P.— Origin and Development c 
Nervous System in Limax maximus. Bull. M. 

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dffi and Their Allies. Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. 

Ovum. Jour. Morph., 

Apgar, A. C — Mollusks of the Atlantic Coast of the United 
States South to Cape Hatteras. Jour. N. J. Nat. Hist, Soc, ii, 
75, 1891. 

Glossary of Molluscan Terms, 1. c. 155, 1891. 

Bergh, R.— Reports on the Results of Dredging under the 
supervision of Alexander Agassi z, in the Gulf of Mexico 
(1877-78), and in the Caribbean Sea (1879-80). . . xxxii, 
Nudibranchs. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xix, 155, 1891. 

Cooper, J. J.— On Land and Fresh Water Shells of Lower 
California. Proc. Cal. Acad., iii, 99, 1891. 

Dall, W. H.— On Some New or Interesting West America* 
Shells Obtained from the Dredgings of the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission Steamer Albatross in 1888, and from other sources. 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 373, mn.— Trophon cmvsaisis, 
Cancellaria craivfordiana, Tellinaidn, Tnrhnililla ncridnitah* var. 
obsoleta, Buccinum strigillatum, B. taphrium, Mohnia frielei, 
Strombilla middendorfii, S. fragilis, S. melonis, Chrysodomus 
ithius, C.periscelidus, C. phwnieeus, (J. cncosmhix C. (Sij>li") %"" 
lipms, C. {8)acosimus,G.{S.) halibredus, Trophon(Boreotroph(m) 
scdulus, T. (B.) disparilis, Puncturella major. $oUm& 
johnsonii, Caliptog&na (n. g. fam. Carditidse) pacijica, Lima?** 

Dean, Geo. W.— The Shell-bearing Mollusca of Portage 
County, Ohio. Am. Nat., xxv, 11, 1892. 

Ganong, W. F.— On the Economic Mollusca of Acadia. 
Bull. N. H. Soc. New Brunswick, No. 8, p. 3, 1889. 

Zoological Notes. Bull. N. H. Soc, New Brunswick, 

No. 9, p. 46, 1890. 

Orcutt, C. R.— Contributions to West American Mollusca. 
W. A. Scientist, vii, 222, 269, 1891. 

Pilsbry, H. A.— Land and Fresh Water Molluscs Collected 
in Yucatan and Mexico. 1W Phila. Acad., 310, 1891. 

Mollusca from Nantucket, Mass. Proc. Phila. Acad., 

406, 1891. 

1892.] Record of North American Zoology. 395 

Critical Notes on the Genus Tebenophorus and the 

recent literature relating to it, Ann. and Mag. X. 11., vii. 184. 

Raymond, W. J.— Notes on the Sub-alpine Mollusca of the 
Sierra Nevada, nearLat. 38°. Proc.Cal. Acad. Sci., iii,(il,lSJM. 

Rivers, J. J.— A New Volutoid Shell from Monterev Bav. 
Proc. Cal. Acad., iii, 107, 1891. 

Stearns, R. E. C— List of North American Land and Fresh 
Water Shells Received from the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, with notes and comments thereon. Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus.. 
xiv, p. 95, 1891. 

— Those Western State Universities which are situated in the 
smaller towns labor under great disadvantages. They are not in posi- 
tion to attract the attention of the greater body of educated men in 
the State, while they are peculiarly exposed to the influences of local 
politicians and the like. There seems to be a feeling upon the part of 
the townspeople that in some way the State institution is their exclu- 
sive property and that their wishes should be final in all matter, rela- 
ting to its management. In case any of the professors fail to fit in 
with the local political or religious tendencies, steps are taken by the 
whole community to make his position disagreeable, while not infre- 
quently underhanded measures result in the resignation of the unde- 
sirable persons. These remarks are suggested by the recent history 
of the State University of Missouri. Some three or tour years ago 
the Legislature of that State, in the course of some resolutions upon 
the condition and objects of the University, unite pointedly told the 
citizens of Columbia that the University was not their peculiar prop 
erty. Apparently the hint was wasted, for the present special Legal* 
ture has called for bids from the various cities of the State looking 
towards a new location for the institution. All friends of education 
can but hope that the new situation will prove more favorable than 
the old, for so far in its history— whether the result of Columbian 
influence or not the University has produced no results at all c«fr 
mensurate with the outlay upon it. It is hardly necessary to say tha 
the University of Missouri is not alone in its unfortunate situation. 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. 


r ol. III. 

!xt. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. Ill, No. 2. From the author. 

Anderson, E. L —The Universality of Man's Appearance and Primitive Man. 
'rom Robt. Clark & Co., publishers. 

—Annual Report of the Curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at 
larvard College. From A. Agassiz. 

—Annual Report of the Postmaster-General of the United States for the Fiscal 
'ear ending June 30, 1891. From John Wanamaker. 

Barrois, C— Memoire sur la Faune du Gres Armoricain. Ext. des Annales de la 
iociete Geol. du Nord, Tome XIX, 1891. From the author. 

Baur, G.— Notes on Some Little-known American Fossil Tortoises. Ext. Proc. 
>hila. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1891. From the author. 

Benedict, J. E., and M. J. Rathburn.— The Genus Panopeus. Ext. Proc. U. S. 
fat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 355-385. Plates XIX-XXIV. From the Museum. 

—Bulletins No. 10 and 12 Rhode Island State Agri. Exper. Station. 

'arts 9, 10 and 11. From Gebbie & Co., publishers. 

rUle geant developpe dans les 
i. Ext. du Bull. Soc. Zool., 1889. 
: Procede de M.J. Eismond pour Tetude c 

Chamberlain, T. C— Proposed Genetic Classification of Pleistocene Glacial For- 
Chapman, F. M.— On the Color-Pattern of the Upper Tail Coverts in Colaptes 

On the Birds Observed Near Corpus Christi, Texas, during parts of March 

nd April, 1891. Ext. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. III. From the Mus. 

COMSTOCK, J. H.,and M. V. Slingerland.— Wireworms. Bull. 33, Cornell 
Jniv. Exp. Sta., Nov., 1891. From the authors. 

—Condition and Doings of the Boston Society of Natural History as Exhibited 
J the Annual Reports of the officers, May, 1891. 

Cope, E. D.— On the Characters of Some Paleozoic Fishes. Ext. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
*Ius., Vol. XIV, pp. 147 -It;:;, :.!.;tos XXVIII- XXX II I. From the Museum. 

Daland, J._ A Volumetric Study of the Red and White Corpuscles of Human 
Mood in Health and Disease, by Aid of the Haematokrit. Ext. University Med. 
•I-i-., Xuv., 1891. From the author. 

Duces, K.—Eumeces altanrirani, A. Duges. 

Ixodes herrerte, A. Duges. Ext. La Naturale; 

Dumble, E. F. — Preliminary Report on the Util 

Remarques Les Mastodontesa propos de l'animal du Cherichira. From the auth 
L'Ichthyosaure de Sainte-Colombe. Ext. des Comptes rendus des seances 

l'Acadfemie des Sciences, Tome CXIII, 1891. 

Sur me machoire de Phoque du Greenland, trouvee par M. Michel Hardy di 

la grotte de Raymonds, Tome CXI, 1890. From the author. 

Gilbert, C. H.— Notes on the Fishes of the Tennessee, Alabama and Escamt 

Rivers. Ext. Bull. U. S. Fish Com, Vol. IX, 1889. From the author. 
Hauer, F. R. von.— Annalen des k. k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. 
Hutton, F. W.— On the Classification of the Moas. Abst. From the author 
Jordan, D. S.— Report of Explorations in Colorado and Utah during the Suron 

Langdon, F. W. — The Arachnoid of the Brain. Ext. N. Y. Med. 

Lindahl, J.— Description of a Sku 

11 of Megalonyx Leidyi,n.>\ 

x Ext. Trans. Am. 

Phil. Soc. 

New Series, Vol. XVII. From the author. 

M. F. — Considerations nou 

dans l'ile de Samos. 

r l'age de la faune de Samos. Ext. des Comptes rendus des seances de 

e des Sciences, Nov., 1891. 

From the author. 

LEY, H.— Report on the Coal Measures of the Plateau Region of Alabama, 


s of Blount County by A. 

vey of Alabama, 1891. From Eugene A. Smith. 

Utf, C. H.— North American 

i Fauna No. 5. Results of a 

l Biological Recon- 

)f South-central Idaho, with 

Annotated List of Reptiles 

and Batrachians by 

Descriptions of a New Genus and two New Species of North American 

Mammals. From theDept. Agri. 

Merrill, G. P.— Stones and Building and Decoration. 

Mickwitz, A. von.— Vorlaufige Mitteilung uber das Genus Obolus, EichwaJ . 
Ext. Bull. Acad. Imper. Sciences, St. Petersburg, Tome I. From the author. 

Miller, S. A— Paleontology. Advance sheets from the 17th Report Geol. butv- 
Indiana, Aug. 1891. From the author. 

Nelson, J.— Ostracultural Experiments. Ext. Ann. Rep. New Jersey Agri. Exp- 
Station, 1890. From the Station. 

ShaleU, N. S.— Directions for Teaching Geology. From the author. 

Shufeldt, R. W.— Some Observations on the Havesu Pai Indians. Ext. Proceeds. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 387-390. Plates XXV-XXVI. 

The Navajo Belt Wearer. Ext. Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 

391-393. PI. XXVII. 

Thirty-five Hundred Comparative Observations on the Pulse, Respiration and 

Temperature of Children. Ext. N. Y. Med. Jour.. Sept., 1891. 

On the Comparative Osteology of the United State* ColumbUa. Ext. Pro- 
ceeds. London Zool. Soc, March 3, 1891. 

Fossil Birds from the Equus Beds of Oregon. Where Young Amateur Pho- 
tographers can be of Assistance to Science. Ext. Am. Nat., 1891- From the author. 

Stevenson, J. J.— The Chemung and Catskill on the Eastern Side of the Appa- 
lachian Basin. Ext. Proceeds. A. A. A. S., Vol. XL, 1891. 

From Cimarron to Fort Union, New Mexico. Ext. Univ. Quart., April, 1891. 

From the author. 

Thompson, A. II.— The Architecture 
Reviewer, June, 1891. From the author. 

Washburn, E. L.— Entomology. Bull. 

Walters, B. H.— Some Additional Poii 
Vertebrate Brain. Separat. Abdruck aus d 

Whelply, H. M.— A Course in Microsc 

: Chloralamid. 

the Upper First 


. Ext. Dental 

. 14, Oregon Agr 

i. Exp. 

Station. From 



•nation of the 
No. 362, 1891. 

cal Technology 

for Col 

leges of Phar- 


Heliotropic Animals. 1 — In connection with the work of Prof. 
E. B. Wilson upon the heliotropism of Hydra, (American Natural- 
ist, May, 1891,) a brief review of the present paper of Dr. Loeb and 
some notice of other contributions to the same subject by the same 
author may not be without interest as pointing out the wide extension 
of such phenomena amongst animals and their identity with those 
commonly observed amongst plants. 

The author's thesis is that experiments demonstrate a complete 
agreement between the movements that animals perform under the 
influence of light and those that have been demonstrated in plants. 

Following Sachs the heliotropic phenomena of plants are briefly 
reviewed as follows : 

Stems and roots which bend to or from the source of light until they 
take the direction of the light, are said to be positively or negatively 
heliotropic. That this bending is not simply a process of greater 
growth on the more shaded side is shown by the fact that negatively 
as well as positively heliotropic plants grow more in the dark. 

That the direction of the light is the determining movement is seen in 
the actual locomotion of many spores to or from the light. 

The more highly refrangible rays, blue and violet, are the active 
ones in producing heliotropic movements. 

Movements within a single cell result in the arrangement of 
chlorophyll bodies with reference to the direction of the incident light 
and as all plants are to be regarded as a continuously connected set of 
cells, or as one protoplasmic mass, the true explanation of heliotropic 
movements may invoke a movement of negative protoplasm away 
from and of positive protoplasm towards the light. 

In plants, then, light produces an orientation dependent upon its 
direction and upon its character, wave length, etc., and continues to act 
a stimulus when of constant intensity. 

A brief survey of the previous work upon heliotropism in animals 
serves to point out the insignificance of the results achieved. 

Reaumur, 1748, and Trembley, 1791, made direct observations upon 
the effect of light upon moths and Hydra, but no extensive examina- 
tion of the subject was attempted. Later Bert, 1869, Lubbock, 1883, 
and Graber, 1884, made extensive researches into the action of colored 

»Dr. J. Loeb : Der Heliotropismus der Thiere. Wttrzbure, 1890. 

to the animal's choice. 

Dr. Loeb's experiment? are conducted with the irivatest simplicity 
of apparatus and the result- are at QHOe evident, yet it is to be home 

stages of their existence and even then the reaction to light may he 
neutralized or modified by the co-existence of other modes of stimula- 

such manner as to place their bodies with reference to adjoining sur- 
faces ; some for instance, taking up positions upon projecting corners of 
a box, others only in the hollow angles. 

The form of reaction to contact stimuli is distinguished as "Stereo- 
tropism" and together with geotropism will be later seen to play an 
important role in the resulting movements of animals when exposed to 

The fifth section of the brochure deals with the experiments upon 
the caterpillars of Porthesia chrysorrhasa and serves as an introduction 
and detailed illustration of the methods and results subsequently 
described in other cases. 

The experiments are as follows : 

About 100 small caterpillars that have escaped from the nest in which 
they pass the Winter and which have not as yet taken food, are put 
into a test tube in a room at 12°-15° C. 

When placed horizontally upon a table covered with black paper 
and with the axis of the tube at right angle to the window the cater- 
pillars all crawl toward the window on the upper side of the tube, the 
head and ventral side directed towards the light; reaching the end of 
the tube thev remain p >ii :r;_- towards the light. 

As often as the tube is turned through 180° the caterpil 
the movement. If then the test tube is put parallel to the window 
the caterpillars scatter all along it but only upon the upper ode. 
When in the first position the animals ha\ 
end of the tube thev leave that end as sooi 

402 The American Naturalist. [May, 

opaque object and crawl towards the lighted end, but as soon as they 
emerge from the obscured region they turn about with the head 
towards the window and remain thus at the boundary of obscured and 
illuminated parts of the tube — not scattering through the latter part. 

By leaving a small area uncovered along the upper side of the 
obscured part of the tube when it is turned to the window, the cater- 
pillars continue on into this region as if it were not covered at all, 
though passing towards the window from a more generally illuminated 
part of the tube into one only illuminated from a narrow line. They 
move along the upper side with ventral aspects towards the light. 

All the experiments were conducted in diffuse daylight but succeed 
the same, though more rapidly, in direct sunlight. One other experi- 
ment upon the relation of movement to direction of light is this: the 
test tube with animals at one end, a, is put on the table with this end 
away from the window but in a strong beam of sunlight coming 
obliquely from the window to strike the test tube nearly at right 
angles. Now the animals are in the strong sunlight, but, directed as it 
seems, by the diffuse light coming from the other end of the tube, b, 
nearer the window, they all wander toward that end, b. Modifying 
this so that the end, b, is in the sunlight while the end, a, is away 
from the window and in diffuse light the animals still go toward the 
window though now leaving the lesser illumination for the more 
intense one. 

To determine the action of light of various refrangibility the tube is 
covered by colored glass. Thus if blue glass cover the entire tube the 
animals act as if white light were used, but under red glass they react 
very slowly indeed. The same results are obtained with colored solu- 
tions instead of glass. 

Covering one end of the tube, (either end) with blue glass produces 
no visible result other than that observed when white light was 
present all along the tube, but if red glass be used the animals move 
just as if the red region were the obscured, not illuminated region, oi 
the first experiments. When the window end is covered by red and the 
room end by blue, the animals collect at the boundary between t e 
two when the tube is perpendicular to the window, but when parallel 
to the window they distribute themselves all along the blue region. 

It is thus the more strongly refrangible rays which are effective, t e 
less refrangible rays having little influence. 

A certain intensity of light is necessary in these expel 
in the evening the light gradually ceases to produce ni< 
artificial light may be intense enough to act like sunlight. Moreover 

1S92.] Recent Literature. ~t" ;, » 

of two unequal lights the more intense is followed by caterpillars. In 
all the experiments the stimulus continues as long as the light remains 
unchanged: the caterpillars remain at the end of the tube though the 
other end may be open. 

Other stimuli that might vitiate the result ascribed to light are to be 
mentioned under the titles of negative geotropisni, contact and tem- 
perature. The first phenomena are those seen when the animals 
creep up a vertical surface, but this is overcome by the action ol light 
as shown by illuminating the tube from below through t narrow slit in 
an opaque covering, then the animals overcome the negative geotro- 
pic tendency and move down towards the light. 

The effects of contact stimuli are seen in the tendency of the cater- 
pillars to collect on the convex edges and corners of solids— a tendency 
that controls their position upon the buds of trees as well as on the 
objects offered them in the laboratory. 

A source of warmth is unlike a source of light in that the cater- 
pillars move away from it : this is made evident from experiments 
upon the animals in opaque boxes when brought near a closed stove. 
The movements are, however, not in the line of direction of the heat 

These experiments in Porthesia have been repeated upon nearly 100 
species of insects but with the same results, so that they will serve as 
type of the reaction of a positively heliotropic animal. 

Certain special cases of interest remain to be discussed : first the 
old problem of the moth and the candle. 

When Sphinx euphorbias or other nocturnal moths are kept in a 
glass box they fly towards the window side at dusk, or in the day- 
time if disturbed. When an artificial light and a window are at 
opposite sides of the room the moth goes to one or the other according 

Here also it is shown that it is the blue and not red light which 
directs the flight. It seems that these nocturnal moths have periods 
of sleep followed by periods of greater sensitiveness to light-being 
sensitive in the night. This rhythm is moreover not easily disturbed 
for when kept several days in a dark box the moths still continue to 
be restless in the evening. During the period that they are heliotro- 
pic thev agree with the Porthesia caterpillars in all respects. 

Plant lice in the winged state exhibit strong positive heliotropic 
movements and are also negatively geotropic and forced to move 
away from heat just as are the larva? of Porthesia. 

404 The American Naturalist. [May, 

The young however offer unexplained phenomena, in not reacting to 
light but having definite positions upon the stem and under sides of 
the leaves of plants that do not appear due to an}- of the above causes. 

Ants however are not heliotropic in the winged state until the 
period of sexual excitement, when they swarm out for the nuptial 
flight. Such ants gave the same results in the laboratory experiments 
as did the caterpillars under the same circumstances. 

The two sexes differ, however, in that the males continue to go 
towards the light when its intensity has become too slight to affect the 
female. The others seem not to be heliotropic at all, from the author's 

The ninth chapter is devoted to the phenomena exhibited by flies. 
The larvse of Musca vomitoria were experimented upon, either in test 
tubes or directly upon the table, and yielded the same result regarding 
the directive influence of light, white and colored, with the important 
exception that the animals move away from and along the direction 
of the light, being in fact negatively heliotropic. 

That this is true of the youngest larva) at time of hatching is 
demonstrated by allowing eggs to hatch out upon plates blackened 
with soot: the young then leave traces of their lines of progress MM 
these are away from the light. If two windows at right angles supply 
light, the direction of march is in the diagonal between the two lintf 
of stimulation. When, however, the eggs hatch in darkness, the young 
crawl in all directions. Certain complications, however, arise in the 
course of young larvae as they seem to have a peculiar tendency to 
arrange themselves with the ventral side turned toward the hght, 
provided this is strong sunlight. Heat appears to exercise no definite 
directive influence, though the presence of food causes them to move 
towards it and there is also a strong contact stimulus evinced in t e 
tendency the larvse exhibit to crawl under foreign bod 
thus under plates of transparent glass where negative heliotropism 
cannot be cited as the cause of the movement. . 

Though the larva? are thus negatively heliotropic the adult fly * 
positively heliotropic as can be seen by repeating the experimen 
applied to the plant lice. Here however the problem is often made 
more complex by the numerous other stimuli which may act upon 
the fly and more or less nullify the results of heliotropism. 

Negative heliotropism is shown also in the larvse ol 
Tenebrio molitor and Melolnulha . vuh/urix. combined in the lira 
with the peculiar contact sensitiveness, stereotropisni, that leads 
larvae to collect in the concave angles of a dark box. 

1892.] Recent Literature. 405 

Though Dr. Loeb's experiments have been for the most pari made 
upon insects, yet he states that he has been able to demonstrate helio- 

tropism identical with thai of plants in frogs, white mice, (Inmmaru* 
loewtta, Cttmn rathkii, slugs, planarians, earthwoi ins, leeches, and 

Apparently the experiments of Romanes upon echinodenns are 
entirely unknown to him. 

In this connection two other contributions to the subject of animal 
heliotropism, both by Dr. Loeb, may be reviewed as extending the 
observed tacts over a wider field. 

Groom and Loeb 1 found by direct experiment upon the larva-, 
nauplius, of a barnacle, that these animals swim towards or away 
from the light, following the direction of the light and not going 
towards the more intense light. Moreover, here as elsewhere, it is the 
more refrangible rays which are most potent. 

negative but are interchangeable in any one individual, so that after 
the larvae have been in the dark some time they are all positively 
heliotro pic, but when exposed to the light and moving towards it tor 
some time they become, some sooner than others, negatively heliotro- 
pic and swim away from the light, 

This alternation" of effect in the i 
the authors to the explanation of s 
position of pelagic organisms, their wandering to and from the surface 
of the -sea. 

In another paper 2 Loeb shows by experiment upon the large annelid 
Spirograph!* that here also the annelid turns towards the 
source of light, placing its body so that the axis of its somewhat 
umbrella shaped expansion of radiating branchial plumes coincides 
with the direction of light. Now as the animal is a sedentary annelid 
living in a stout leathery tube from which only the branchial and 
anterior end protrude, this tendency to point to the light is resisted by 
the elasticity of the tube. 

The tube however is found to bend also, after some time, so as to 
incline one way or another according to the direction of light, and then 
remain permanently bent for months, in fact when the animal is 
removed the tube is still bent. 

As a direct bending of the tube by mechanical force does not result 
in this permanent change of form the author seeks to explain the 
observed result by the suggestion that the animal, bending to one side, 
reconstructs or adds to the walls of the tube on that side and so 
forces it to maintain its new position. 

Again in a Serpula which lives in an inelastic calcareous tube, 
experiment shows that by changing the direction of light the tube 
becomes also changed in its direction. Here, however, the process is a 
very slow one and results from the growth of the newly formed part of 
the tube in the direction in which the worm turns its branchiae and 
head under the influence of light ; the tube once formed does not beud. 
The dependence of the arrangement of animal structures upon the 
direction of light is shown again in the case of a certain sertularian 
hydroid. When pieces of the stem are inserted upsidedown in sand 
the old lower end, now exposed to the light, sends out both new stems 
and new roots. The new stems, as they grow, take the direction of the 
light rays and so do the new roots, but the former grow towards the 
light the latter directly away from it; are then positively and nega- 
tively heliotropic respectively. Adventitious roots coming out from 
the inverted stem show again this same negative heliotropism. 

In the light of these and other experiments upon the direct response 
of animals to stimulation by light, gravitation, contact, etc., the author 
here protests against the introduction of " instinct " and " will " in the 
explanation of such phenomena, relegating such expressions to the 
same category as " vital force." 
To return to the main paper. 

Another extension of heliotropic phenomena is made in the case of 
the movement of the pigmental processes of the outer cell-layer of the 
retina in man under the action of light. In this part of the subject 
the author has no new observations to record, though his explanation 
of the movements of orientations of eye and head as due to the above 
heliotropism is sufficiently novel. The twelfth chapter concludes this 
contribution to heliotropism. Here we find some new facts brought 
together with some of those observed upon insects to show that the 
movements of an animal when acted upon light depend upon its 
morphological structure. Thus in a bilaterally symmetrical animal 
the oral end is found to be more irritable than the aboral end, the 
dorsal and the ventral sides not equally irritable, while symmetrical 
points right and left of the median plane are equally irritable. Hence 
arises the tendency to move directly towards or away from the light 

with the med m plane n the line of light, a 

to place the ventral or dorsal side towards th 

In an appendix certain interesting experii 

insects are communicated in addition to tho 

treating of heliotropism. That caterpillar: 

rapidly ascend vertical sides of hoxes and rei 

ascribed to a negative geotropism ; while th 

up by cockroaches, butterflies, spiders, etc., w 

orientation with reference to gravitation, din 

Most suggestive experiments in extension 

appears that insects in a centrifugal much 

too far from the main thesis. That the geotropism is not confined to 
insects is well shown by Loeb 1 in the case of certain sea cucumbers 
' Cunimnria ritriuitit) which ascend to the top of an aquarium even 
when the apparatus is so devised that there is no question of greater 
air supply etc., at the top.— E. A. Andrews, Feb. 12, 1892. 

The Homologies of the Cranial Arches of the Reptilia.— 

The following paragraphs contain an abstract of a paper read before 
the U. S. National Academy of Science under the above title on April 
19th, and published in the Transactions of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society in May, 1892. 

The paper recorded an analysis of the cranial characters of the 
genera of Reptilia discovered in Permian beds in North America by 
myself. Those especially studied are Pariotichus, Parity] us and 
Chilonyx, which belong to the Cotylosauria (Cope; Pariaaanria 
Seeley) ; and Edaphosaurus, Clepsydrops and Naosaurus, members of 
the Pelycosauria (perhaps equal the Theriodonta of Owen) ; and 
Diopeus g. n., founded on Clepsydrops leptocephahis Cope. The 
< ''»tylosauria have the temporal fossae overroofed, so that the skull has 
the general character of that of the Stegocephalous Batrachia, with 
Which it also agrees in its segmentation, an agreement especially well 
marked in Chilonyx. 

The hypothesis of Baur was tested in its application to the origin 
of the bars of the Reptilian skull. This hypothesis supposes that the 
bars have been derived from the Cotylosaurian roofed skull by perfor- 
ation, a kind of natural trephining; the position of which has deter- 
mined the position and constitution of the bars or remaining portions 

1 J. Loeb; Ueber Geotropismus dei Thiere. Arch. |. d. ges. Phys. xbx., 1891. 

408 The American Naturalist. [May, 

of the roof. The existence of the genera of Cotylosauria in America 
and South Africa (Pariasaurus Owen), in the Permian beds, gives 
probability to such a theory, and I selected the genus Pantylua which 
presents the most unmodified type, as serving best as a basis of com- 
parison for other orders of Keptilia. The segments concerned are the 
postfrontal, postorbital and jugal in front; and the supramastoid, 
supratemporal, and zygomatic, as the posterior elements of the roof 
and its resultant arches. The name zygomatic was employed for the 
element often called quadratojugal ; supratemporal for the so-called 
squamosal ; and supramastoid for the mastoid of Cuvier, a name 
already given by Cuvier to a distinct region of the mammalian 

I showed that the modifications of the Cotylosaurian roof, fall into 
the following categories. 

1. "Roof reduced at margins only." (Baur). 
One arch remaining (postorbital-supratemporal) in 

reduced types ; or none ; Teskdinata. 

2. One perforation only ; no marginal reduction. 
Perforation superior, not interrupting postfronto- 

supramastoid connection ; Ichthyopterygia. 

Perforation superior, interrupting postfronto-supra- 

mastoid connection ; Pseudosuchia. 

Perforation inferior, not interrupting postfrontal 

or postorbital connections ; Pelycosauna. 

Perforation extensive, preserving only the jugal- 

3. Two perforations; no marginal reduction. 
Postfrontal supramastoid connection interrupted; Bhynchocepha, 
Postfrontal and postorbital elements fused ; Dinosaw 

4. One foramen and inferior reduction by loss of 
zygomatic arch. 
Quadrate bone fixed by suture ; AnomodonUa. 

Quadrate not fixed by suture ; Squamat* 

The clearing up of the homologies of the arches is necess 
correct understanding of the relations of the members of the Rep* ia - 

Five plates illustrate the memoir, of which three ar. 
duced, copied from the Transactions of the American I Inlosop 
Society.— E. D. Cope. 




.. '3,.. 

Ichthyopterygi'i. 2. Z>M 

(general Xotcs. 


The North American Coal Supply. 1 — General Wistar's dis- 
cussion of the North American Coal Supply has been published by the 
Phila. Academy. The author first calculates the existing quantity of 
available coal in North America, the present and prospective rate of 
its consumption, its probable duration, and some of the physical conse- 
quences of its entire combustion. The figures and conclusions of the 
United States Census returns of 1889 have been followed, modified 
somewhat by the author's personal observations. 

"The entire carboniferous area of the United States, excluding the 
broken Rocky Mountain territory is given at 219,080 square miles. 
A large proportion of this area, however, never did contain coal ; and 
there are minor areas where more than two-thirds of the original beds 
have been carried away along with the adjacent protecting rocks and 

Again, much of the coal possesses no economical value because of its- 
crushed and impaired condition, its detached position in small basins,, 
and to the thinness of many beds. These reductions may be con- 
sidered to offset the following items not considered in the Census 

1. The detached basins in the Rocky Mountain territory. 

2. The inaccessible coal of the arctic and tropical regions. 

3. The relatively small beds of Nova Scotia and British Columbia. 
Assuming then, the area, 219,080 square miles, as the area of 

mineable coal, the author discusses at length the data for calculating 
the average thickness and arrives at the conclusion that six feet is an 
admissable working estimate. This gives 219,080 square miles re- 
duced to acres multiplied by 6 feet (of thickness) and by 800, being 
the available tonnage per foot of thickness from each acre, would 
give the tonnage, which is 673,013 millions of tons. 

The same Census report states the consumption during the year 
1889 at 126,097,779 tons, and the increase of consumption to have 
been at the rate of 100 per cent, per decade. From these figures the 

^Remarks on the Quantity, Rate of C «^^°*££ ^mafs^t " 

410 The American Naturalist [May, 

author calculates that the entire coal supply will be consumed at the 
end of 112 years from the year reported on, or say by A. D. 2001. 

This is a fair deduction from facts which are known, and from 
reasonable estimates, the author calls attention to the importance of 
looking for some " power" or " force " to take the place of that gener- 
ated by the combustion of coal when that supply shall be exhausted, 
as it undoubtedly will in little more than three generations. He 
maintains there is no intelligent ground for the expectation of the dis- 
covery of any new force, but suggests that physicists study more effec- 
tive and cheaper methods of obtaining electrical energy. 

The latter part of the paper is devoted to interesting speculations as 
to the effect of the increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmos- 
phere, resulting from the combustion of so much carbon, upon animal 
and vegetable life. 

Cretacic Marine Currents in France. — At a recent meeting 
of the Academie des Sciences de Paris, M. Fouque presented a note 
from M. Munier-Chalmas on the distribution and the direction of the 
marine currents in France during the upper Cretacic period. He 
shows the influence of the Alps upon the limitation to the South of 
that mountain system of certain mollu.-cs :m<l ei-liinnid.s peculiar to 
southern regions, and gives an interesting picture of the yanishuag 
from North to South, through the narrow Paris basin, of certain fosfflli 
peculiar to the northern seas: Micrasters, Belemnites, Rhynchouellas, 

This fact is analogous to what is now going on in the neighborhood 
of the Straits of Gibraltar. (Revue Scientifique, 9 April, 1892.) 

Professor Marsh on Extinct Horses and Other Mam- 
malia. 1 — In the American Journal of Science and Arts for April and 
May, 1892, appear two articles by Professor Marsh on the above sub- 
jects. As they are rather more than usually envious contributions I 
literature, they deserve early notice. The first cited is stated in the 
title to be " On Recent Polydactyle Horses," but it turns out to in- 
clude a discussion of the extinct ancestors of the horse. This is re- 
ceded by descriptions of some remarkable examples of horses wi » 
supernumerary digits, one of which has rudiments of four in t e 
anterior foot, a number unprecedented in the annals of p 
The author then gives figures of the feet of the extinct horses, to 

'On Recent Polydactyle Horses, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1892 V 

:.-... - ■- 

445. J 

1892.] Geology and Paleontology. 411 

which he has applied the names Orohippus, Mesohippus and Miohip- 
pus, and shows what has been already suspected, that they do not 
differ from those described and figured many years previously as 
Hyracotherium for the first named, and Anehitherium for the second 
and third. He laments the tendency of naturalists to adhere to the 
appropriate names given by Professor Owen many years ago to the 
suborders Perissodactyla and Artiodaetyla, and their failure to adopt 
his own names given to the same divisions, most unnecessarily, many 
years later. He then repeats as original some generalizations as to 
the origin of the line of the Periasodactyla, including the horses, 
which had been long previously made by others, and repeats a new 
name given to the extinct order Condylarthra, which was intended by 
him to express an anticipation of its future discovery, rnfortunately 
this prophecy had been made by others in 1873, and the discovery of 
the order had been already made and published (1881) before 
this prophecy of Professor Marsh's was uttered and the speculative 
name given (1885). He then goes on to state that the genus which 
first demonstrated the character of this ancestral type as foretold by 
Cope (1873), which is known as Phenacodus, is the American repre- 
sentative of Hyracotherium, and was previously named by him 
Helohyus. Professor Marsh evidently greatly mistakes the characters 
of Phenacodus, as that genus belongs to a distinct family and order 
from Hyracotherium. In spite of this assumption as to the ancestry 
of the horses, Professor Marsh contributes further to the confusion of 
his writings, by proposing anew name (Hippops) for the speculative 
ancestral horse. On the strength of his discovery (?) as to the true 
position of Helohyus, he proposes for it a new family of which it is 
the type, with a definition which in no way differs from that already 
given by other authors to the Hyracotheriine division of the family 
Lophiodontidaa, 1 and which excludes Phenacodus and all other 
Condylarthra from its limits. It is interesting to observe that Pro- 
fessor Marsh did not define the alleged genus Helohyus when he pro- 
posed it, and it is very curious that he does not do so now. He next 
defines for the first time bis - < hohippida? " ; but the definition does not 
distinguish whatever it is supposed to embrace, from the hefore-men- 
tioned " Helohyidte," and we have further confirmation of the preva- 
lent opinion that this name is also superfluous. On the next page defi- 
nitions of the alleged genera Eohippus, Helohippus, Orohippus and 
Epihippus, are given for the first time, i. e. sixteen years after the 
names were proposed (except Helohippus, which is new). The names 

The American 


should therefore bear date, 1892. The author shows that Eohippus is 
not as primitive a type as Systemodon, and that it is little, if at all, 
distinct from Hyracotherium. Helohippus he does not distingu^ 
from Pliolophus Owen (1841). "Orohippus" is not distinguished 
from "Epihippus." He then fails to distinguish "Miohippus" from 
the long known Anchitherium, and correctly describes the characters 
of Protohippus as though he had discovered them, although they were 
made known by others seventeen years ago. 

The article in the May number of the American Journal recites 
that Professor Marsh has " discovered " a new order of Ungulata 
which he calls the " Mesodactyla," which is established on a new 
genus which he terms " Hyracops." This genus is defined with the 
omission of essential details as to the structures of the upper and lower 
molars. It is said to resemble Meniscotherium, differing only in that 
the last premolars resemble the true molars. This definition is of very 
doubtful value, since in Meniscotherium the last inferior true molar 
is like a true molar, and the last deciduous superior molar, has the 
same peculiarity, and persists, as Marsh observes, a long time. 1 Pro- 
fessor Marsh gives us figures of the fore and hind feet of his specimen, 
which are very welcome, as the structure of the former has been 
hitherto unknown. These figures show that the reference of Menisco- 
therium to the order Condylarthra made in 1885 is correct. As to 
the name Mesodactyla, it will probably be adopted when the univer- 
sally adopted Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla are put aside for the 
names Professor Marsh so strangely desires us to use in their place. 
The proposal of a new name is all the more remarkable since Professor 
Marsh had already proposed a new name (as recited in the first article 
here commented on) for the theoretical type which is actually repre- 
sented in this foot structure, as anticipated by Cope in 1873, and 
actually discovered in 1881. 2 In his discussion of the affinities of this 
form, Marsh repeats well-known generalizations as new and especially 
one made by myself, which has not found general acceptance, viz: 
that this type (the Condylarthra) is ancestral to the Lemurine Quad- 
rumana. This generalization is fully confirmed.— E. D. Cope. 

On the Correlation of Moraines with Raised Beaches 
of Lake Erie.— During the field seasons of 1889, 1890 and 1891, 
Mr. Frank Leverett made a series of observations of the raised beaches 
fi 1 ^ C 1 h 8 « 5 SpeCilnen ' S re P resented h y C °pe in ^e Tertiary Mammalia. Fl. xx*i, 

'American Naturalist, 1881, p. 1017. 

UHB.] Geology and Paleontology. 413 

of Lake Erie, which are embodied in :i paper published in the Amer- 
ican Journal of Science, April, 1892. The results of the author's 
studies are summarized as follows: 

" It appears that Lake Erie, in its earlier stages, was hut a small 

ing ice-sheet and by the height of the Western rim of the basin it occu- 
pied. It at first occupied only a portion of the district between the 
outlet and the Western end of the present lake, the remainder of the 
basin, including the whole of the area of the present lake, being occu- 
pied by the ice-sheet. Its South and North shores were then at the 
Van Wert ridge, while its Eastern border was at the lUanchard 

"By a recession of the ice-sheet Northeastward to about the merid- 
ian of Cleveland, the lake became much expanded and its level was 
lowered a few feet, though the outlet still continued down the Wabash. 
Its North and South shores then occupied the Leipsic beach, while on 
the East the wave still beat against the ice front. The ice-sheet itself 
seems to have broken into bergs at its margin, and to have formed no 
terminal moraine at that time, though its lateral moraine is well de- 

"A subsequent recession resulted in the lowering of the lake below 
the level of the Ft. Wayne outlet, probably by opening a passage to the 
Chicago outlet, for no other outlets were open to this lake at that time 
through the Huron and Michigan basins. The North and South 
shores of the lake were then occupying the Belmore beach, while the 
East shore was unrecorded because the waves beat against a vanishing 
sheet of ice, and the ice itself, as in the preceding stage seems to have 
failed to form a terminal moraine, though its lateral moraine is 

" From the phenomena attending the replacement of the three 
beaches in Ohio by moraines, we are led to suspect that two later 
beaches which die away in Southwestern New York are there con- 
nected with moraines, and that similar moraines will be found to con- 
nect with the beaches of Lake Ontario, at points were they disappear 
on its Eastern and Northern borders. 

"Differential uplift «;i- slight in the Western Erie basin compare.! 
with what it was in the Eastern Erie basin and the Ontario, in Michi- 
gan, and on the Canadian shores of Lake Huron and Geoi 
The data at hand indicate that it amounts to scarcely more than ten 
feet in the whole area of the portion of the Erie basin West of Cleve- 

414 The American Naturalist. [May, 

land, and has therefore played an insignificant part in causing the 
three stages of the lake herein described. 

" The bulk of the moraines is many times that of the beach deposits, 
though no longer time was involved in their deposition. The ice-sheet 
was therefore a much more efficient transporting agency than the lake 

" The extreme scarcity of evidence of life in these waters, though 
negative in its nature, and therefore to be taken with caution, is quite 
accordant with the theory deduced from the relation of the beaches to 
the moraines, viz : that the beaches are of glacial age. " 

Glacial Movements.— Prince Roland Bonaparte has been carry- 
ing on some extensive researches on the advance and recession of the 
glaciers of the French Alps. His work is thus referred to by the 
Revue Srientifique, April 9, 1892. 

In order to express in figures the extent of glacial movements, 
Prince Roland Bonaparte, in 1890, had a certain number of marks put 
at the foot of sixteen large glaciers of Pelvoux. Whenever it was 
possible he had made a detailed topographical plan of the front of the 
glacier which, at the same time, was photographed from a point care- 
fully marked. These operations repeated each year will furnish, and 
have already furnished precise data as to the oscillations of the glaciers, 
they will some day, perhaps, show a connection between their move- 
ments and the general phenomena of the atmosphere. For the present, 
the results which he has obtained from sixteen glaciers, from 1 to 
kilometers in length, show that during 1890 and 1891 several of them 
have ceased to recede and have become stationary, which indicates the 
close of a period of general recession which began about 35 years ago. 
But the period of forward movement in the glaciers of Pel' 
recent, for the facts observed go to show that the first glaciers winch 
have advanced commenced to do so within the last few years. 

The exact measures taken by Prince Roland Bonaparte are supple- 
mented by the observations made at his request by the guides of t a^ 
region in 1891 ; these extend over twenty-eight other glaciers o 
Pelvoux and can be summed up as follows: Eight glaciers advancing, 
twenty glaciers receding, and ten glaciers stationary. Finally, in ^ 
the author marked fifteen glaciers in Savoy, and twenty m ^ 
Pyrenees. In these two regions the greater part of the glaciers a 
still receding, but they are increasing at their source, which indicate 
a speedy change to an advance. 

is'.i2.] Geology and Paleontology. 416 

Geology of the Tonga Islands. — In the May number of the 
Geological Magazine, 1891, Mr. Alfred Harker makes the following 
statements concerning the Ton pi Llands in the South Pacific Ocean : 

" It is well known that most of the Pacific islands which have been 
explored seem to be built largely of either volcanic or calcareous 
formations, usually supposed to be of recent origin. Indeed, the idea 
seems to have been entertained in some quarters that such was the 
universal construction of the islands. Drasche, writing in b s 7!>. 
restricted this theory to those islands lying eastward of a certain line, 
drawn from Kamschatka through .Japan, the Philippines New Guinea, 
New < 'aledonia. New /• aland. Auckland, and Mae.|uarie I.-lands to the 
Antarctic Victoria. Even at that time, however, such rocks as clay- 
slates, graywackes, etc., had been recorded in the Chatham Islands 
and New Britain, east of Drasche's line, and leptinites, granite, and 
gneiss in the Marquesas, far to the East. Later researches have proved 
the existence of numerous crystalline rocks, igneous and metamorphic, 
in the larger islands of the Fiji and Solomon Archipelagos, and sug- 
gested that in many other islands such rocks may be only masked 
by a comparatively thin covering of organic or volcanic accumulations. 

"It may be inquired, then, whether the Tonga Islands show any 
indication of the existence of denuded crystalline rocks beneath the 
newer deposits. No such rocks have been found in place, and the 
evidence available is very slight. Ena, the most Southerly of the 
larger islands, differs to some extent from the rest in geological struc- 
ture, and from the Eastern shore of this island Mr. Lister collected a 
boulder, one of many seen there, which is neither a volcanic nor an 
organic rock. I have described it (Geol. Mag., April, p. 172) as a 
uralitized gabbro, and, though some petrologists would prefer to name 
it diabase, it is unlike any superficially erupted lava. Further, there 
is no doubt that it is derived from the island on which it was found. 
The only other suggestive point is the rare presence of minute frag- 
ments of red garnet and blue tourmeline in the calcareous andesitic 
sandstones largely developed on the same island. These fragments, 
blown out from a volcano, point to the existence of metamorphic 
rocks below, though at what depth it would be idle to speculate. 

"With the exception of Falcon Island rocks, all those examined 
from the Tonga Island appear to be of submarine formation. The 
absence or presence indifferent strata of any sensible proportion of 
calcareous matter and organic remains is perhaps related to the more 
or less rapid rate of accumulation at different epochs of eruption. The 
volcanic material ejected seems to have been almost exclusively of frag- 

416 The American Naturalist. [May, 

mental character, and in some cases there are indications of violent 
explosive action. This is quite in accord with the nndesitic nature 
of materials thrown out, which are of types common in the Pacific 
region. As to the age of the rocks, it would be idle to speak until the 
evidence of their organic contents has been duly set forth ; but it 
would undoubtedly be very rash to refer them all to a recent age, ami 
some of them may be found to go back far into the Tertiary times. " 

Geological News— General.— Several fossils collected by M. 
Griesbach while exploring the Central Himalayas closely resemble 
those found in the corresponding Alpine beds. In view of this fact, 
the Academy of Sciences of Vienna has decided, by an agreement with 
the Indian Government upon an exploration of the Central Himalaya 
region in order to compare its geology with that of the Eastern Alps. 
M. Diener, president of the Alpine Club of Vienna, will take charge 
of the expedition. {Revue Scientifique, April, 1892.) 


Petrographical News.— One of the most valuable contribution* 
to American petrography that has yet appeared is that volume of the 
Arkansas Geological Survey Report that treats of the eruptive rocks 
of the State. In it the late Dr. J. F. Williams' 2 gives an excellent 
account of the little-known but very interesting eleolite and leucite 
rocks that occur as bosses and dykes in Pulaski, Saline, Hotsprings, 
Garland and Montgomery Counties. It would be well worth the 
while to give a full abstract of the author's careful investigation of 
these extremely rare rock-types, but space allows merely a reference to 
the mere outline of his work. Especial importance is attached to the 
study of the eleolite syenites at the present time, particularly where its 
plutonic and dyke forms occur together, since Rosenbusch has 
recently prophesied the existence of a group of dyke forms which be 
calls monchiquites, that will be found to occupy a position among the 
eleolite rocks corresponding to that held by the camptonites. among the 
plagioclase rocks. The age of the Arkansas eruptives is pr< 
Cretaceous. In Pulaski County they form the main mass of Fourche 
Mountain. The most abundant variety here is that locally known as 
'blue granite.' It is a granitic porphyritic rock in which the 

1 Edited by Dr. W. S. Bayley, Colby University, Waterville, Me. 

eleolite, biotite, diopside and aegirine in large quantities. 1 he eleolite 
frequently changes into analcite. The rock, though quite acid, as the 
analysis shows, is nevertheless an eleolite syenite, closely similar to 
laurdalite. 2 

SiO, A1 2 ;1 Fe 2 3 CaO MgO K 2 Xa 2 H 2 
59.70 18.85 4.85 1.34 .68 5.97 6.29 1.88 
In and around the mountain are small dykes, filled with ' brown 
granite,' miarolitic eleolite-syenite and quartz syenite. The brown 
granite is an eleolite-syenite containing orthoclase, dio] m» 
and biotite, but no amphibole. In chemical composition it is quite 
like nordmarkite, 3 but mineralogically it is very different. The miar- 
olitic rocks are panidiomorphically granular. In the eleolite-svenite 
there is a tendency of the eleolite toward isomorphic forms when it 
is not in large quantity. In the quartz syenites the quartz tends 
toward idiomorphism. An analysis of one of these rocks gave : 

Si0 2 A1 2 0, Fe 2 3 MnO CaO MgO K,0 Nap H 2 
64.63 18.15 3.05 1.00 1.54 .60 4.79 5.80 1.08 

Rocks, called by the author border rocks, presumably <■ 

peripheries of dykes and bosses of the eleolite-syenite, contain tabular 

l Zeits. f. Kryst., xvi, p. 28. 

418 The American Naturalist. [May, 

phenocrysts of sanidine and also sodalite and eleolite in a fine-grained 
groundmass of eleolite, orthoclase and minute idiomorphic pyroxenes 
and amphiboles that sometimes shows a fluidal structure. Because of 
their porphyritic structure and their close relationship with the eleo- 
lite-syenite they are classed by the writer among the tinguaites. 

The augitic rocks associated with the eleolite-syenites in this region 
are classed in Rosenbusch's new division of dyke rocks monchiquite. 
They are all dark in color, and all are characterized by the possession 
of phenocrysts of augite or of biotite. Those containing olivine are 
placed with monchiquite, while of the non-olivinitic varieties two new 
groups are formed; one, called fourchite, possesses phenocrysts of 
augite ; in the other, ouachitite, biotite occurs in large quantity. In 
the former augite constitutes nearly 75% of the entire rock. Its ground 
mass is now crystalline, but its structure is thought to be the result of 
the devitrification of a glassy base. In the amphibole ouachititee the 
phenocrysts are biotite, hornblende and a fewaugites in a fine-grained 
but originally a glassy groundmass. Augite is still the most promi- 
nent bisilicate, but it now constitutes scarcely 20% of the rock mass. 
The groundmass is composed of minute hornblende and augite crys- 
tal-, with much magnetite and small, highly refractive grains of what 
the author supposed to be sphene. The base contains many small, 
lath-shaped crystals of feldspar. In addition to these two members of 
the monchiquite group, there is probably a true monchiquite at the 
south end of Allis Mt., in the same district. This rock is remarkable 
for its great number of sphene grains and for the common occur- 
rence in it of pseudomorphs of biotite after augite. 

At a few places where the contact of the syenite with the surround- 
ing shales may be studied, the latter are found to be much changed 
and to have developed in them small, irregularly bounded feldspars, a 
iotite, gra 

The sequence of the e 
syenite and pulaskite (same magma), fourchite, pegmatite and miaro- 
litic dykes. 

In the Saline County region the rocks are not very different froaa 
those of Fourche Mt. The prevailing gray syenite is coarser in gram 
than that of Fourche Mt., and its orthoclase crystals (intergrown with 
albite) tend to become porphyritic. The eleolite is also sometimes jn 
large crystals. A plagioclastic variety of the i 

5 granitic than the orthoclase variety. The pyroxene 
ad of diopside. Pulaskite is absent from this region, 
3 occurs a porphyritic syenite with large orthoclase cryi 

is aeginte 
but in its 

stals, crys- 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 411* 

tals of arfvedsonite, biotite and an occasional diopside, imbedded in a 
fine-grained mosaic of orthoclase and amphibole. This rock als.. eon* 
tains spheroidal masses of orthoclase crystals that may be pseudo- 
morphs after leucite. The dyke rocks cutting the eleolite-svenit.- are 
grouped into eleolite-syenite pegmatites, ae-nite tinguaites ami elenlue 
porphyries. The tinguites are non-eleolitic, while the eleolite porphy- 
ries contain large rounded eleolites and aegiritea encloied in a tlmdal 
mass of needles of the last-named mineral. The auntie dykes are 
much more common in this region than elsewhere. They belong to 
the monchiquites and the amphibole varieties of this rock. The -round 
mass of the latter consists of a transparent mass, partly isotropic and 
partly doubly refracting, in consequence of the development in it of 
plagioclase and orthoclase laths. Contact rocks are rare, but in one 
idiomorphic crystals of astrophyllite and aegirine were observed. 

The Magnet Cove region is especially interesting, not only became 
of the fine minerals that occur there, but also because of the great 
variety of rare rocks found in the neighborhood in great quantity. It 
is to these latter that the minerals owe their origin. Of the eleolite-syen- 
ite occurring here three types are distinguished. One is an eleolite 
mica syenite, a coarse-grained rock in which eleolite has almost com- 
pletely replaced orthoclase as the alkaline component. Eleolite-. ft] at::--. 
schorlomites and protovermiculites measuring as much as eight inches 
in diameter are frequently found imbedded in the decomposed rock. The 
principal constituents of the fresh rock are alkHrionKWph* 
tite crystals, idiomorphic zonal melanites, allotriomorphic schorlomites 
and large round masses of the same mineral, diopside. of ^.hene. 
of ilmenite and of magnetite (the latter giving rise to the lodestone 
from which the Cove takes its name), pyrite and apatite in large crys- 
tals and in needles radiately grouped. Besides these there are also 
found in the decomposed rock ozarkite, protovermiculite, cancrimte 
and eaieite. The second variety of the syenite is an eleolite garnet 
syenite made up of a granular mixture of eleolil 
side, with small quantities of biotite and the usual accessories ine 
third type is a miarohtic variety too much weathered to yield good 
sections. Of the eleolitic dyke rocks one is hypidiomorphically gran- 

1 tl t idency to the trachvtic structure. It contains a large 
quantity of orthoclase, eleolite in idiomorphic and allotriomorphic 
"grains, large idiomorphic crystals of aegirine, cancrinite that appears 
' ' e in part primary, several other accessories and a number ot sec- 
. i^___._ . k;„v. m .,vhA mentioned aegirine, fluonte 

ondary substances, among which may be mention, 
and calcite. A pegmatitic dyke i 

nicroline crystals, 

420 The American Naturalist. [May, 

beautiful crystals of aegirine, eleolite, eudialite, and other decomposi- 
tion products of eleolite. This rock is the gangue of many of the 
sphene, natrolite, brucite, manganopectolite and eucolite crystals 
obtained in this region. Other dykes in which eleolite occurs in two 
generations, sometimes with and sometimes without orthoclasc in the 

orthoclase are also described. But perhaps the most interesting of 
the rocks of Magnet Cove are the leucite dyke rocks. Of these the 
author distinguisues between leucite-syenite and leucite-tinguaite. The 
former is a hypidiomorphic granular aggregate of a pseudomorph 
after leucite, eleolite, orthoclase and the basic silicates, diopside and 
biotite. It is generally connected with eleolite-syenite, and is easily 
recognized by the large crystals of pseudo-leucite scattered through it. 
These are imbedded in a ground mass in which may be detected eleo- 
lite, black garnets and feldspar. No trace of leucite may be discov- 
ered in the large crystals. They are now composed of tabular ortho- 
clases, interspersed with small eleolites and pyroxenes. Within the 
mass the orthoclase is radial, while • on its periphery smaU tabular 
crystals have their symmetry planes perpendicular to its surfaces. The 
ground mass has the structure of an eleolite porphyry. Tin tingufo 
occurring as dykes possesses two generations of orthoclase, aegirine, 
eleolite and the pseudomorphs of leucite, besides many accessory com- 
ponents. It differs from the eleolite-tinguite mainly in the possession 
of orthoclase in large quantity. Analyses of eleolite-tinguite, leuci e- 
syenite, tinguite and of the pseudo-leucites follow: 

formed, but these are so indefinite in their character that but little 
study. In the sandstones and 

\ : 

On the contact of the eruptives with the country rock 

formed, but these are so indefinite in their d 

could be learned from their microscopic study. 

limestones through which the eleolite-syenite ( 

important contact minerals, many of which are of world-wide int< 

Among those found in quartz rock and sandstone may be men I 

smoky and milky quartz, arkansite, rutile and hematite. r H ie 
addition to the sodium given s 
,V>* of SO., and ASfc ° fil 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 

stone gave rise to perofskite, magnetite, apatite, phlogo] 
ite and rnonticellite. 

In the potash Sulphur Springs region the eleolite and 
are but little different from those of Magnet Cove. The 
tact with one of the eleolite-syenite dykes, however, dil 
from the contact rocks of other regions. Close to the 
shale has a glassy appearance, and is cut by sheets and r 
and white minerals and bands of coarse crystalline ealci 
microscope sections are seen to consist of plagioclate, wo 

wolla>tonite), in which a tenth of the Cat) has been ivplae.-d ■■} V. < > 
The author calls the variety natroxontolite. 

Outside of the regions above mentioned aegirite-tinguite dykes«,rcur 
at Hot Springs and at Hominy Hill, in Sec. 27, T. 1 X. K. 14 W . 

The basic dykes outside of the syenite areas have Wen studied by 
Kemp, whose report comprises the twelfth chapter of the book under 
review. Most of them are narrow. In composition they are s. > closely 
related to the rocks already mentioned in this abstract that thes are 
regarded as genetically connected with them. The most interest, n- ot 
the dyke masses are the ouachitites. These are dark in color, and are 
all porphvritic, with very large phenocrysts of biotite and augite. The 
groundmass in which these are imbedded is composed of augite, mag- 
netite and glass. An analysis of one of these rocks yielded : 

Si0 2 TiO A1A FeA FeO CaO MgO K 2 Na 2 H 2 C0 2 P 2 5 Tot. 

vuAn ao i,>a. qot iso u.ifi 11.44 :i.i.H -S*T -^ 3.!»4 1.04=99.84 

This rock, which is so very basic, is a constant associate of the more 
acid eleolite-syenite. All the basic dykes that have thus far been dis- 
covered in the State are mentioned in a table containing 280 entries. 

In conclusion the author recapitulates his classification as tallow.: 
The eleolite plutonic rocks are called eleolite-syenites. From these are 
sharply separated the dyke forms, mentioned under eleolite- syenite 
dyke rocks, which are not porphvritic, but in the variety pulaskite 
(hornblende eleolite-syenite) are trachytic; the eleolite porphyries, in 
which eleolite phenocrysts occur; and -the tinguites, characterized 
by porphyria crystals of orthoclaae. Among the latter are the eleo- 
lite, leucite and aegi rite varieties. 

422 The American Naturalist. [May, 

Miscellaneous.— New books, etc.— Mr. Lane 1 has recently 
published two tables for the use of students in optical mineralogy and 
petrography. One is devoted to the rock forming minerals. These are 
divided into three classes, the opaque, the isotropic and the anisotropic 
groups, and the members of "the latter class are subdivided in accord- 
ance with the strength of their double refraction, their habit and the 
character of their extinction. There is no doubt but that with a 
little practice the student may easily learn to distinguish between the 
various minerals found in rocks if he will only follow the scheme 
carefully after reading the explanation accompanying it. In the sec- 
ond table the author gives an excellent resume of Rosenbusch's classi- 
fication of massive rocks, as elaborated in his ' Massige Gesteine.' An 

even more recent tabulation of igneous rocks is that of Dr. Adams 2 , 
since it reflects Rosenbusch's present attitude with respect to rock 
classification. In it the author represents in a very concise and simple 
form the differences between the various types of massive rocks, and 
suggests at a glance their relationships. In each of three horizontal 
columns are placed the plutouic, dyke and volcanic rocks in such a 
way that the corresponding members of all classes fall in vertical col- 
umns. The novel features of the classification are the following : Leu- 
cite-syenite is made a sub-group under the eleolite-syenites, and the 
tinguaites are represented as their corresponding granitic dyke forms. 
The rocks in which leucite, nepheline and melilite replace feldspar are 
given columns between the orthoclase and plagioclase rocks, as better 
indicating their chemical affinities than is the case when they are 
placed beyond the plagioclastic rocks. Each of the three groups is 
divided in accordance with the presence or absence of olivine, and in 
the niche for the plutonic nepheline combination is placed the new 
type iolite, recently described by Ramsay". The lamproph} -ric dyke 
melilite rock is alnoite. Among the lamprophyric plagioclase nephe- 
line rocks are fourchite and monchiquite, the latter with and the 
former without olivine. Malchite is a new rock described by Osann. 
It is the granitic dyke form of diorite. The diabases are put in the 
paleovolcanic class, which, by the way, is not sharply defined from the 
neovolcanic class. The basic non-feldspathic rocks are separated into 
the pyroxenites and the peridotites, which names sufficiently define 
themselves. Dr. Adams deserves the thanks of all petrographers for 
l Am. Geol.,June, 1891, p. 341. 
2 Can. Rec. of Sci., Dec, 1891, p. 463. 
'Cf. American Naturalist, 1892, p. 334. Bv mistake iolite occurs in * Iie 

1892.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 428 

his enterprise in the preparation of this, the only modern classification 

of massive rocks published. Instruments.— Salomon' describes a 

simple piece of apparatus by means of which the density of a heavy 
liquid may be rapidly determined without the inconvenience of the use 

uated tube, win-. ■ manipulation depends upon tlio principle that tin- 
heights of the liquid columns in its two anus will van with their dif- 
ferences in density. By the aid of the instrument the specific gravity 
of each mineral in a rock powder maybe determined without once 

emptying it of its solution. Four new microscopes for crvstallo- 

graphic and petrographical purposes have lately been introduced to 
the favor of investigators. The three 2 from the manufactory of Zeiss 
in Jena present no peculiar features. The fourth was made by Naehci 
to the order of Wyrouboff 3 , especially for observations at high tem- 
peratures. The objective is below the object, and the nicol prism and 
the illuminating mirror are above it. The stage is fixed, while the 
microscope body revolves. Attempts to use converged light with this 
instrument have failed, because of the great heat to which the conden- 
sers are subjected. 

'Neues. Jahrb. f. Min., etc., 1891, ii, p. 214. 

2 Czapski, Neues. Jahrb. f. Min., etc., B B. vii, p. 497. 

:i Bull. Soc. Franc' a. Min. xiv.. 1S91, p. 198. 


New Studies in Fecundation. — M. Leon Guignard publishes 
a paper in the 1 Annates des Sciences Naturelles, entitled " Now Studies 
of Fecundation, with a comparison of the morphological phenomena 
observed in plants and in animals." 

He reminds us that until very recently the essence of fecundation 
was supposed to reside exclusively in the union of two nuclei of 
different sexual origin, and that the protoplasm played but an acces- 
sory part in the process ; that in phenogamous plants, for instance, the 
male nucleus penetrates alone the oosphere to the exclusion "i & 
accompanying protoplasm. His recent observations, however, and the 
discovery of certain new bodies, new at least in vegetable cells, which 
he calls "directive spheres" and which play their part in the process 
throw quite anew light upon the subject and moreover bring into 
close accord the phenomena as existing in the two kingdoms. He 
follows the development of the reproductive elements, male and 
female, from the very beginning to their adult stage >o as to determine 
the mode of differentiation by which they acquire sexual characters 
and then further follows these sexual elements, showing which are 
the essentially active parts, and how the union between them takes 
place to form the first embryonic cell. 

The account which he gives of the technique employed in his 
researches is far from satisfactory; indeed he says himself that the 
" technique applicable to the study of vegetable protoplasm leaves 
much to be desired." As fixative agents he used absolute alcohol, 
corrosive sublimate, picric acid and osmic acid ; to stain the proto- 
plasm and the spheres he hardened the specimen in absolute alcohol 
and then in 10 per cent, solution of zinc sulphate or ammonia alum, 
followed by hsematoxylin. Fuchsine and methyl green proved also of 
special value in distinguishing the plasmic contents of the cells. 

He first describes the formation of the reproductive cells, the pollen 
grains and the embryo sac, using as his subject a specie- of bty 
Li li ii,i> martagon. He traces each step in clear language and by the 
aid of beautiful figures, from the undiflferentiated meristem of the 
budding anther to the archesporia or pollen mother-cells, to the 
special mother-cells and the mature pollen grains: and with the same 
nicety, the origin of the embryo sac with the egg apparatus (oosphere 

'Ann. Sci. Nat.; Bot. Tome XIV. pp. 163-288. Plates 9 to 18. 

formed ant!: 

Mill d with protoplasm, eacl 
and closely appressed to th 
res lving side hv side. Wi 

likened to a [aii-l<-Mfc.;.ll.>s narrow rihhnns. 
In the last division by which these cells were formed the nuclei still 

least in part be traced out alon- its very sinuous curs', hut without 
discovering any free ends within, the nuclear cavity or any evidence of 

chromatin granules, free in the nuclear fluid. The halves of these rods 
are exactly tin -aiue in h n_th and are united hv a common hyalo- 
plasm and from their ends also are still projecting fine delicate threads 

poles the rods are carried to the equator and the spindle is soon com- 
pleted. The halve - of the rods now separate, that is, the ends directed 
towards the center or axis of the spindle, part first and the segments 
00 their way back to the poles assume the forms of the letters U or V. 
The two nuclei thus formed at once enter again into division and the 
four pollen grains are perfected. 

With each nuclear division the "directive spheres" have doubled, so 
that each new nucleus is provided with two spheres. 

For the formation of the generative or sexual nucleus proper, the 
pollen nucleus divides to form a vegetative and generative nucleus.' 
Within the pollen tithe the -enei ative nucleus undergoes a second 
division, the spheres likewise doubling, and, as the plane of division is 

J By the artificial culture of pollen the generative nuc:,rr- i-ometimes .juite c-crie- 

426 The American Naturalist [May, 

transverse to the length of the tube, the two new nuclei are so placed 
that. the lower one is preceded, and the upper one followed, by its 
two spheres. Both of these nuclei are accompanied by their proto- 
plasm and each has been seen to have its twelve chromatin rods. If 
the vegetative nucleus has not already disappeared, it may be distin- 
guished from the sexual elements by the difference in reaction to 
methyl green and fuchsine. 

The steps by which the differentiation of the female factor arises 
may be rapidly sketched as follows : A large cell in the axial row of 
the nucellus is the mother-cell of the embryo-sac. In all the cell 
divisions of the nucellus up to the moment when one of the cells 
becomes conspicuously larger and ceases to undergo further division 
the nuclei have all shown twenty-four chromatin rods. The embryo- 
sac grows rapidly so as to come to occupy a large part of the nucellus, 
sometimes descending touanN the center of the same. Its nucleus 
contains one or more large nucleoli in the meshes of the tangled 
ribbon made up of two series of chromatin granules. The two directive 
spheres lie in contact with the nuclear membrane and the cytoplasm i 

now seen radiating witl regard to the position of those spheres. 

The ribbon now break* into rods ami the substance of the nucleoli so 
changes as no longer to be distinguishable from that of the chromatin 
segments, the number of which is now twelve not twenty-four. The 
spheres become active, go to the poles and are surrounded by cyto- 
plasmic rays. At first the rods are scattered in a disorderly manner 
through the forming spindle, but are soon carried and properly 
oriented by the achromatic threads about the equator so that there 
may now be seen a rod to each large thread, there being however 
some more delicate intermediate threads to which no rods are attached. 
Thus is formed the spindle and disk. The rods are easily seen to con- 
sist of longitudinal halves and in the further change they split at the 
ends directed towards the spindle axis, one-half appearing to glide up 
a thread towards one pole, the other half moving down towards the 
opposite pole until they finally part and become new groups of twelve 
contorted segment., shaping themselves into two new nuclei. The 
centrosomes in the meantime have doubled, forming two spheres at 
each end of the old nuclear axis. The new nuclei so formed appeal • 
all respects quite similar and they move to opposite ends of the embryo- 
sac. The lower one especially gains in size, and both continue to 
divide. But in the next division the lower one is seen to have not 
twelve, but sixteen or twenty rods, whilst the upper one and it- deriva- 
tives still have but twelve. There are now four cells or nuclei above 

1892.] Botany. 

and four below ; two synergidse, the oos] 
three antipodal pells and a polar cell be 
twelve rods, the two sexual "cells have tl 
elements. The upper polar nucleus bet 
nucleus of the oosphere. The lower pol 
vacuole and joins the upper one of the s 
• •■•lis disappear. The spheres of the syn 

f the two spheres from each copulating nu 
ucleus is moving down the pollen tube with 
> the oosphere must so present its spheres as 

ght that this was the rule 
nd that the office of the synergid» was to transmit the contents of the 
pollen tube to the oosphere. Whatever be the method of penetration, 
the male nucleus which arrives first in contact with the emhryo-sac 
passes through the membrane and rapidly joins the nucleus of the 
oosphere. Strasburger now thinks that the liquid which directs this 
amorous flight of the male to the female nucleus is furnished by the 
synergidse, playing the part which is attributed to malic acid and 
malates in directing the course of the antherozoids in the cryptogams. 
Guignard believes that this attraction may reside simply in the proto- 
plasm of the female cell. 

The male nucleus, as has been shown, is preceded by its two spheres 
which ii„ side bv side and which are thus brought face to face with the 

428 The American Naturalist. [May, 

spheres of the female nucleus which they quickly join and so form two 
new couplets of spheres, each couplet containing a sphere of two dif- 
ferent elements. This conjunction of the spheres takes place kefore 
the nuclei unite, but they do not fuse until the division of the nucleus 
begins. While still as couplets they take their position above and 
below, marking out the axis of the coming spindle, which is that of 
the long axis of the oospore. The second male nucleus sometimes 
escapes from and sometimes remains in the pollen tube and ultimately 
disappears in the protoplasm. The reason for the existence of two 
male nuclei is in doubt. That the division of the single primary one 
into the two smaller masses is so that the male and female nuclei may 
be nearly in equilibrum as to size, is not a satisfactory suggestion; 
and since the two male nuclei are equally active and effective in fer- 

matter of differentiation. After a Ion- contact of the male and female 
nuclei, the nuclear membranes at the surface of contact disappear ami 
the contents form a common mass; that is. the nuclear fluids mingle, 
but there is not a true fusion of the chromatic elements. ( 'ontraction 
and orientation of these elements follow with the formation of a spindle 
and nuclear disk, and a return to tweim-fbiir rods. Twelve of these 
may have been furnished by each nucleus but they are not to be dis- 
tinguished from one another. The two groups of secondary segments 
collect at the poles, a wall of cellulose is formed at the equator and 
two embryonic cells come into existence. Thus fecundation has resulted 
in doubling the number of rods in the first segmenting nucleus. 

It happens with curious constancy that the secondary nucleus of the 
embryo-sac begins its division for the formation of endosperm, just at 
the time that the male nucleus penetrates the oosphere. This second- 
ary nucleus formed by the union of the two polar nuclei, which were 
larger and rich in chromatin, contains a -renter number of rods, as do 
its derivatives, than are to be found in the eizg nucleus. So likewise 
do all the nuclei ,,f the .-ml«..-p.-rm contain a -reater number of rods 
than do the nuclei of the rot of tin- ovule and m m r . l-am of ^ 
plant. This variation in the number of rods opposes the idea of the 
chromatic segments retainin- tlmi- individuality .hiring the resting 
stage of the nucleus. In L>:nc»niirt)> and in (!<ihuitht)», as the embryo- 
sac becomes somewhat crowded with nuclei and their spheres, and as 
cell walls arise, there mav be inrbul-d a. manv a- ten or twelve nuclei 
in a single cell. Under" t lies,- conditions the Spheres a-- 

an .\;m »ition of the r 
attending fecundation 
in the animal kingdom 


upon the contributions of Lowen, the Nortwi-rs, F«»l. Van Bencden. 
Boveri, Weismann. Ischikawa. Blochman, Biitsohli. Whitman and 
others. The judges, as we learn from another source, say that tins 

Guignard himself we get the impression of the strict analogy of the 
processes of fecundation as they occur in the two kingdoms. Under 
the heading " General Exposition of Results" the author retraces the 
subject matter already given : the fixity or constancy of the chromatic 
rods as to number in the sexual cells; the appearance of and the 
mode of reduction in the number of these rod? at a given stage; the 
constitution of the nuclei, including a discussion of the individuality < ;' 
the chromosomes; the existence of"' directive spheres" in all vegetable 
cells; the role or function of these spheres which are distinctive organs 
of the cells and, lastly, a review of the prevailing theories concerning 
the phenomena of fecundation. Of this he says, " We see that fecun- 
dation is not only a conjugation of nuclei, hut accompanying this act 
is that of the fusion of two protoplasmic bodies whose essential cle- 
ment- are represented in the directive spheres of the male and female 

While hovering so closely about the subject of heredity it was not to 
be expected that it should go untouched. After noticing the theories 

paragraph the -rist of his own view- by -ayiug, " That all the cells, or 

at least/a -ivap-r part of the cells of the body possess in a latent con- 

8. A little bit of the 

430 The American Naturalist [May, 

body can reproduce the entire organism. A branch of willow placed 
in water develops roots at the expense of cells, which thus come to play 
a part quite different to what was laid out for them in the original 
plant, a proof, that is, that they already possessed this property from 
their conception. On the other hand, a severed root may give rise fa) 
buds which bear male and female organs ; so that sexual cells may be 
derived directly from the cellular substance of a root. The epidermk 
cells of a Begonia may produce an entirely new plant just as with 
coelenterates, worms and tunicates, new individuals may come from 
buds or separate parts of the body of these animals. These facts are 
trite enough," he adds, " but it is well to recall them to show the solid 
basis of Hertwig's conclusion that, ' the nucleus, by reason of the phe- 
nomena it presents during fecundation, is the support or conservator 
of hereditary properties and that it reappears in the same form and 
with the same properties in every cell ; that it is a substance removed 
from the grosser metamorphoses of matter by its inclusion in a special 
vesicle; that by a complex mode of division the daughter nuclei 
receive portions of the same substance, no diilcrentintion 
Just as Nageli claims that his hypothetical idioplasm is spread 
throughout the body like a fine net-work, so according to my theory, 
every cell of the body encloses in its nucleus the aggregation of hereditary 
properties derived from the egg, whilst the specific properties of &« 
cell are bound up with the development of the protoplas 
consequently every cell possesses the faculty, under appropriate con v 
tions of reproducing the entire organism.' "— B. W. Barton, M. D-> 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

The Limpet's Strength.— The experiments made l.y J. Law- 
Fasting fleas on an average pull 149:; times their own dead weight. 
Other experimenters give the pulling power of the shell-deprived 

Venus verrucosa of the Mediterranean, a cockle-like creature, at 2<>71 

times the weight of its own body. 

The force required to open an oyster appears to be 1319.5 times the 

weight of the shell-less oyster. (Nature, March 24, 1892). 

Dr. Steindachner has published the 15th part of his Ichthyologische 
Beitriige 1 in which he describes the following species of South Ameri- 

Piabuca argentinia Lin. ; Iquitos. 
Piabuca spilurm Gunther : liyavary. 

Bergia altipinnis sp. nov.; Arroyo Mignelete near Motevideo. 
Tetragonopterm lineatus sp. nov. Iquitos. 

Tetragonopterus anomalus sp. nov. Rio Parana near Corrientes. 
Xiphorhamphus jent/mii Giinther ; Arroyo Miqiielete and Parahyba. 
Xiphorhamphm hepsetus Cuv.; Arroyo Miquelete and Parahyba. 

Medical and Other Opinions upon the Poisonous Nature 
of the Bite of the Heloderma.— In North America there are two 
species of Heloderms,— the Heloderma harridum of Wiegmann, a 
form that does not occur within the limits of the United States, and 
the Heloderma suspectum of Cope, which is found principally in suit- 
able localities throughout Arizona. There this, the biggest by all odds 

the fact that it was once common on the Gila River. Collectors are 
now rendering it scarce over nearly all its range, and no doubt the 
time is not far distant, comparatively, when this highly interesting 
species will meet with utter extinction. 

Living specimens of this reptile have been in the wn 
for a year or two together, affording him admirable < 

432 The America,, .Y,< 

i May 

study it in all particulars,— advantages I have fully availed myself of, as 
my published papers on the subject will attest. 

Adult Heloderms average some twenty inches in length, and are 
covered with tuberculated scales, which vary in form in different parts 
of the body, and in old specimens are prone to ossify over the back 
and top of the head. These scales are of a shiny black and orange, 
the two colors being arranged in a definite pattern, winch latter never 
agrees in any two specimens. Notwithstanding this great size for a 
lizard, and this most striking coloration, there are many people in 
Arizona and in the southwest generally that apply the name " Gila 
monster " to any large lizard-looking form that may come under their 
observation. I have had medical officers in the army, ranchmen, 
guides, and others, who surely ought to know better, point me out 
Amblystomae, and even the common forms of the Phrynosoma, as 
Gila monsters. This being the case, I feel quite sure that the excellent 
figures which I have offered of a large female Heloderm that I had, 
some time ago, alive for nearly two years, will be acceptable, and in 
some respects exceedingly useful,— useful because the general opinion 
in the southwest and elsewhere is that the bite of this saurian is poison- 
patient has actually been bitten by a Heloderm and not by some- 
thing else. 

Fig. 2 is from an instantaneous picture where 1 strapped my camera 
in such a position as to bring the focal axis of the lens perpendicular 
to the floor, where I placed a sheet of white blotting paper, over which 
the reptile walked beneath the instrument, allowing me to secure the 
photograph. In Figs, i and 3 the Heloderm was hypnotized, and 
thus easily taken. In Fig. 1 the ventral aspect of her head and body is 
resting upon a plane surface, which gives a flattened appearance, 
but otherwise the likeness is admirable. The leading herpetologist in 
this country, Professor Cope, who was my guest this week, examined 
these photographs and remarked that they gave a better idea of the 
form of a Heloderm than any of the many figures that had thus far 
been published, either here Europe. 

We now come to consider that part of the subject that falls more 
properly within the title of this contribution,— in other words, the 
nature of the bite of these reptiles. 

Even at the present writing the wide variance of opinion in these 
premises is truly remarkable, for some of our most 

vestigators still disagree in the 1 

special topic of the life-history of the Helodei 
a well-known naturalist resident in Mexico, stat< 
it was the exception that small mai 

n after there appeared an editorial in 
, page 842) referring to the experir 

of Dr. Irwin, of th« 
Heloderm was com 
paratively harmless; but it added, further, that a specimen in tin 
Zoological Garden of London had bitten a frog and a guinea-pig, botl 
of which had died in a few moments. Still, the editor of the Nat 
uralist was of the opinion that " this might happen if this large lizan 
: careful experiments a 


Dr. Gii 

ther, of the British Museum, comes forward and states that 
be no doubt as to the poisonous nature of the bite of Hebderma 
horridum, and cites numerous cases to support his views : and Dr. 
Sclater, the secretary of the Zoological Society of London, apparently 
entertained a similar opinion, as did also the eminent herpetologist, 
Mr. Boulenger, of the British Museum. 

During the same vear the present writer, who was at that time con- 
nected with the Department of Reptiles at the United Stat,.- National 
Museum, was severely bitten by an infuriated adult specimen of Helo- 
derma siispectum, and although much pain and grave symptoms at once 
supervened, the results passed entirely away in a few days with barely 
any treatment. I published a short account of it at the time. Again, 

before the year closed, Sir Joseph Fayrer brought forth some evidence, 
deduced from experiments, that went to show the poisonous nature of 
the bite of a Heloderm. 

Early in 1883, however, the matter seemed to be definitely settled 
for good, and all through the results obtained by the very celebrated 
experiments of those two distinguished physicians of Philadelphia, 
Dr. S. Weir Mitchell and Dr. Edward T. Reichert. After a most 
carefully conducted series of experiments with the saliva taken from 
living Heloderms, these authorities were prepared to say that it pos- 
sessed properties of an extremely venomous nature, killing pigeons and 
small mammals a few moments after they had received an injection of 
it hypodermically. 

Five years now elapsed with hardly a printed word appearing any- 
where upon the question of the poisonous or non-poisonous qualities of 
the saliva of one of these suspected reptiles. Then there appeared an 
account of the somewhat remarkable series of experiments made with 
the saliva of living Heloderms by Dr. H. C. Yarrow at the United 
States Natural Museum, Dr. Yarrow at the time being honorary curator 
of the Department of Reptiles in that institution. This investigator's 
methods of procedure were rather different from those adopted by Mit- 
chell and Reichert, but apparently they were conducted with equal 
care, and, strange to say, led to an entirely different result. Some 
eight or nine experiments upon chickens and rabbits went to prove 
that hypodermic injections of the saliva and bites of angry Heloderms 
were by no means fatal to those animals, and practically they always 
recovered from the effects of the same. After presenting the steps of 
his final trial, this author concludes his account with the following 
remarks : " This experiment would seem to show that a large amount 

ducing any harm, and it is still a mystery to the writer how Dr. Mit- 
chell and Dr. Reichert obtained entirely different results. Were 
it not for the well-known accuracy and carefulness of Dr. Mitchell, 
it might be supposed possibly that the hypodermic syringe used 
in his experiments contained a certain amount of Crotalus obrorca 
venom, but under the circumstances, such a hypothesis is entirely 
untenable." The following year Dr. Mitchell still adhered to his 
original opinion, and undoubtedly does at the present time. 

Mr. Samuel Garman, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology °f 
Harvard University, next made some very interesting experiments, by 
allowing large and vigorous Heloderms to bite the shaved legs 

and opinions are very much divided, — a h 
upon either side. I have endeavored to gi 
the most reliable evidence now out and I 
undoubtedly be series of interesting experi 

sobriety and his general condition. Make sure that the 

inflicted the bite was a specimen of a Heloderm. Be ca 

destroy the victim with the remedies _\ou adm 

of the bite. A quart of raw whiskey, practically given ; 

may prove more fatal than the bite of ten Heloderms. If 

the patient 

die after the bite of one of these reptiles, be sure to ascerl 

:ain whether 

it was from the effects of the bite or from the effects of t 

he remedies 

administered. The locality of the bite and other matter 

h of course, 

should also be carefully noted. (R. W. Shufeldt in 

' : 

Medical Journal, May 3d, 1891. 

T heCervical Vertebrae of the Monotremata.— In tne Janu- 
ary number of this journal, 1892, I have stared that the . 
are absent in the cervicals of ihe Monotreinatu. I have been looking 
over a paper lately by C. Hasse and W. Sohwarck. >m.i.. n /.urn 
vergleiehenden Anatomie der Wirbelsauh . publish* '1 m N ol. I, of Dr. 
C. Hasse's Anatomische Studien, Leipzig 1873; I find that these 
authors have also described the absence of the zygapophyses in 
Omithorhyuchus and Tachyglossus (Echidna).- G. Baur. 

The Introduction of Reindeer into Alaska.— A very inter- 

estin- experiment in the introduction of reindeer into this country 
has been commenced. Dr. Sheldon Jackson, the government agent of 
education in Alaska, has begun the work. During the past season he 
imported sixteen reindeer from Siberia, which cost about $160 00. 

Next ve-ar he pi tablish a herd of reimle.i in the neighbor- 
hood of Fort Clarence and expects to begin with 100 animals. 
Liberia has vast numbers of thesi- animals, and iu its climate and 

v.-Lvt:iti'>ri i- — • -ti ; 1 .u -~ -:•. itl\ A i;i-k :i . -., that there is no reason to 
doubt that they will thrive on the eastern side of Bering Strait. 
The reindeer is useful as a draught animal for sleds, as well as for its 

Capt. M. A. Healey, of the revenue cutter Bear, has reported to the 
Treasury Department, emphasizing the proposition as the most 
important question now before the Territory of Alaska. The recent 
destruction of seals and sea lions has certainly had its effect upon the 
food supply question of the country and islands in the neighborhood 
of Bering Strait, and any distress brought about by the destruction 
of seals may be alleviated by the introduction of the reindeer. In 
Iceland, where the reindeer was first introduced in 1870, it ha? 
increased greatly in number but is said to have relapsed into wild- 
ness and is now of little use to the inhabitants. It is to be hoped that 
better fortune will attend their introduction in Alaska, and that they 
will be treated as domestic animals, and not share the fate of the 
buffalo. (Scientific American, Oct. 31, 1891). 

Nomenclature of Mammalian Molar Cusps.— In October 
1888 I sent to the Naturalist a table of nomenclature for the cusps 
of the molar teeth of Mammalia based upon the rise of these cusps 
from the single cone of the reptilian tooth as observed by Prof. Cope 
and myself. These terms have since been adopted by Cope, Scott, 
Lydekker, Flower, Schlosser and in part by Riitimeyer. They have 
not, so far as I know, been adopted by any of the palaeontologists of 
France. Fleischmann, of Erlangen, has opposed their adoption upon 
the ground that Cope and myself have mistaken the homologies of 
these cusps in the upper and lower teeth; I have been carefully over 
this paper and find that every point raised by Fleischmann S 
erroneous. This author and Doderlein have adopted Greek symbols 
for the cusps. 

Subsequently I have proposed to extend the nomenclature to the 
crests of the upper and lower molars in the Ungulate. 1 In thlS 
paper, as Lydekker has very courteously pointed out, I urn 
confused "crochet" and " antieroehef " ,,f Husk, and did not rightly 
interpret Huxley's « pillars." The latest contribution to terminology 
is Prof. Scott's, which is based upon the law that where the premolars 

'Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. XX, No. 3, Nov. 1890, p. 88. 

assume the molar form the corresponding 
this law had already been observed In 
Huracotltrrium), and has now been world 
Scott who will shortly publish an abstract 

-connle to the " intermediate " cusps. 
2. The termination style is proposed for 

pillars are given the same prefix m the ne 

3 The termination loph is given to the 
4. The prefixes are based upon the sue 

u>e repeal, i inaugle e< 

metacone and protocone— for this I propose 
trigon to distinguish the higher and mere prin 
from the lower and secondary talon. 

addition of -id 

New Terms Proposei 

Median Exter- 
ss°*.Z°....lZ. Meta-tylid = 

'- : 

Mnac •:.<-. 

Henry F. Osborn, 

American Museum 

Ajrvil 2oth, 1892, 

\\.\v Y rk. 


Morphology of the Vertebrate Urino-genital System.— 
From a detailed study of the excretory and reproductive organs of 
Ichthyophis glutinosus, one of the Cajcilians, Professor Semou, of Jena, 
is led to a conception of the vertebi system contain- 

ing many joints of interest and importance. 

The material used consisted of embryos, larva? and adults obtained 
in Ceylon by P. and F. Sarasin, and is fully described in the first sixty 
pages of text with the aid of fourteen plates. 

Passing on to the comparative discussion of the results obtained, 
illustrated by diagrams, we may first give the chief facts observed by 
the author and then some of his applications of these to the morph- 
ology of the excretory and reproductive organs in the entire vertebrate 

The pronephros consists of at least twelve pairs of tubes, one pair in 
each segment, opening into two pronephric ducts that run to the 
cloaca and opening at the other end by fun nels into the body cavity. 
The dorsal part of the body cavity receiving tiiese twelve pairs of tun- 
nels is constricted off as a tube on each side, remaining, however, still 
in communication with the large ventral part of the coelom by slender 
tubes that become secondary funnels. These tubes next app«M ■* 
branches of the original pronephric tubules, each of which now has 
two funnels, a ventral and a dorsal one. The dorsal tube of coelom is 
then partly divided by ingrowths of vascular loops, gL 
chambers, one for each dorsal funnel. These chambers are tin Mat- 
pighian bodies of the pronephros. Irregularities appear in the branch- 
ing and connections of the pronephric tubules both anteriorly and In- 
teriorly in this long series; finally secondary changes occur and the 
organ loses its function. Before this takes place the mesonephros 
appears and both function at the same time. Though chiefly posterior 
to the pronephros the mesonephros also extends forward so that both 
organs occur in the same segment. Then it is seen that the mesone- 
phros is dorsal to the pronephros. At the very first the mesonophnc 
tubules are strictly segmental, but very soon the secondary, tertii** 
etc., tubules destroy the metameric arrangement. Each tubule has a 
funnel opening into the large coelom and also opens by what m*J 
regarded as a second funnel into the Malpighian capsule. These meso- 

nephrio Malpighian capsules may he regarded as parts of tlio cool. mi 
pinched off segmental!}-, much as those of the pronephros wore. The 
coelom has thus given rise to two series of dorsal diverticula', Mal- 
pighian capsules, which remain connected with the ventral 
tubes with funnels, while their openings into the other nephrie tubules 
are regarded as another primary set of funnels. 

The pronephrie duet serves also for the nicsonophros and the two 
organs are also connected in another way: each segmental Malpighian 
capsule of the mesonephros is connected with a longitudinal cord of 

This longitudinal cord, on each side of the hody, runs hack tothecloaeal 
region and is continuous anteriorly with the series of pronephrie Mal- 
pighian capsules: in fact as the latter degenerate they become incor- 
porated with the anterior end of this cord. The cord is thus a sort of 
degenerated remnant of a longitudinal coelom tube coiinectf d with the 
pronephrie tubules and by solid cords with the mesonephric Malpig- 

body distin guie il body of each side. 

The Miillerian duct arises dorsal to the nephros and without any 
connection with the pronephrie duct. 

The free ventral part of the germinal fold becomes the fat body, 
some of the dorsal part the germinal epithelium. This germinal epi- 
thelium is ventral to the nephros and connected by a loose meshwork 
of epithelial cords with those similar cords connecting the primary 
mesonephric Malpighian capsules with the interrenal body, lhis 
network disappears in the female hut remain-, in part, in the male as 
the tubules conveying the sperm to the kidney. The reproductive 
gland is not segmentally divided nor are the ana.-tom 
going to the kidney. 

In applying these facts to the understanding of the urino-genital 
organs of vertebrates past and present the author regards Tehthfopku 
as presenting many ancestral traits. 

Thus the primitive nrino-genital system of the v'raniata consisted of 
pronephros and germinal ridges extending from the region of the 
heart to the cloaca. The germinal cells discharged into the unaegmen- 
ted dorsal part of the coelom were taken up by the segmental funnels 
of the pronephros. Later this dorsal coeb.raic space became pinched 
off, except for the connecting external funnels of the pronephros and 
by ingrowth of glomeruli was converted into a series of .' 
capsules. Still the reproductive cells pass into these capsules by tubes 
that elongate as the capsules become more deeply retro-peritoneal. 

440 The American Naturalist. [May, 

Finally, in the stage to which all Craniata attain at the present day, a 
second generation of tubules, the mesonephric tubules, is cut off from 
the primary pronephric tubules, while the Malpighian capsules divide 
into dorsal and ventral parts. Into the first open the new mesone- 
phric, into the ventral the primary pron p] ric tubules, each by its 
internal funnel, while its external funnel opens into the general coe- 
lom. The appearance of this dorsal mesonephros is accompanied by a 
reduction and transformation of the pronephros, combined with sym- 
pathetic ganglia (suprarenal bodies) to form the adrenal body. The 
reproductive cells must now pass out by the new mesonephric tubules 
to the pronephric duct. 

In male vertebrates there is in addition a reduction of the germinal 
epithelium to a short portion of its primitive length and a correspond- 
in- restriction of the connection of testis and nephros. This leads to 
the distinction between "sexual" nephros and the more posterior 
" pelvic " nephros, which is finally quite separated in the higher forms 
as the metanephros or true kidney. 

The complete separation of testis and excretory organs in the tele- 
osts and cyclostomes is to be regarded as secondary. 

In the female, secondary changes, perhaps connected with increase 
in size of the ova, have led to the restriction of the egg-conducting 
function of the pronephros to a single tubule, which then opened into 
a secondary duct, the Miillerian duct, divided off from the pro- 
nephric duct. For the understanding of the true value of the perito- 
neal opening of the Miillerian duct and for any satisfactory homolo- 
gizing of the oviducts of teleosts we must await further researches upon 
these organs in the ganoids. 

True abdominal pores, serving for exit of the reproductive [.redacts 
in Cyclostomes but not in any Gnathostomes, arc to be regarded as 
having probably taken that function secondarily. Their morphologl 
cal value remains unknown: functionally they may perhaps be 
brought into relation with the need of communication of the coelom 
and external water to equalize pressure in deep sea forms. 

In many vertebrates the original function of the external nejdinc 
funnels, those opening into the large coelom as contrasted with the 
internal funnels opening into the Malpighian capsule.*, that is the 
passing out of water from the coelom, has been assumed more and 
more by the glomeruli and thus the external funnels have been 
abandoned as useless. Along with this loss of the coelom funnels 
there has been a loss of cilia in the tubules, in many forms, since 

there was no longer 

closed system of tub- 

The venous svster 

Thus in it 

the pronepl 

branchial space of Amphioxus with the pronephric ducts, 

v regarded as having an ectod< rmal connection, the unity of 
iric system in the Chordata would he demonstrated. At the 
le the resemblance to the Annelid organs becomes very strik- 


On the same line that E. Meyer has imagined the Annel 

coelom, wonders if in the Chordata reproductive tubes may not have 
given rise to the mesoblastic somites, parts of which are -till separated 
off as the Malpighian capsules with the old nephrie tubules leading to 
the exterior, though now brought into use as parts of the excretory 
rather than reproductive passages. 

Hermaphroditism the author think- was not a primitive trait of the 
Chordata, but where occurring, as in other groups, is to b regard© 
a remnant or re-occurrence of the orig 

reproductive gland in all Mctazoa ; such organs as the Mullerian 
duct in the male being transferred from the other sex ; the inverse of 
what has taken place in the case of the mammary glands. 

In connection with this work it is of interest to note that Hans 
Rabl 1 in a study of the adrenal bodies of birds derives the non-nervous 

l Arch. f. mik. Anat. 38, 1891, p. 28. 3 pis. 

Semon's view 

Formation of the Germ Layers in an Ophiurid. 1 — Amphiuea 

squamata (Say) had been incompletely studied in 1870 by Metschnikoff 
who argued from analogy that there was here an invaginate gastrula 
though he did actually observe it. In 1882 Apostolides claimed that 
it was formed by delamination, but he gave no figures. Fewkes in 
1887 confirmed this view but did not add much to its substantiation 
owing to lack of material. 

In the present paper Russo considers the formation of the blastula, 
the entoderm and the mesoderm in this species. 

Cleavage gives rise to a very characteristic blastula having elongated 
cells surrounding a rather small cleavage cavity. 

The inner part of each cell is made very opaque by a quantity of 
pigment which is thought to be related to the presence of food-yolk: 
the outer part of each cell is yellow and transparent. The blastula 
thus looks like that of Geryonia. 

The inner pigmented part of each cell becomes divided from the 
outer part and the resulting gastrula has an ectoderm of transparent, 
elongated cells with large nuclei and an entoderm of smaller, rounded, 
pigmented cells. 

He thus extends the occurrence of delamination to a new group. 
Following Brouer he attributes this mode of gastrulation to the condi- 
tions of development. " Every where when a free-swimmiug blastula 
is present we find unipolar entoderm formation, corresponding to tbe 
direction of swimming : everywhere when development goes on in a 
limited space we find multipolarity." This the author thinks is true 
of the Echinoderms as well as of the Coelenterates. 

The proctodoeum and the archenteron are formed by the breaking 
down at a definite point, first of the ectoderm and then of the ento- 
derm. After this the mesoderm appears : first as a heap 
shaped cells on either side of the proctodoeum. These ■ 
delamination from the ectoderm and, pushing backward, nearly fill* e 
whole cleavage cavity. They finally arrange themselves upon the 
ectoderm and the entoderm, like an epithelium, thus forming a sing e 
cavity, the coelom.— G. \V. Field. 

The Origin of the Sertoli's Cell.— It is now generally known 
that the seminiferous tubules of a mammalian testis contain twofunda- 

*AcW!le Russo: Zool. Anz. Nov. 16, 1891. 

nioii tally 1 

liferent kinds of cells; 1. Thi 

* sper, 

The sperm-i 

nursing cell. The latter have 

v. Ebner, 

in honor of the discoverer: 
ists (v. Ebner) ; copulation eel 

Is; su 

zellen, Stutzellen ; cellules de seniien, etc. 

The sper, 

m-producing cell is essentially 


soon as it attains a certain stage of irr<>wt 

li it 1. 

tubule and 

undergoes a manifold series of 


In this r< 

trust to the 

young egg cell, which leads a 


stage of mi 

iturity when it first becomes 


The chai 

iges which the young sperm 


leaving the 

: basement-membrane of the ti 


stood. On 

the other hand, the history 

of th 


known. The Sertoli's cell 


ana is very easy to recognize ov us uimu =..«, 

plasm, by its large vesicular nucleus, and by its eharactc nstie nucleolus. 
It is not likely that a single set of Sertoli's cells perform the mining 
function for 'the several consecutive crops of spermatozoa. My 
conclusion, in regard to this point, as based on the study of human 
spermatogenesis, may be briefly stated as follows:— The sperm-mn>im: 
cell (the Sertoli's cell) in the seminiferous tubules of a mammal arises 
from a distinct anlage of its own, as the spermatozoan arises from the 
spermatogonium. In short, not only the two kinds of functional mis, 
-the sperm and its nurse-exist in the seminiferous tubule, but also 
the distinct antecedent cells for each of them; or more pmp,r.y. u,- 
existence of two different kinds of cells in the functional seminiferous 
tubule is due to the existence of two entirely different kinds of ante- 
cedent cells. Just as the spermatogonia or the "8tanui 
the antecedent structure for the spermatozoa, bo th B 
cells— cellules etoih'es of Ren son— found in the 
the spermatogonia are the antecedents of Sertoli' 
cell stains quite ditlerently from the adult Sertoli's cell, as the young 
spermatogonium stains differently from the adult spermatozoan I 
have been able, however, to trace the series from th. young stellate 
ceU up to Sertoli's cell almost as completely as between the .ju-rm.t..- 
gonium and the spermatozoan. The youngest Bpermatogou 
quite differently from the youngest stellate cell, so that the difference 
between the two cells, the sperm and its nurse. 
If they were derived from the same source, the differentiation in these 

444 The American Naturalist. [May, 

two directions must have taken place at the beginning of the embryonic 
history of the animal. My results therefore lend no support to the 
views in which Sertoli's ceils are regarded as the modification of the 
sperm-producing cell proper or of its direct derivatives. 

The differential staining was accomplished in a satisfactory manner 
by the use of two new aniline colors, viz: Cijanine and Chromotrop. 
Erythrosine has yielded also a very satisfactory result. The results of 
the application of these colors to the study of spermatogenesis and the 
diiferential staining of sexual cells after* the manner of Auerbacb, I 
shall report at no very distant future.— 8. Watase, Clark University, 
Worcester, Mass. 


A Spider Enemy of Oeneis semidea. — All butterflies sees* 

to have enemies that prey upon them during some if not all stages of 
their existence, and Oeneis semidea, which lives on the top of our 
highest New England mountain, is no exception to the universal rule. 

During a brief visit to Mt. VTa^m-ton, X. II.. during the summer 
of 1889 I was surprised while collecting on Semidea Plateau, as Mr. 
Scudder has very appropriately termed a favorite locality tor this but- 
terfly near the top of the mountain, to see great numbers of a dark 
bluish-black spider (Pardosa albomaculata Emerton) which seemed to 
be found everywhere, and was particularly noticeable along the car- 
riage road leading from the lower end of this platen 
My first thought on seeing these spiders in such u 
were they doing at such an altitude, over 5000 feet ; 
not sufficient flies at such an elevation to feed them, and in taci i w" 
none whatever; neither did I notice spider webs, and these wouldseeffl 
quite necessary were they feeding on flies. Therefore I I 
learn, if possible, the reason of their being in that particular ar. a am 
nowhere else observable on the mountain. I had noticed many ile*d 
and imperfect butterflies lying on the ground, especial! 
roadway, but not suspecting the real cause, supposed the 
by the passing of teams or exposure to the fierce cold « 
occasionally sweep across the mountain even in the summer time. ^ 
was not, however, until next to the last day of my stay on 
that 1 discovered the trim explanation for "the great mortality among 
the butterflies and the presence of this peculiar spider. 

'Edited by Prof. C. M. Weed, Hanover, N. II. 

was what 
there were 

to a butterfly I induced a spider to follow it at least a rod in his mad 
endeavor to obtain the coveted prize, 

to the perfect insect, that this spicier subsists almost entirely upon 
Oeneis semidea during its various stages. One always see- them search- 
ing about among the rocks or sedge, apparently hunting for the eg::, 
larva or perfect insect in hiding, and even when it is bo cold and damp 
that the butterflies are chilled and scarcely move, the spiders do not seem 
to be affected but act as if it was their golden opportunity to obtain a 
dinner, and search for it at that time with unusual vigor. As my time 
and means were limited perhaps it would be well for future collectors 
who visit this locality to study more closely and carefully this peculiar 
spider in this bleak and bare region. Perhaps, like the butterfly, 

which with the receding glaciers found conditions and food favorable 
for its existence only on the tops of our highest mountains.— Smellky 
W. Dehtok, Wellesley, .Mass. 

Biology of the Chalcididze.— Mr. L. O. Howard 1 has published 
an extremely interesting paper upon a subject concerning w hi eh he 
speaks with the authority given by years of careful study. 

• present knowledge concerning 

tories of the interesting hymenopterous parasites of the ta 

didae. The scope of the discussion is indicated by tin i 

the sub-headings: The insects and stages of insects infested by Chal- 

'The Biology of the Hymenopterous insects of the family Chalcididx, by L. O. 
Howard. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., No. 881. 

446 The American Naturalist. [May, 

cidids ; How the Chalcidid larva lives ; How fast does it develop ; 
How the larva transforms; How many develop in a single host; 
Proportions of sexes in issuing ; Phytophagic habit ; Parthenogen- 
esis ; How large is the family. 

Mr. How;:; ruing the number of species in the 

family will be a surprise to many entomologists. They indicate how 
much yet remains to be done in the field of descriptive entomology 
in America. The author says : " In this country (America, North of 
Mexico) the latest list (Cresson's, 1887) records only 41 3 species, while 
I have recorded (Bull. V, Div. Ent.), in addition to those, 128 species 
from Mexico and the West Indies. For the purpose of this papev I 
have gone carefully over the collection of the National Museum and 
c.-timate the number of species of this family contained in that one 
collection at something over I'OOI), nearly all from America, North ot 
Mexico. According to my best judgment this represents a very small 
proportion of the species yet to be found within these geographical 
limits, as almost no effort at gent -nil collecting has been made, and 
these 2000 species are very largely the result of. accidental breeding. 
When a single sweep of the beating net on the Department grounds at 
Washington will result in the capture of five new species what will he 
the result -when the entire country shall have been collected over by 
sifting, beating and the many other devices known to experienced col- 
lectors? I fully believe that to estimate the number of species of this 
one family in North America as exceeding the number of described 
North American species of the entire order Hymenoptera would be far 
below the truth. When we consider, as shown in a previous section, that 
these small hymouopten us parasites live upon or within some one or 
several of the stages of perhaps the majority of insects of all orders. 
then we no longer wonder at their numbers or at the great variety 
exhibited among them." 

The Gypsy Moth.— A recent issue of the Salem (Mass.) G-isctfe 
contains the following account of the Gypsy Moth developments in 
that region : 

Amidst all the hue and cry against the importation of foreign con- 
tract laborers, foreign paupers and foreign fevers it is to be considered 
to what an extent this country has been victimized through the impor- 
tation of foreign weeds, birds and bugs. A field of daisies may be ao 
attractive sight from an aesthetic standpoint, but to the farmer it is 
simply a lot of undesirable white weed, spoiling a crop of good Bngti* 
hay. The little plant which rightfully bears the, title of the royal 

3 golden glory I 

English sparrow are insta 
But the latest offender, 

The first instance of the appearance of the Ocneria dispar—i\u< is 
the Im-'s company name — in the literature of the l.luo \< 
head of chapter '95 of the Acts of 1890, wherein the 
authorized to launch a brand new commission on a long BUifenng 

public to consist of three suitable and discreet persons charged with 
the duty of preventing the spreading and securing the extermina- 
tion of the gypsv moth. 

The nameless* individual who wrought the mischief by importing 

hibition of ex post facto law- from receiving :i tit penalty n-r in- 
dire offence ; but it was provided that henceforth it should he unlaw- 
ful for any person to knowingly bring the insect, or it- nest, or its 
eggs within the Commonwealth, and that a fine of two hundred 
dollars or durance vile for sixty days should await the culprit con- 
victed of breaking the laws. . 
Last year the Legislature repealed the act of 1890 but sub=-^ 
re-enacted its provisions, except t 
of selecting the suitable and discreet bug-hunters fr< 
to the State Board of Agriculture. Suitable and die 
something when these qualities an demanded by the 

448 Th 

They have cost so far an 
be whispered in Gath tha 
be undesirable for any su 
the salaries. Gc 
live Thousand do' 
for the fight. 

And the end is not yet. Thirty towns and cities, covering an area 
of two hundred miles, have the prolific progeny of the unwelcome 
visitor already infested. Official circulars posted behind the Salem 
postoffice door impart the unwelcome intelligence that they are here. 

If the ninety and nine moths are killed and the one that escapes 
becomes the happy parent of a quarter of a million or so of little gyp- 
sies, and this ratio of destruction and increase is maintained ad infin- 
itum, where will the suitable and discreet men eventually be, and Avhat 
will be left of the State Treasury but an empty chrysalis 1 


U. S. National Academy of Sciences.— This body met in 
Washington on April 18-2 1st for the transaction of business and the 
reading of papers. 

The following papers were read : 

The American Maar, G. K. Gilbert ; The Form and Efficiency of 
the Iced Bar Base Apparatus of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
R. S. Woodward (Introduced by T. C. Mendenhall) ; On Atmospheric 
Radiation of Heat in Meteorology, C. Abbe; On the Deflecting FoKWI 
that Produce the Diurnal Variation of the Normal Terrestrial Mag- 
netic Field, F. H. Bigelow (Introduced by C. Abbe) ; Abstract of 
Results from the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Magnetic Observa- 
tory at Los Angeles, Cal, 1882-1889, part III.; Differential RteasuWI 
of the Horizontal Component of the Magnetic Force, C. A. Schott ; 
On the Anatomy and Systematic Position of the Mecoptera, A. S. 
Packard; On the Laws of the Variation of Latitude. S. C. Chandler; 
On the Causes of Variations of Period in the Variable Stars, S .<-■ 
Chandler; On the Force of Gravity at Washington, T. C Menden- 
hall; On the Recent Variations of Latitude at Washington, T. G 
Mendenhall; On the Acoustic Properties of Aluminum, with Kxi*»- 
mental Illustrations, A. M. Mayer; Description of the Silver Haloid 
Molecule by Mechanical Force, M. Carey Lea ( Introduced by G.t. 
Barker); On the Homologies of the Cranial Arches of the Reptile 


Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.— On Feb. l'-Hh 

Allen lectured on the "Mechanism of the Mammalian Limb,'" which 
was richly illustrated with natural history sjuvinuns. Rev. Dr. 
McCook, in the absence of the president. General Wistar, made the 
address of the evening, on the opening of the new hall. 

Among other things Dr. McCook said: "This building mark, the 
culmination of a new life and policy which a few years ago was 
adopted by the Academy's administration. Professorships had U-en 

all, the professorships should be filled, and that next, work should be 
given professors to do. 

" Only a few years ago a few enthusiastic young professors were 
placed in the van of the new endeavor. Among them the late Camil 
Lewis, Prof. Benjamin Sharpe and Prof. Angelo Heilprin. Prof. 
Brinton came in at a later date and Prof. J. Gibbons Hunt, the 
nestor of the faculty, contributed something by his admirable popular 
lectures before the section of biology and microscopy. The new 
departure was a substantial success. > 

" Long before the University Extension movement presented its-It 
the Academy was working on the same lines. And the culmination 
of this work is this new hall which is now open for classes and courses 
of lectures. ,, „ «., -, 

" This, however, is but the vestibule of an unfinished building. The 
citizens of Philadelphia should hasten to the con 
building of which this hall forms a part. Complete this budding; 
give us money to endow richly the museum ; set these eager nan s 
and minds with all this machinery to work their best, and in twenty- 

Boston Society of Natural History.— April 20.— The follow- 
ing papers were read : Dr. John Murray, Some Recent Investigations 
into the Physical and Biological Conditions of the Lochs and Fjords 
of the West of Scotland ; Mr. E. Adams Hartwell, An Elevated Pot- 
hole at Fitchburg, Mass ; Mr. George H. Barton, Additional Notes on 
the Drumlins of Massachusetts.— Samuel Henshaw, Secretary pro 

The Biological Society of Washington.— April 16.— The 
following communications were read : Dr. C. W. Stiles, Notes on Par- 
asites, Taenia ovilla in its relation to Blanchard's Classification; Mr. 
F. V. Coville, The Flora of the High Sierras of California; New 
Plants from California, Nevada, and Utah ; Dr. Erwin F. Smith, 
A Review of Baillon's Botanical Dictionary; Mr. J. N. Rose, Mexi- 
can Leguminosse with Notes on Dr. Palmer's collection. 

April 30.— The principle paper of the evening was The Distribu- 
tion of Land, Water and Ice on this Continent in Later Geological 
Periods, by Prof. W. J. McGee. Other communications were: Dr. 
Erwin F. Smith, The Relation of Plants to the Soil. (Illustrated) ; Mr. 
Charles Hallock, Where Salt-water Fishes Hide; Results of Deep- 
water Seining. — Frederic A. Lucas, Secretary. 

Proceedings of the Natural Science Association of Staten 
Island.— April 9.— Meeting called to order at 8.30 o'clock. In the 
absence of the president, Mr. Arthur Hollick was elected chairman 

Mr. L. P. Gratacap submitted the following additional facts in 
regard to the fossil leaf exhibited at the last meeting. 

The specimen was found at Richmond valley, (not at Richmond as 
previously reported,) a few rods north-east of the railroad station, m 
an excavation made for a cellar. It was originally part of a larger 
slab, about U feet square, which seemed to be imbedded in the Drd 
of the hillside. No indication of any stratum or layer oi mate*** 
similar to the rock was noted. It was found about four years ago> . 
Mr. Mesner, from whom the above facte were obtained. 

Mr. Hollick remarked that the locality, as corrected, removed one 
of the elements of improbability, which had caused the s] 
looked at with suspicion, and that it had now been brought \M • 

I Proceedings of Scientific So< 

irea where such a leaf might be looked for 
' belongs to the Cretaceous genus Grewiop 

erosion and transportation by glacial action, as we know t 

be located in the sandstone layers ovorlyimr the Cretaeei 
the north and west of Richmond Valley station. 

Mr. Joseph ( '. Thompson exhibited a shin da huge inn 
was killed in the basement of his residence, at Clifton, on 
of April 1st. 

Mr. Hollick showed a diorite pebble, with a thin s* 

Drift at Princes Bay and atrractrd attention from its om 
ritie structure, so different from that of the close-drained .1 

tion showed it to be a diorite, consisting of hori 

: he former partly altered to green ac 

similar rock was found in a place by Mr. Gratacap, oi 

Lane, Xorthfield, and was described by him in the Pro< 

December 12th, 1891. 

Mr. Hollick referred to the memorandum in regard to a 
Barred Owl having been found near Bulbs Head, as n 
Proceedings of April 11th, 1891, and stated that the hiid 
nested lis the same tree. On March 12th of the present yt 
three eggs were found by Mr. ( harles H. Harte. The tre< 
in the same patch of woodland in which the Red Should 


■ the endowment and 
>ve recently 

established under the auspices of the Leland Stanford Junior Univer- 
sity, mention of which was made in the last number of this journal. 
It is intended to make this a place for original investigation of the 
habits, life history, structure and development of marine animals and 
plants and to carry on work here similar to that which has made the 
aquarium at Naples known all over the world. 

The Hopkins Laboratory will be under the general direction of 
Profs. Gilbert, Jenkins and Campbell. It will be open during the 
summer vacation and its facilities will be at the disposal of persons 
wishing to carry on original investigations in biology as well as of 
students and teachers interested in that line of subjects. It will be 
fully provided with aquaria while microscopes, microtomes and other 
instruments necessary for investigations will be taken from the labora- 
tories of the University. 

The Botanical Club of San Francisco has 155 members. It holds 
meetings on the first and third Mondays of each month in the lecture 
hall of the California Academy of Sciences. The officers for the 
present year are : President, Dr. Douglass H. Campbell ; Vice Presi- 
dent, Mrs. S. W. Dennis ; Secretary, Frank H. Voslet Trca urer, 
Miss A. M. Manning ; Librarian, Mrs. S. W. Burtchaell ; Curator, 
Miss E. B. Falkenan ; Councillors, Mrs. L. D. Emerson, C. C. Kiedy, 
and Miss C. H. Hittell. 

The announcement is made that Grevillea, the well-known journal 
of eryptogamie botany, will cease publication with the close of 
twentieth volume, unless other hands than those of its present editor, 
Mr. M. C. Cooke, take it up and carry it on. 

' F. B. Caulfield, an entomologist of Montreal, died in that city 

Dr. Unna offers vearly a prize of Mark 300 for dermatology! 
essays. This year the subject is "Schwund und Regei 
elastischen Gewebes der Haut unter verschiedenen pathologischen 

Verhiiltnissen." The essay must reach the publi 
Leopold Voss in Hamburg by the beginning of Decen 
judges this year are Profs. Klebs and Hover. 

Mr. Godefroy Lunel died in Geneva, Nov. 17, 1 8JM 
director of the Natural History Mu<eum there has he. 

nomination of Dr. .Maurice Bedot. 

Prof. H. S. Williams of Cornell, has been elected professor of geol- 
ogy at Yale University, to take the place of the Veteran Jan,<- I >. 
Dana. Prof. Dana still retains his connection with the Iniv, rsitv 
and will do some lecturing, but advancing years do not allow htm to 
devote himself as before to class work. 

Mr. W. M. Goldthwaite of New York City has started a 
zine entitled " Minerals " the scope of which is indicated by the name. 

A Correction. — The article entitled "Abnormal Duplication of 
the Urosonic in Rana catesbiaaa " in this journal for August 1891, 
should have been credited to Wm. L. Sherwood, 199 West 134th St., 
New York City. 

The Rev. C. J. Ball, M. A., continues to advance arguments in rapport 
of the identity of the ancient Accadian ideograms with early Chinese 
signs, ina series of interesting papers read before the Society <d" Biidieal 
Archeology, and printed in the Proceedings of the Society. The Acca- 
ianswereth. : Assyria and Bal.ylonia prior to thed 

incursion of the Semitic race. By some writers they are credited with 
the invention of that cuneiform or arrow-headed and wedge-shaped 
script, from which M. De Lacouperie maintains the early Ciiine.-e 
characters were derived, being cuneiform merely transferred from left 
to top, sometimes from an upright to a horizontal position. 

Mr. Stewart Culin, ot Philadelphia, the author of some able papers 
on "The Secret Societies of the Chinese in America;' and -'Chinese 
Games witl Diet has ust issued mot * _-re. aoh ritten memoir, 
" On the Gambling Games of the Chinese in America." It appears 
in the fourth number of the first volume of the Series in Philology, 
Literature, and Archeology of the publications of the University Press 

454 The American Naturalist. [May, 

of Pennsylvania, — a very promising series of well-printed little mono- 
graphs on various subjects, issued at a most reasonable price. The 
game of fan fan, or " that of repeatedly spreading out," is played in 
a cellar or basement, a sentinel being stationed without the door to 
give notice of the approach of danger. A second, of which the name 
Pak kop piu signifies " the game of the white pigeon ticket," is played 
in attics, pigeons being formerly employed to convey the tickets and 
winning numbers from the offices to their patrons. This is really a 
kind of lottery, and the assistants who prepare the papers are dignified 
with the title of Sin' shang, literally " first born " the equivalent to 
" Mr.," and the only title of respect used among the Chinese laborers 
in America. Gamblers of this nationality, like all others, are very 
superstitious, avoid the use of certain colors, and eat in silence the 
suppers provided by the gambling companies. They propitiate the 
gods with liberal offerings, and sometimes erect shrines in recognition 
of a successful coup. Their love of games of chance, in Mr. Culm's 
opinion, tends to give permanency to the Chinese settlements m 
America, as they cluster round the gambling places in the large cities. 





p,o«.eTcop E N ° 

N bT T s°kingsi.ey 

associate editors: 


Vol. XXVI. JUNE, 1892. 

No. 306 


VOL Xry °FairfiM Osborn. 455 

Zoology.- The Cla»!tuati 

FlON "\ *!* ™ Alice Boding,,. 482 
. M. D. 495 

^ND Pamphlets 502 

— Human Rumination. . 

- Member of the Chalicotheriodea ? 

tfews— General 5,,r> 

-.}-.— Quartz and Feld- 
-The Basalts of Cassel 
. ,- Diorite 
-The Porphyry of Mont 

Embryology.-Oxomxh of 

Eni »■ .'.:-> '-- 

= ■ 



518 and 520 MINOR STREET 



By Henry Fairfield Osborn. 

The Cartwright Lectures for 1892, No. L 1 

In the past decade of practical research and speculation in 
biology two subjects have outstripped in interest and import- 
ance the rapid progress all along the line. These are, first, the 
life-history of the reproductive cell from its infancy in the 
ovum onward, and second, the associated problem of heredity, 
wdiich passes insensibly from the field of direct observation 
into the region of pure speculation. 

As regards the cell it was generally believed that the nucleus 
was an arcanum into the mysteries of which we could not far 
penetrate ; but this belief has long been dispelled by the eager 
specialist, and it is no exaggeration to say that we now know 
more about the meaning of the nucleus than we did about the 
entire cell a few years ago. At that time the current solution 
of the heredity problem was a purely formal one; it came to 
the main barrier, namely, the relation of heredity and evolu- 
tion to the reproductive Veils, and leapt over it by the postulate 
of Pangenesis. The germ-cell studies of Balfour, Van Bene- 
den, the Hortwig brothers. Weisniann, Boveri and others have 
gradually led us to hope that we shall some day trace the con- 

456 The American Naturalist. [June, 

nection between the intricate metamorphoses in these cells and 
the external phenomena of heredity, and more than this, to 
realize that the heredity theory of the future must rest upon a 
far more exact knowledge than we enjoy at present of the his- 
tory of the reproductive cell both in itself and in the influ- 
ence which the surrounding body cells have upon it. 

These advances affect the problem of life and protoplasm, 
whether studied by the physician, the anthropologist or the 
zoologist, thus concentrating into one focus opinions which 
have been formed by the observation of widely different classes 
of facts. As each class of facts bears to the observer a differ- 
ent aspect and gives him a personal bias, the discussion is by 
no means ironical, and it is our privilege to live through one 
of those heated periods which mark the course of every revo- 
lution in the world of ideas. Such a crisis was brought about 
by the publication of the theory of Darwin, in 1858, and after 
subsiding has again been roused by Weismann's theory of 
heredity, published in 1883. 

This is the situation I have ventured to present to you as 
Cartwright lecturer, not, of course, without introducing some 
conclusions of my own, which have been derived from verte- 
brate palaeontology, but which I shall direct mainly upon 
human evolution. 

So far as theories need come before us now, remember that 
Lamarck (1792) attributed evolution to the hereditary trans- 
mission to offspring of changes (acquired variations) caused 
by environment and habit in the parent. Darwin's latest 
view was that evolution is due to the Natural Selection of such 
congenital variations as favored survival, supplemented bythe 
t ransmi8sion of acquired variations. Weismann entirely denies 
the transmission of acquired variations or characters, and 
attributes evolution solely to the natural selection of the indi- 
viduals which bear the most favorable variations of the germ 
or reproductive cells. We must, therefore, clearly distinguish 
between " congenital variations " which are part of our inherit- 
ance and " acquired - variations " which are due to our life- 
habits ; the question is, Are the latter transmitted ? 

Significance of Anomalies.— At the outs 
size the extreme complexity of evolution by 
Variation, or in terms of medical science, u| 

When we speak of a part as " anomalous * 
varies at birth from the ordinary or typical 
minute, as the small slip of a tendon, or lar: 
of a complete vertebra to the spinal column 
that in the muscular system alone there arc 
the average individual. It is clear that t 
new type, so far as the muscular system i 
consist in the accumulation of anomalie* k 
direction by heredity. Thus the anomalous 
generation may become the typical conditio 
later generation, and we observe the par; 
structure becoming an anomaly and an an 
becoming typical; for example, the supraco 
the humerus was once typical ; it is now am 
dation in development of the wisdom tooth 
lous ; it is now typical. 

The same principle applies to races whic 
stages of evolution ; an anomaly ' 
closure of the cranial sutures, is 


in the black. 

the deductions of the Weismann school of evolutionists seem 
to be founded upon the principle " de minimis non curat fez , 
that we need onlv regard such major variations as can, ex 
hypothesi, weigh in the scale of survival. Against tins I urge 
that we must regard the evolution of particular structure, the 
components of larger organs, the separate muscles an. »one> 
for example, for the very reason that wlul. in s, im • "^^' ^ 
play a most humble role in our economy we ran pio\ e ..y mi. 
a doubt that they are in course ot evolution. mot 
tions in foot structure, which are possibly ot vital importance 
to a quadruped whose very existence may depend upon speed 
sink Into obscurity as factors in the survival of the modern 
the most unimportant details of 
efore, to afford a far more crucial 
1 Selection theory, 

The evolution ( 

458 The American Naturalist. [June, 

than in the domain of his higher faculties, for the reason that 
Selection may operate upon variations in mind, while it taxes 
our credulity to believe it can operate upon variations in 
muscle and bone. This is my ground for selecting the skele- 
ton and muscles for the subject of the introductory lecture. 
Nevertheless, let us review variation in all its forms in human 
anatomy before forming an opinion. Let us remember, too, 
that congenital and acquired variations are universal as neces- 
sities of birth and life ; they are exhibited in the body as a 
whole — in its proportions, in the components of each limb, 
finally in the separate parts of each component, as in the 
divisions of a complex muscle. Thus the possibilities of 
transformism are everywhere. What is the nature and origin 
of congenital variations? Their causes? Do they follow cer- 
tain directions ? Do they spring from acquired variations by 
heredity ? These are some of the questions which are still 

But striking as are the anomalies from type, the repetitions 
of type as exhibited in atavism and normal inheritance are 
still more so, and equally difficult to explain. Therefore our 
theory must provide both for the observed laws of repetition 
of ancestral form and the laws of variation from ancestral 
form, as the pasture-land of evolution. Add to these, that for 
a period in each generation this entire legislation of nature is 
compressed into the tiny nucleus of the fertilized ovum, and 
the whole problem rises before us in the apparent impregna- 
bility which only intensifies our ardor of research. 

The anthropologists and anatomists have enjoyed a certain 
monopoly of Homo sapiens, while the biologists have directed 
their energies mainly upon the lower creation. But under the 
inspiring influences of the Darwinian theory these originally 
distinct branches have converged, and as man takes his place 
in the zoological svstein. comparative anatomy is recognized 
as the infallible key to human anatomy. 

For our present purpose we must suppress our sentiment at 
the outset and state plainly that the only interpretation of our 
bodily structure lies in the theory of our descent from some 
early member of the primates, such as may have given rise 

1892.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. 459 

also to the living Anthropoidea. This is also the only tenable 

teleological view, for many of our inherited organs are at 
present non-purposive, in some cases even harmful, as the 
appendix vermiforniis. 

From the typical mammalian stand-point man is a degen- 
erate animal ; his senses are inferior in acuteiiess; his upright 
position, while giving him a superior aspect, entails many 
disadvantages, as recently enumerated by Clevenger, 1 for the 
body is not fully adapted to it: his feet are not superior to 
those of many lower Eocene plantigrades; his teeth are 
mechanically far inferior to those of the domestic cat. In fact, 
if an unbiased comparative anatomist should reach this planet 
from Mars he could only pass favorable comment upon the 
perfection of the hand and the massive brain ! Holding these 

structures. I refer especially to civilized man. who is more 
prodigal with his inheritance than the savage. By virtue of 
the hand and the brain he is, nevertheless, the best adapted 
and most cosmopolitan vertebrate. The man of Neanderthal 
or Spy, with retreating forehead and brain of small cubic 
capacity 2 was limited both in his ideas and his powers of 
travel, yet he was our superior in some points of otteological 
structure. But the period of Neanderthal was recent com- 
pared with that in which some of our rudimentary organs 
were serviceable, such as the vermiform appendix or the pan- 
niculus carnosus 3 muscle. These rudiments, in tui 
genetic when we consider the age of the two antique sense 
organs in the optic thalamus, the remnants of the median or 
pineal eye and the pituitary body, both of which were 
undoubtedly present, and probably useful, in the recently dis- 
covered Silurian fishes ! 

disadvantages of the Upright Position, article in American i at 

trefages and others. See Fraipont 
muscle in the quadrupeds. 

460 The American Naturalist. [June, 

I mention these vestiges of some of the first steps in crea- 
tion to illustrate the extraordinary conservative power of her- 
edity (which is even more forcibly seen in our embryological 
development), partly also to show how widely our organs 
differ in age. Galton has compared the human frame to a new 
building built up of fragments of old ones ; extend this back 
into the ages and the comparison is complete. 

Development, Balance, Degeneration. — It is probable that 
none of our organs are absolutely static and that the apparent 
halt in the development of some is merely relative, as where 
a fast train passes a slow one. The numerous cases of arrested 
evolution in nature are always connected with fixity of envir- 
onment, an exceptional condition with man, and we have 
ample evidence that some organs are changing more rapidly 
than others. 

Adaptation to our changing circumstances is mainly effected 
by the simultaneous development and degeneration of organs 
which lie side by side, as in the muscles of the foot or hand ; 
in terms of physiology, we observe the hypertrophy of adapt- 
ive organs and atrophy of inadaptive or useless organs. This 
compensating readjustment, whereby the sum of nutrition to 
any region remains the same during redistribution to its parts, 
may be called metatrophism. It is the gerrymander principle 
in nature. 

In practical investigation it is very difficult in many cases 
to determine whether an organ is actually developing or degen- 
erating at the present time ; although its variability or ten- 
dency to present individual anomalies indicates that some 
change is in progress. I may instance the highly variable 
peroneus tertius muscle (Wood). The rise or fall of organs is 
so constantly associated with their degree of utility that in 
each case the doubt can be removed by a careful analysis of 
the greater or less actual service rendered by the part in ques- 
tion. Apart from the question of causation it is a fixed prin- 
ciple that a part degenerating by disuse in each individual 
will also be found degenerating in the race. 

1892.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. 461 

Degeneration is an extremely slow process; lioth in the 
muscular and skeletal systems we find organs so tar on the 
down grade that they are mere pensioners of the body, draw- 
ing pay (i. e., nutrition) for past honorable services without 
performing any corresponding work — the plantaris and pal- 
maris muscles for example. Of course an organ without a 
function is a disadvantage, so that the final duty <»t 
tion is to restore the balance between structure and Junction 
by placing it hors de combat entirely. ( >ne symptom ot decline 
is variability, in which the organ seem- to he demonstrating 
its own uselessness by occasional absence. As Humphrey 
remarks: " The muscles which are mosl frequently absent by 
anomalies are in fact those which can disappear with least 
inconvenience, either because they can be replaced by others 
or because they play an altogether secondary rob m the organ- 
ism." The stages downward are gradual; the rudiment 
becomes variable as an adult structure, then as a foetal struc- 
ture; the percentage of absence slowly increases until it reap- 
pears onlv as a reversion ; finally the part ceases even to revert 
and all record of it is lost. This long struggle of the destruc- 
tive power of degeneration, which you - 
adaptive factor, against the protective power of heredity tsthe 
most striking feature of the law of Repetition. (See Galton s 
similar principle of Regression in Anthropology). 

A careful study of our developing, degenerating, rudimen- 
taland reversional organs amply demonstrates that man i> 
now in a state of evolution hardly less rapid, I believe, than 
that which has produced the modern horse from 
five-toed ancestor. As far as I can see the only 
our evolution should be slower than that ot the am-mnt hoi,. 
is the frequent intermingling of races, wh 
resolve types which have specialized into more & f 
types. Wherever the human species has been isolate or i 
long period of time divergence of character is very mai 
will be seen in some of the races I refer to belo*. 

To lighten the long catalogue of facts, 
authors I shall fremiMitb, dlude to hnlnt. but wil i-<>ou ■ 
consider it for the time as associatronal rather than casual. 

462 The American Naturalist. [June, 

Pouchet says : " Man is a creature of the writing-table and 
could only have been invented in a country in which covering 
of the feet is universal ; " he should have added the " eating- 
table." From the average man our fashions and occupations 
demand the play of the forearm and hand, the independent 
and complex movements of the thumb and finger ; the out- 
ward turning of the foot in walking. These are some of the 
most conspicuous features of modern habit. 

The Skeletal Variations. 1 — In a most valuable essay by 
Arthur Thomson upon " The Influence of Posture on the Form 
of the Articular Surfaces of the Tibia and Astragalus in the 
Different Races of Man and the Higher Apes," 2 we find clearly 
brought out the distinction between congenital variations and 
those which may be acquired by prolonged habits of life. It 
is perfectly clear from this investigation that certain racial 
characters, such as " platycnemism " or flattened tibia, which 
have been considered of great importance in anthropology, 
may prove to be merely individual modifications due to cer- 
tain local and temporary customs. Thomson's conclusions are 
that the tibia is the most variable in length and form of any 
long bone in the body. Platycnemia is most frequent in tribes 
living by hunting and climbing in hilly countries, and is asso- 
ciated with the strong development of the tibialis posticus. 
The great convexity of the external condyloid surface of the 
tibia in savage races appears to be developed during life by 
the frequent or habitual knee flexure in squatting ; it is less 
developed where the tibia has a backward curve and is inde- 
pendent of platycnemia, Another product of the squatting 
habit is a facet formed upon the neck of the astragalus by the 
tibia. This is very rare in Europeans; it is found in the gorilla 
and orang, but rarely in the chimpanzee. We must therefore 
be on our guard to distinguish between congenital or heredi- 
tary skeletal characters which are fundamental and " acquired" 
skeletal variations which may not be hereditary. The latter 

'For recent general articles see Blanchard, L'Atavisme cliez 1' Homme, Rev. de 
Anthrop. 1885, p. 425 ; and Baker, The Ascent of Man, Proceedings of the Amer- 

2 Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 1889, p. 617. 

The Contemporary Kralu 

the elaboration of the spines of the cervical vertebrae, the 

of the lumbar vertebrae and shifting ol the pelvis upward, 
whereby a lumbar vertebra is added to the sacrum and sub- 
tracted from the dorso-lumbar series. 

Cunningham 1 has found that the division of the neural 
spines in the upper cervical vertebra' distinguishes tin- higher 
races from the lower. The spine of the axis is always bind. 
but the spines of the cervieals three, four and five are also, as 
a rule, bifid in the European, while they are single m the 
lower races. The same author shows 2 that the bodies of the 
lumbar vertebrae are altering, by widening and shortening, to 
form a firmer pillar of support, with a compensating increase 
in the length of the intervertebral cartilages. In the child 
tin vertebrae present more nearly their primitive elongate 
compressed form. With this is associated an increase, of the 
forward lumbar curvature (Turner); 3 the primitive (i. e Mili- 
um) curve was backward; even in the negroes the collective 
measurement of the posterior faces of the five lumbars is 
greater than the anterior, in the proportion of 10*1 to 100: 
whereas in the white the collective anterior faces exceed the 
posterior in nearly the same proportion— 100 to 96. 

The lower region of the back is also the seat of one of the 
most interesting and important of the changes in the body, 
namely, the correlated evolution of the inferior ribs, the Jum- 
ber vertebrae and the pelvis-to which embryology, adult and 
comparative anatomy and reversion all contribute their quota 
of proof. In most of the anthropoid apes, and therefore pre- 

^bid., 1886, p. 636. 

journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 1890, p. 117. 

464 The American Naturalist. [June, 

sumably in the pro-anthropos, there are thirteen complete ribs 
and four lumbar vertebrae, while man has twelve ribs and five 
lumbars. Thus we may consider the superior lumbar of 
adult man as a ribless dorsal ; not so in the human embryo, 
however, for Rosenberg 1 has found a cartilaginous rudiment of 
the missing 13th rib upon the so-called first lumbar. Atavism 
contributes an earlier chapter in the history of this region, for 
Birmingham 2 reports, out of fifty cases examined in one year, 
two in which there were six lumbars, and in each the 13th 
rib was well developed; this is an interesting example of 
"correlated reversion," for as the pelvis shifted downward to 
its ancestral position upon the 26th vertebra the 13th rib was 
also restored. The other ribs are in what the ancients styled 
a " state of flux ; " our 8th rib has been so recently floated 
from the sternum that, and according to Cunningham, 3 it 
reverts as a true rib in twenty cases out of a hundred, showing 
a decided preference for the right side. Regarding also the 
occasional fusion of the 5th lumbar with the sacrum and the 
unstable condition of the 12th rib, which is, by variation rudi- 
mentary or absent, Rosenberg makes bold to predict that in 
the man of the future the pelvis will shift another step 
upward to the 24th vertebra and we shall then lose our 12th 
rib. The upright position and consequent transfer of the 
weight of the abdominal viscera to the pelvis may be consid- 
ered the habit associated with this reduction of the chest; at 
all events, in the evolution of quadrupeds there is a constant 
relation of increase between the size of the posterior ribs and 
the weight of the viscera, until the rib-bearing vertebra rise 
to twenty and the lumbars are reduced to three. 4 It would be 
interesting to note the condition of the ribs in some of the 
large-bellied tribes of Africans in reference to this point. 

The coccyx has naturally been the center of active search 
for the missing flexible caudals. As is well known, the adult 
coccyx contains but from three to five centers, while the 
embryo contains from five to six. Dr. Max Bartels has made 
" Die geschwanzten Menschen " the subject of an exhaustive 

'Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 1891, p. 526. 

1892.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. 465 

memoir upon cases of the reversion of the tail, while Testut 
records all the primitive tail muscles in various stages of 
reversion. Watson reports that the curvatures eoccve;ia 
(-depressores caudse) only occur in 1 in 1000 cast s. 

This suggests a moment's digression to consider the ditl'er- 
ent phases of reversion. The 13th rib recurs by u 
baur 1 calls " neogenetic reversion," for it is simply the anom- 
alous adult development of an embryonic rudiment Under 
neogenetic reversions many anthem also include eases of the 
" arrested development," or persistence of an embryonic con- 
dition to adult life, such as the disunited odontoid process of 
the axis vertebra, which happens to repeat a very remote 
ancestral condition. I think such cases may illustrate a rever- 
sional tendency, although many case.- of arrested development. 
such as anencephaly, have no atavistic significance whatever. 2 
More rare and far more difficult to explain are the " paleogen- 
etic reversions," in which the anomaly, such as the supracon- 
dylar foramen, reverts to an atavus so remote that the rudi- 
ment is not even represented in the embryo. 

The features of skull development are primarily the increase 
of the cranium and the late closure of the cranial sutures in 
contrast with the more complete and earlier closure of the 
facial sutures. 

So far as I can gather this seems to be another region where 
the white and colored races present reversed conditions ; the 
early closure and arrest of brain development in the negroes 
is well known; the later closure among the whites is undoubt- 
edly an adaptation to brain growth. In his valuable statistics 
upon the Cambridge students Galton says: "Although it is 
pretty well ascertained that in the masses of population the 
brain ceases to grow after the age of nineteen, or even earlier, 
it is by no means the case with "university students. In high 
honor men headgrowth is precocious, their heads predominate 
over the average more at nineteen than at twenty-five." 

Many of the cases of arrested closure of facial sutures are 
reversional, as they correspond with the adult condition of 

^orph. Jahrb., Bd. vi, p. 585. 

466 The American Naturalist. [June, 

other races, such as the divided malar or os Japonicum. The 
human premaxillary, a discovery with which Goethe's name 
will always be associated, is sometimes partially, more rarely 
wholly, isolated ; it is late to unite with the maxillary in the 
Australians, and has been reported entirely separate in a New 
Caledonian child (Deslongchamps) and in two Greenlanders 
(Carus). The orbito-maxillary frontal suture, cited by Turner 
as a reversion to the pithecoid condition, is believed by Thom- 
son, 1 after the examination of one thousand and thirty-seven 
skulls, to be merely an accidental variation, without any 
deeper significance. The development of the temporal bone 
from two centers, observed by Meckel, Gruber and many 
others, is considered by Albrecht a reversion to the separate 
quadrate of the sauro-mammalia. This I think is in the 
highest degree improbable (see " Limits of Reversion "). The 
open cranial and ' closed facial sutures are apparently asso- 
ciated with our increasing brain action and decreasing jaw 
action; in one case the growth is prolonged and the sutures 
are left open, in the other the growth is arrested and the 
sutures are closed. 

Is the lower jaw developing or degenerating ? This ques- 
tion has recently been the subject of a spirited controversy 
between Mr. W. Piatt Ball, 2 representing the Weismann school, 
and Mr. F. Howard Collins, 3 supporting Herbert Spencer's 
view that a diminishing jaw is one of the features of our 
evolution which can only be explained by disuse. Mr. Col- 
lins finds that, relatively to the skull, the mass of the recent 
English jaw is one-ninth less than that of the ancient British, 
and roughly speaking, half that of the Australian. He 
appears to establish the view that the jaw is diminishing. 

Closely connected with this is the evolution of the teeth; 
how are they tending? This we will consider below. 

Variations of the Teeth.— Flower 4 has shown, as regards the 
length of our molar series, that we, together with the ancient 

irnal of the Anthropological Institute, ] 

1892.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. 

British and Egyptians, belong to a small-toothed or "microdc 
race; the Chinese, Indians (North American), Malayans j 
Negroes in part are intermediate or " mesodont." while 
Andamanese, Melanasions, Australians and Tasmanians 
" macrodont." While undersize marks the molars as a \vl 
the wisdom tooth is certainly in process of elimination ; it 
the symptoms of decline; it is very variable in size, form i 
in the date of its appearance: is often misplaced, and is 
uncommonly quite rudimentary (Tomes). 1 II. n i- anoi 
instance where the knife-and-ibrkless races reverse our dt^ 
eracy, for in them not only is the last normal molar (m. .">) la 
and cut long before the traditional years of discretion, bat in 
first two lower molars are found two intermediate cusp- 1 Tom 
which are variable or absent in us (Abbott) ; moreover, m 
macrodont races a surplus molar 3 (m. 4) is sometimes de 
oped. Mummery reports nine such cases among three h 
dred and twenty-eight West Africans (Ashantis). Afl 
instance of associated habit I may here mention that Dr. Li 
holtz, the Australian explorer, informs me that in a< 
natives the teeth are worn to the gum ; in the absence of t. 
they are used in every occupation, from eviscerating a so 
to cutting a root. A tour of inspection through any large 
lection of skulls brings out the contrast between the sound < 
hard-worn molars of the savage and the decayed and hi 
worn molars of the white. 

Upon the descent theory the reduction of teeth in the ] 
genitor of man began as far back as the Eocene period, tor 
later than that remote age do we find the full com piemen 
three incisors and four premolars in each jaw : now there 
but two remaining of each. Baume, a high authority. beh< 
he has discovered eleven cases of a rudimental reveraioi 
one of these lost premolars 4 not cutting the jaw. Not m 
quently both these missing teeth occur by reversion I 

2 o P . cit.. p. 418. s Kutra - n Tj 

"'"ol^dogttrF^cimrgenrp. 268. This rudiment is found between the 
and second normal premolars. 

468 The American Naturalist. [June, 

difficult to conceive of reversion to such a remote period, yet it 
is supported by other evidence. An embryonic third incisor 
has, I believe, been discovered. As long ago as 1863 Sedg- 
wick 1 recorded a case of six upper and lower incisors in both 
jaws, and appearing in both the milk and permanent denti- 
tions; this anomaly was inherited from a grandparent, a 
striking instance of hereditary reversional tendency. We 
might consider that these cases of supernumerary teeth 
belonged in the same category as polydactylism or additional 
fingers, which are not atavistic, but for the fact that they do 
not exceed the typical ancestral number, whereas the fingers 

We owe to Windle 1 a careful review of the incisor rever- 
sions in which he shows that the lost incisors reappear more 
frequently in the upper than the lower jaw (coinciding with 
the fact that the lower teeth were the first to disappear in the 
race) ; he considers that the lost tooth was the one originally 
next the canine, and concludes by adding our present upper 
outer incisor to the long list of degenerating organs. 3 He sup- 
ports this statement by measurements and by citing cases in 
which it has been found absent. Yet the reduction of the 
jaws is apparently outstripping that of the teeth, if we can 
judge from the frequent practice among American dentists of 
relieving the crowded jaw by extraction. 

We now turn to the arches and limbs. Flower has pointed 
out that the base of the scapula is widening in the higher 
races, so that the " index," or ratio of length to breadth is 
quite distinctive. Gegenbaur associates this with the develop- 
ment of the scapulo-humeral muscles and the greater play of 
the humerus as a prehensile organ. 

In general, the arm increases in interest as we descend 
toward the hand, both in the skeleton and musculature, 
because here we meet with the first glimpses of facts which 
enable us to form some estimate of the rate of human evolu- 
tion. The well-known humeral torsion (connected with 

British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review, 1863. 

1892.] The Contemporary Evolution oj Man. 469 

increased rotation) ascends from 152° in the polished stone 
age to 164° in the modern European. The intercondylar for- 
amen or perforation of the olecranon fossa is exceptionally 
well recorded; 1 it is found in thirty per cent, of skeletons of 
the reindeer period ; in the dolmen period it fell to twenty- 
four per cent.; in Parisian cemeteries between the fourth and 
tenth centuries it is found in 5.5 per cent. ; it has now fallen 
to 3.5 per cent. The condylar foramen, occasionally forming 
a complete bridge of bone above the inner condyle and trans- 
mitting the median nerve and brachial artery, is known as 
the " entepicondylar " foramen in comparative anatomy, and 
is one of the most ancient characters of the mammalia: it 
reverts palseogenetically in one per cent, of recent skeletons, 
but much more frequently in inferior races (Lamb). In the 
wrist-bone is sometimes developed another extremely old 
structure— the os centrale. Gruber 2 reported it- re* 
.25 per cent, approximately. This is a case of neogenetic 
reversion, for Leboucq 3 shows that there is a distinct centrale 
in every human carpus in the first part of the second month, 
which normally fuses with the scaphoid by the middle of the 
third month. . . 

The divergence of the female from the male pelvis is an 
important feature of our progressive development; it is proved 
by the fact that as we descend among the lower races it 
becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish the female skele- 
ton from the male, for the pelves of the two >exv^ are nearly 
uniform. Here it seems to me is a most interesting pro .hi 
for investigation. Arbuthnot Lane'-'' view- ol the m 
causes of this divergence, which are - 
may be weighed with the theory of survival ot the htte.-t. <>i 
a large female pelvis is perhaps the best example that can he 
adduced of a skeletal variation which would be preservi d by 
natural selection for reasons which are self-evident. The third 
trochanter of the femur is believed by Professor D wight, of 

Virchow's A v 1835, p. 353. 

470 The American Naturalist. [June, 

the Harvard Medical School, to be a true reversion (one per 
cent.) in our race and not an acquired variation, as it is very 
frequently found among the Sioux (fifty per cent.), Lapland- 
ers sixty-four per cent., and Swedes thirty-seven per cent, ; 
like the condylar foramen it is an ancient mammalian char- 

The foot is full of interest in its association of degeneration 
and development with our present habits of walking; the 
great toe is increasing and the little toe diminishing, causing 
the oblique slope from within outward which is in wide con- 
trast with the square toes in the infant or in the lower races. 
In many races the second t.oe is as long as the first, and the 
feet are carried parallel instead of the large toe turning out. 
If anyone will analyze his sensations in walking, even in his 
shoes, he will be conscious that the great toe is taking active 
part in progression, while the little toe is passive and insensi- 
tive. We are not surprised, therefore, to learn from Pfitzner 1 
that we are losing a phalanx, that in many human skeletons 
(41.5 per cent, in women and thirty-one per cent, in men) the 
two end joints of the little toe are fused. The fusion occurs 
not only in adults but between birth and the seventh year. 
and in embryos of between the fifth and seventh month. The 
author does not attribute this to the mechanical pressure of 
tight shoes because it is found in the poorer classes. He con- 
siders it the first act of a total degeneration of the fifth toe. 

Variations. in the Muscles.— The evolution of the muscles 
of the foot looks in the same direction. 

As you know, the large toe in many of the apes is set at an 
angle to the foot and is used in climbing. It is still employed 
in a variety of occupations by different races. According w 
Tremlett 2 the celebrated great toe of the Annamese, which 
normally projects at a wide angle from the foot, is contempt- 
uously mentioned in Chinese annals of 2285 B.C., the race 
being then described as the " cross-toes." The long flexor of 
the hallux is apparently degenerating, showing a tendency to 

] See Humboldt, 1890; also Nature, 1890, p. 301. 
journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1880, p. 461. 

1892.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. 471 

fuse with the flexor communis: the abductors and adductors 
of this toe are also degenerating, the latter being proportion- 
ately large in children (Ruge). The little toe exhibits only by 
reversion its primitive share of the flexor brevis (( Jegenbaur) ; 
more frequently it varies in the direction of its future decline 
by losing its flexor brevis tendon entirely. Two atavistic 
muscles, the abductor metatarsi tpiinti 1 (always present in lb*' 
apes), and the peroneus parvus (Bischoff), also point to the 
former mobility of the outer side of the foot. In general the 
bones of the foot are developing on the inner and degener- 

the hallux and of all independent movements in the little 
toe. The associated habit is that the main axis of pressure 
and strain now connects the heel and great toe. leaving tin- 
outer side of the foot comparatively fiinctionlesa 

The variations in the muscular system mark off moreclearly 
the regions of contemporary evolution, and therefore are even 
more instructive than those in the skeleton. Muscular anom- 
alies have, however, never been adequately analyzed. Even 
the remarkable memoir of M. Testut, "Sur les anomalies nms- 
culaires," is defective in not clearly distinguishing between 
variations which look to the future, those which revert to the 
past, and those which are fortuitous, for the author is strongly 
inclined to refer all anomalies to reversion. 

The law of muscular evolution is specialization by the suc- 
cessive separation of new independent contractile lauds iron. 
the large fundamental muscles, while the law oi skeletal eq- 
uation is reduction of primitive parts and the sp« 
articular surfaces. The number of muscles in th< 
a whole has, therefore, been steadily in 
number of bones has been diminishing. In man I 
of muscles is probably increasing in the regions of the lowei 
arm and diminishing in every other region. The 
rendered very difficult by the tact that some muse es {e, g 
those connecting the shoulder with the neck and back) revert 
to a former condition of greater- 
employed in swinging the body by the arms, and in quaaru- 

^arwin : Descent of Man, p. 42. 

pedal locomotion ; while other muscles {e.g., tl 
the forearm and fingers) revert to a former simpler arrange- 
ment when the hand was mainly a grasping organ, and the 
thumb was not opposable. 

As in the skeleton, we find that muscular anomalies include, 
1, paleogenetic reversions, or complete restorations of lost 
muscles; 2, neogenetic reversions, or revivals of former types 
in the relations of existing muscles ; 3, progressive variations, 
which either by degeneration or specialization point to future 
types; 4, fortuitous variations, which cannot be referred to 
either of the above. 

Duval observes that the flexor longus pollicis repeats in 
reversion all the stages of its evolution between man and the 
apes, in which it is a division of the flexor profundus. Gruber 
and others have even observed the absence of the thumb 
tendon. This is true of all the new muscles. Of this Testut 
writes : " Ne dirait-on pas, en le voyant s'eloigner si souvent 
de son etat normal, que la nature voudrait le ramener a sa 
disposition primitive, luttant ainsi sans cesse contre l'adapta- 
tion, et ne lui abandonnant qu' a regret l'une de ses plus 
belles conquetes." 

Speaking of the hand, Baker 1 says : " On comparing the 
human hand with that of the anthropoids, it may be seen that 
this efficiency is produced in two ways— first, increasing the 
mobility and variety of action of the thumb and fingers; 
. second, reducing the muscles used mainly to assist prolonged 
grasp, they being no longer necessary to an organ for delicate 
work requiring constant readjustment." You have noticed 
the recent discovery that the grasping power of infants is so 
great that the reflex contraction of the fingers upon a slender 
cross bar sustains their weight ; this power and the decided 
inward rotation of the sole of the foot and mobility of the toes 
are persistent adaptations. Our grasping muscle, the p: Jmari- 
longus, is highly variable and often absent ; like the plantaris 
of the calf, it has been replaced by other muscles, and its 
insertion has been withdrawn from the metapodium to the 
palmar fascia. In negroes we frequently find the palmaris 

K)p. cit., P . 299. 

1392.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. 473 

reverting to its former function of flexing the fingers by 
insertionjin the metacarpals. 

The rise of muscular specialization by degeneration is 
beautifully shown in the extensor indicis, which, while nor- 
mally supplying the index only, revert- by sending its former 
slips to the thumb, middle, and even to the ring finger. 
Testut 1 believes that the extension power of the middle and 
ring fingers has declined, as the cases of reversion point to 
greater mobility ; the extensor minimi digiti is distinct and 
highly variable (Wood), often sending a slip to the ring hng.-r. 

The entire flexor groupof the hand, excepting the palmarw, 
is apparently specializing. The demonstration by Windl.- 1 
and Bland Sutton, that the origin of the flexors and entensors 
is sniffing downward from their original position, is evidence 
of an adaptation to the short special contractions required oi 

1 The abductor pollicis* is also progressive and ramble 
(Wood); the reduplication of its inferior tendon, which is 
sometimes provided with a distinct muscle, apparently pointe 
to the birth of a second abductor. The opponens of I 
is well established and constant. ^ anabilm seems to . haiae- 
terize both the developing and degenerating muscles, tne 
latter are apt to be absent; it is rare that an important mus- 
cle, such as the extensor indicis, is absent, but such cases are 

Til interesting to note that the lost muscles of the body 
are almost exclusively in the trunk or shoulder a: 
arches, and not in the limbs. It will be remember! tl 1, 
human shoulder-joint is excepl 
quadrupedal state it was a factor m progivs-.o... 

muscular reversions in this quadrupedal n B 
clavicnlB3(l to 60, Macalister), trachelo- 

intermedins, acromio-basilari- 

(Gegenbaur). Apparently associated with he™ t 

ng g f the body by the fore-limb in the arboreal life are the 

journal of Anatomy a 

atavistic coraco-brachialis-brevis (Testut), the epitrochleo-do 
salis (Testut), and pectoralis tertius (Testut). 1 *. . 

Centers of Variability.— As the literature is so readily 
accessible I will not multiply illustrations of the innumerable 
congenital variations related to human evolution. I call 
attention to several important inductions. First, there are 
several centers in which both the skeletal and muscular 
systems are highly variable. Second, that the most conspicu- 
ous variations, and therefore the most frequently recorded, are 
reversions. Third, that structure lags far behind function in 

The conclusions of Wood and Testut 2 are that variability is 
independent of age or sex, of general muscularity, and of 
abnormal mental development. Wood found 981 anomalies 
in 102 subjects ; of these, 623 were developed upon both sides 
of the body, while 358 were unilateral. Of still greater interest 
are the statistics collected by Wood between 1867-68 in the 
dissecting-room of King's College, upon 36 subjects (18 of each 
sex). These show that there are more anomalies in the limbs 
than in the trunk ; that anomalies are rare in the pelvis ; that 
there were 292 anomalies in the anterior limbs to 119 in the 
posterior ; that in both limbs the anomalies increase toward 
the distal segments, culminating in the muscles of the thumb, 
where they rise to ninety per cent, (mainly flex. long, pollicis, 
and abd. long, pollicis). These facts seem to prove conclusively 
that while variation is universal it rises to a maximum in the 
centers where human evolution is most rapid; here are 
Herbert Spencer's conditions of unstable equilibrium. This 
has a direct bearing, as I shall show, upon our theory of 

Fortuitous Congenital Variations. — I have thus far con- 
sidered only those variations which apparently have a definite 
relation to the course of human evolution. There is an 

'Quain describes seventy anomalous muscles (Anat., Vol. I.) Testut describes a 
still larger number. 

1892.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man, 475 

ent iroly different class of congenital variations whicli may In- 
described as fortuitous or indefinite because they do not omir 
in any fixed percentage 1 of cases; they are liable to take any 

are not found in the hypothetical atavus, and there ifl DO* 
sufficient evidence to cause us to consider them as incipient 
features of our future structure. 

Some may not be truly congenital (i.e., springing direct 
from the germ-cells) but may be merely deviations from the 
normal course of development, I may instance the variations 
in the carpus recorded by Turner 1 in which the trapezium and 
scaphoid unite, or the trapezoid and semi-lunar divide, or the 
astragalus and navicular unite (Anderson). 

The best examples of fortuitous congenital variations arc- 
seen in supernumerary fingers and vertebra'. The eighth 
cervical vertebra, bearing a rudimentary rib, 2 is not a reversion 
because the most remote ancestors of man have but seven cer- 
vicals. In cases where a rib is developed upon the seventh 
cervical, however, the reversion theory is perhaps applicable 
because rib bearing cervicals are relatively less remote. The 
same distinction applies to polydactylism. Plow absurd it is 
to consider a sixth finger atavistic, when we remember that 
even our Permain ancestors had but five fingers. 

We cannot, however, class as purely fortuitous a variation 
which occurs in a definite percentage of cases presenting 
twenty-four different varieties, but occurring in the same 
region. Such is the much-discussed 3 musculus sternalis, a 
muscle extending vertically over the origin of the pectoimlia 
from the region of the sterno-mastoid to that of the ohli.pius 
externus. Testut lightlv applies his universal reversion the- 
ory, and as this muscle is not found in any mammal considers 
it a regression to the reptilian presternal (Ophidia) ! Turner 
also considered it as reversional in connection with the panm- 
culus carnosus, the old twitching muscle of the skin which 
plays so many freaks of reversion in the scalp and neck ; this 

'Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 1884, p. 245. 

*Arb. Lane : Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 1885, p. 266. 

'See T„rn. r Sh.nherd. and Cunningham : Journal of Anatomy and Phys.ology. 

476 The American Naturalist. [June, 

view is negatived by the fact that this muscle is innervated by 
the anterior thoracic (Cunningham, Shepherd) which would 
connect it with the pectoral system, or by the intercostal 
nerves (Bardeleben). Although the high percentage of recur- 
rence in the sternalis in anencephalous monsters (ninety per 
cent, according to Shepherd) support- the reversion view, it is 
offset by the high percentage (four per cent.) in normal sub- 
jects, for this is far too high for a structure of such age as the 
reptilian presternal. Cunningham has advanced another 
hypothesis, first suggested by the frequency of this anomaly 
in women, that this is a new inspiratory muscle, having its 
origin in reversion, but serving a useful purpose when it 
recurs, and therefore likely to be perpetuated. 

These fortuitous variations, as well as variations in the pro- 
portions of organs, play an important part in the present 
discussion upon heredity, for it is believed by the Weismann 
school that such variations, if they chance to be useful, will be 
accumulated by selection and thus become race characters. 

The Limits of Reversion. — There is such a wide difference 
of opinion upon the subject of reversions that it is important 
to determine what are some of the tests of genuine reversions ? 
How shall we distinguish them from indefinite variations or 
from anomalies like the sternalis muscle, which strain the 
reversion theory to the breaking-point ? 

Testut, 1 Duval, and Blanchard take the extreme position 
that almost all anomalies reproduce earlier normal structures, 
and that the exceptions may be attributed to the incomplete- 
ness of our knowledge of comparative anatomy. I may here 
observe that popular as the descent theory has recently 
become in France, neither these anthropologists nor the 
palaeontologists show a very clear conception of the phyletic 
or branching elements in evolution. If they do not find a 
muscle in the primates they look for it in other orders of 
mammals. Now, since these other branches diverged from 
that which gave rise to man at a most remote period, the dis- 

l Op. cit., p. 4. 

1892.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. All 

covery of a similar muscle may be merely a coincidence ; it, is 
by no means a proof of reversion. 

The first test of reversion is therefore the anatomy of the 
atavus, and this is derived partly from the puhvontological 
record of the primates, partly from the law of divergence, viz., 
that features which are common to all the living primates 
were probably also found in the stem form which gave rise 
to man ; finally, from the comparative anatomy of the living 

The second test is whether a structure passes the limits «.f 
reversion as determined by cases of atavism in which there 
can be no reasonable doubt. Two of these phenomena have 
recently been discussed, which seem to extend the possibilities 
of reversion back to structures which were lost at a very 
remote period. I refer to papers by Williams and Howes. 
Williams 1 has analyzed 166 recorded cases of polymastism ; 
he finds that supernumerary nipples of some form occur in 
two per cent., and that in all except four of the cases exam- 
ined the anomalies, tested by position, etc., support the rever- 
sion hypothesis. In the living lemurs, which form a persist- 
ent primitive group of monkeys, we find that the transition 
from polymastism to bimastism is now in progress by tin- 
degeneration of the abdominal and inguinal nipples, it is fair 
to assume that the higher monkeys also lost their abdominal 
nipples at a primitive stage of development, and therefore that 
cases of multiple nipples indicate reversion to a lower Eocene 
condition ! Howes 2 has recently completed a most interesting 
study of the " intranasal epiglottis," or cases in which the epi- 
glottis is carried up into the posterior nares, as m young mar- 
supials and some cetacea, to subserve direct narial respiration. 
This has now been observed to occur by reversion in all orders 
of mammals, including the monkeys and lemurs. Or 
has also been reported by Sutton of its c 
foetus. This is apparently a human reversi 
much older than the age of the lemurs. 

The third test is the inverse ratio to time. 
priori, that the percentage of recurrence ot ; 

journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 1891, p. 224. 
*Ibid, 1889, p. 587. 

i a hum a 

478 The American Naturalist. [June, 

should decrease as the extent of time elapsing since the struc- 
ture disappeared increases. This law is apparently established 
in the case of the condylar and intercondylar foramina, and 
if we examine all the percentages which have been estab- 
lished, we see at once that they bear a ratio to time ; compare 
the relative frequency of the ischio-pubic (fifty per cent.), 
dorso-epitrochlearis (five per cent,), and levator-claviculse 
(1.66 per cent.) muscles with the periods which have elapsed 
since their past service. This is why it is so important to 
establish percentages for all our atavistic organs ; fuller statis- 
tics will not only bear upon heredity, but I can conceive of 
their application to the extremely difficult problem of estima- 
ting geological time. We must, of course, establish as a 
standard cases of congenital variation in which the frequency 
of recurrence has been steadily declining in the same race 
between two known periods of time — an available structure is 
the intercondylar foramen or supratrochlear foramen, as 
recorded by Blanchard, Shepherd and others. 

The reversional tendency is hereditary. There are many 
cases, both of reversions (as in the teeth) and indefinite varia- 
tions being hereditary, that is, reappearing in several genera- 
tions, or skipping a generation and recurring in the second. 

Summary. — There are clearly marked out several regions 
in the human body in which evolution is relatively most 
rapid, such as the lower portion of the chest, the upper cervi- 
cals, the shoulder girdle in its relation to the trunk, the lower 
portion of the arm and hand, the outer portion of the foot. 
We notice that these regions especially are centers of adapta- 
tion to new habits of life in which new organs and new rela- 
tions of parts are being acquired and old organs abandoned. 

We observe, also, that all parts of the body are not equally 
variable, but these centers of evolution are also the chief cen- 
ters of variability. The variations here are not exclusively, 
but mainly, of one kind ; they rise from the constant struggle 
between adaptation and the force of heredity. Here is a 
muscle like the extensor indicis attempting to give up an old 
function and establish a new one ; it maintains its new func- 

1392.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. 479 

tion for several generations and then goes back without any 
warning to a function which it had thousands of years ago. 
Thus the force of reversion strikes us as a universal factor. 

Now the singular fact about reversion is the frequent proof 
it affords of what Galton has called " particulate inheritance. 1 ' 
When the extensor indicis reverts all the muscles around it 
may be normal ; therefore we are obliged to consider each <>f 
these muscles as a structure by itself with its own particular 
history and its own tendencies to develop or degenerate 1 bus 
it is misleading to base our theory of evolution and heredity 
solely upon entire organs; in the hand and foot we have 
numerous cases of muscles in close contiguity, one steadily 
developing, the other steadily degenerating. Reversion very 
rarely acts upon many structures at once; when it does we 
have a case of diffused anomaly, some repetition in the epi- 
dermis or in the entire organism of a lower type. Yet in spite 
of reversion and the strong force of repetition in inheritance, 
the human race is steadily evolving into a new type. We 
must, it seems to me, admit that an active principle is con- 
stantly operating upon these particular structures, guiding 
them into new lines of adaptation, acting upon widely sepa- 
rate minor parts or causing two parts, side by side, to evolve 
in opposite directions, one toward degeneration the other 
toward development. 

I may now recall the two opposed theories as to what this 
active principle is : 

The first, and oldest, is that individual adaptation, or the 
tendencies established by use and disuse upon particular struc- 
tures in the parent are, in some degree, transmitted to the off- 
spring, and thus guide the main course of variation and adap- 
tation. ... , 

The second is that all parts of the body are variable, and 
that wherever variations take a direction favorable (that is 
adaptive) to the survival of the parent they tend to be pre- 
served ; where they take the opposite direction they tend to be 
eliminated. Thus, in the long run, adaptive variations are 
accumulated and a new type is evolved. 





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1892.] The Contemporary Evolution of Man. 481 

It is evident at once, from a glance over the facts brought for- 
ward in this lecture, that the first theory is the simplest expla- 
nation of these facts ; that use and disuse characterizes all the 
centers of evolution ; that changes of structure are slowly fol- 
lowing our changes of function or habit. 

But while the first explanation is the simplest it by no 
means follows that it is the true one. In fact, it lands us in 
many difficulties, so that I shall reserve the pros and cons for 
my second lecture upon Heredity. The Lamarckian theory is 
a suspiciously simple explanation of such complex processes. 
(To be continued.) 

482 The American Naturalist. [June, 


By Alice Bodington. 

The science of Psychology is at last emerging from the 
cloudland of Metaphysics in which it has been enveloped 
from immemorial ages. Deep would be the folly of the man 
who would declare that we know what mind or consciousness 
really is, but at least we are beginning to understand some- 
thing of its phenomena on the physical side, and to recognize 
that even the human mind is a product of evolution. 
Whether an impassable gulf, or a rubicon which can be boldly 
and safely crossed, separates the human mind from mind in 
the lower animals, is still a moot point with men of the high- 
est scientific repute. 

I do not for a moment pretend to approach the question 
from the high metaphysical point of view, but only to apply 
to the subject the same method which has so successfully 
been applied in biology ; to put theories on one side, until we 
have ascertained as many ordinary facts as possible. In 
biology the greatest triumphs have been obtained by the 
demonstration that ontogeny, the history of the individual, is 
a guide to phylogeny — the history of the race. And in exam- 
ining the history of the race, we find the development of the 
lower species of animals an invaluable guide in understanding 
the development of the higher species. Moreover if we wish 
to understand the peculiarities of domesticated animals, we 
must study the habits of their wild relations. These three 
guides we may take in studying the development of the human 
mind ; in the child we may study its ontogeny ; in the devel- 
opment of intelligence in animals we can observe the dawn of 
faculties which attain their supreme expression in man; 
and in the more primitive or savage races of man, we may see 
the germ which contained the nucleus of our civilization. 

1892.] Mental Evolution in Man and Lower Animals. 483 

In the child, we find at the beginning of life a mental con- 
dition as low as that of a blind puppy or a kitten, showing 
two instincts only, 1 of which one has but lately been revealed ; 
and no glimmerings, for many months, of reason. From this 
humble beginning, to the highest point which human faculties 
can reach, there is no break ; no point at which we can say 
"here mind exists, where yesterday it was not." Not only is 
the growth of the human mind gradual, but during its earlier 
phases of development it assuredly ascends " through a seal.' 
" of mental faculties parallel with those permanently presented 
"by the lower animals, whilst with regard to the emotions the 
" area these cover in the lower animals is nearly co-ex tensive 
" with that covered by the emotional faculties of man.-'" Tie 
purely human emotions may indeed be limited to religion and 
the sense of the sublime. 

And if from the history of the individual, we turn to all we 
know of the history of the race, the evidence of a gradual 
evolution of mental faculties is the same; from the rough flint 
weapons of the drift period, to the era of polished stone : from 
polished stone to bronze; from bronze to iron; from the 
fetich of shapeless wood stuck with feathers, and the merciless 
nature-gods, which men saw in sunshine and storm, m femine 
and in pestilence, to the Brahma of the Vedas and the God of 
Isaiah ; from the rude sticks covered by skins of animals and 

shelters of rough piled i 

houses of wood and hewn 

stone, and thence to such conceptions as are embodied in the 
Parthenon, or in the Cathedrals of the middle ages we have 
similar evidences of evolution. And whatever point ot view 
we take we see progress starting from the humblest .beginnings ; 
no matter how towering the building, its foundations are laid 
deep in the earth. . „, . 

It has been alleged that this very progress m human anair, 
draws a shape line of demarcation between men and animate; 
that whereas in man a constant improvement goes on, no -si n 
of progress can be found in brutes. This argument is weak 

iThe instinct, pointing surely to an arboreal ancestry, by which a new born infant 

484 The American Naturalist. [j tt ne, 

on both sides. On the one hand though 
rapid improvement, is a characteristic of certain races of men, 
yet there are numerous races whose improvement is either 
stationary or incredibly slow. They are to other men, what 
the Lingula, which has remained unchanged since Cambrian 
times is to other invertebrates. There are savages still in 
the age of unpolished stone; savages whose religion is the 
lowest fetich worship ; savages whose only refuge is a skin 
spread over a few sticks, and others to whom any kind of 
shelter is unknown. Some progress they have all made from 
the furry arboreal animal with pointed ears, but it has been a 
progress immeasurably behind that of the higher races of 
man. " Rapid and continuous improvement," in the words of 
Mr. Romanes, " is a characteristic of only a small division of 
" the human race, during the last few hours, as it were, of its 
existence." The wonder is that with articulate language, man 
should have improved so slowly. 

On the other hand it would be impossible to deny the great 
improvement which has taken place in the mental and moral 
qualities of the dog, when we compare him with the wolves 
and jackals from which he is descended. He has won for 
himself a tribute of praise from some of our noblest poets ; a 
tribute richly due to his devoted love and fidelity. Hear 
Wordsworth's lament : 

loughts that were 

hich thou hadst thy share, 

ns vouchsafed to thee, 

And Byron writes not less warmly: 

" The poor dog, in life the firmest frie 
The first to welcome, foremost to deft 

Mental Evolution i 
Wnose honest heart is 

There can be little doubt that if other animals had been 
valued for their moral qualities, had those been carefully 
developed from generation to generation, they would liaw 
shown a like, or a greater improvement. The intellectual 
qualities shown by trained elephants, which in their youth 
have roamed wild through the forests, is so marvellous, that it 
is difficult to imagine or estimate what intelligence of the race 
might become after a few generations of cultivation. And 
the same remark applies to the acuteness of intellect shown in 
captivity by many apes and monkeys, which have been 
brought fresh from their native woods. What progress would 
creatures so intelligent, so teachable, so insatiably curious and 
so persevering make after a few generations of culture ? 

But putting aside the great development in the psychology 
of the dog, we have in paleontology the most unanswerable 
evidence of the vast improvement which has taken place in 
the brains of mammals since Eocene times. 

In our own day the brains of the higher mammals show a 
great increase in the cerebrum, the part of the brain concerned 
especially with intellectual functions and its surface is greatly 
increased by convolutions. Gradually as we go back in geo- 
logical time the cerebral hemispheres are smaller, then they 
no longer cover the mid-brain, and the latter shows distinctly, 
as in reptiles and fishes there are of course no convolutions, 
and finally in the Eocene we meet with mammals, immense in 
size, but with the brains of reptiles. 1 

A faulty nomenclature has probably had a great deal to 
answer for in the tardy recognition of the intellectual powers of 
the lower animals. Ideas have been divided into " simple " 
and " general," or into " concrete " and " abstract," It was 
impossible to deny the existence of simple ideas in brutes, but 
it was, and is, contended that they are incapable of abstract 
ideas. Mr. Romanes points out the existence of a wide terri- 
tory between simple and abstract ideas, and he proposes a 

Origin of the Fittest. Cope. 

486 The American Naturalist. [j une , 

threefold definition of ideas to which he gives several names. 
It will make the question clearer if we take three of these 
names and speak of simple, complex and abstract ideas ; or of 
percepts, recepts and concepts. 

This definition can be illustrated by taking the word "star." 
The recognition of one particular star is a simple idea or 
precept ; the recognition of a number of stars, or of bright 
twinkling objects resembling the shining of stars, is a complex 
idea or recept. So far the mind of the higher brutes keeps 
pace with the developing mind of man. But the next step 
carries us beyond the mental powers both of infants and of 
animals : neither can conceive the idea of a star as present to 
the mind of an astronomer. This is an abstract idea or con- 
cept, and is unattainable except through the medium of articu- 
late language. Where the child sees a twinkling spark, the 
astronomer is conscious of a naming sun ; where, until lately, 
men recognized the symbol of unchangeableness, the 
astronomer knows he beholds stupendous worlds rushing 
through space at unimaginable speed ; where the Hebrew seer 
beheld " lesser lights " stuck in a solid firmament solely for the 
service of man, the astronomer knows that his eye beholds 
objects at a distance of millions upon millions of miles, objects 
whose grandeur throws our whole solar system into insignifi- 
cance. An abstract idea is in itself capable of containing a 
volume of knowledge ; its capacities have hardly any limits 
but that of the mind itself. Think only of the world of con- 
cepts contained in the words "political economy," "verte- 
brata," " liberty," " Aryan Race," " mythology," " ethics," and 
we see how far civilized man has outstripped, not only the 
lower animals, but the young of his own race and the savage ; 
but the break is not at the minds of the lower animals. Rather 
there is no break, but a gradual evolution. 

We may take as another instance of simple, complex and 
abstract ideas the idea of one particular dog in the mind of 
the child; the idea of dogs in general, extended to figures or 
pictures of dogs ; and the ideas of the genus " Canis " as pres- 
ent to the mind of the zoologist. The first and second con- 
to the young child and the lower ani- 

1892.] Mental Erohition in Ma„ .in,} Lower Animal*. 487 

mals; the third transcends the power of either. The exten- 

French child, who was warned not to touch tire and candles 
by the words " Ca brule." Tins idea she spontaneously applied 
to other shining objects. Her mother and nurse a bo amused 
her by hiding and saying " Coiieou." Watching the sun set 
one evening the child generalized the ideas of shining, burn- 
ing and of hiding, bv exclaiming " < a hrule coucou." A 
terrier has a very simple idea as to a rabbit ; to eatch it and 
kill it anyhow and anywhere. But he also lias a general idea 
of rabbits, as may be demonstrated by calling hi- attention to 
this idea if he is out for a walk, when a violent scampering. 
harking and digging for imaginary rabbits may be expected 
to take place. A dog formerly in the possession of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury had the habit of hunting pigs, and for 
inscrutable reason, always after prayers. After a time there 
were no more pigs to be hunted in the flesh, but at the word 
"pigs," the dog vehemently hunted imaginary pigs. 

Finally it was enough to open the door, without uttering a 
word, and the dog rushed to his visionary pig hunt. A dog 
belonging to Mr. Romanes' sister showed that it not only had 
an idea of men and women, but that it could recognize that 
which was like a human being and yet was not one. This 
dog showed the utmost terror at the appearance of three life- 
sized pictures. But instead of attacking them with tail erect, 
as he would have attacked a strange person, he "barked vio- 
lently and incessantly at some distance from the paintings, 
with tail down and body elongated, sometimes bolting under 
the chairs and sofas in the extremity of his fear, and con- 
tinued barking from there." When the faces of the pictures 
were covered he became quiet and contented, but resumed his 
frightened barking if one was uncovered. Gradually he 
became accustomed to the pictures, and after a time he was 
taken away from the house for some months. On returning, 
he was again much startled at seeing the pictures, and rushed 
at them barking. Very quickly though he appears to have 
reasoned that he had seen these strange things— that were and 
were not— men and women, before, and that they had proved 

488 The American Naturalist. [June, 

harmless, for " after three or four barks he ran back to me 
" with the same apologetic manner he has when he has barked 
" at a well-known friend by mistake." 1 

If we arbitrarily confine the definition of " reason " to the 
power of putting our ideas into words, then of course animals 
must be denied the faculty of reason as they do not possess 
that of articulate speech. But if to " reason " be to form ideas 
in the mind; to class them together; to be influenced by 
them ; to act upon them, then animals possess reason. And 
the extent of reasoning faculty depends upon the development 
of the brain ; on its comparative richness in convolutions, and 
on its cultivation by education in animals as well as in men. 
The difference in degree is enormous, but differences in degree 
do not destroy homologies in zoological classification. An 
elephant's nose is still a nose though it is prodigiously 
elongated, and serves as a tactile and prehensile organ. It is 
not that man has one particular organ highly specialized; 
immense numbers of animals have organs highly specialized ; 
the foot of the horse ; the fore limbs of the bat ; the whole 
skeleton of the whale are conspicuous instances. In man 
the specialization has been in the brain, and this has made 
him the master of creation, but the difference between the 
brain of man and of apes is not so great as the difference 
between the foot of the horse and that of the elephant. Yet 
the difference being not between foot and foot, but in the very 
organ of thought itself, the effect is incalculable in producing 
superiority of the one animal over the other. 

It has been asserted that we can form no general ideas 
without words. It is true that we so commonly put our ideas 
into words, that we may be tempted to identify the one with 
the other. But deaf mutes who have been educated have 
related their mental experiences when untrained, and they 
describe themselves as " thinking in pictures." I have had 
a similar experience in meeting with two plants in the forest 
of British Columbia ; one attaining almost to the dimensions 
of a forest tree ; the other no larger than our wood anemone, 
yet agreeing exactly in the botanical peculiarity of their 

1892.] Mental Evolution in Man and Lower Animals. 489 

flowers. I know now that these plants belong to the genus 
Cornus, but I did not ascertain this fact for many months, 
and in the mean time I thought of these plants in picture* in 
which I was vividly conscious of their peculiarities. And 
where the mind is unable to avail itself of articulate language, 
this faculty of thinking in pictures may be carried to a point 
far beyond what we may imagine credible; just as the tying 
of knots in strings in a particular fashion served as whole 
books of history to the Peruvian Indians who were unac- 
quainted with writing. 

Moreover though unable themselves to employ articulate 
language, the higher animals have the mental advantage of 
being able to understand and remember spoken words. 

It is estimated that the more intelligent elephants in 
government employ in India and Ceylon understand more 
than eighty words and phrases addressed to them by their 
keepers. This statement is the more credible when we con- 
sider the diversity of occupations in which trained elephant- 
are engaged. The most striking instance I know of bearing 
on the reasoning powers of these sagacious animals is given 
in Mr. Romanes' work on Animal Intelligence, 1 on the authority 
of Mr. Bingley. 

" In the last war in India a young elephant received a 
violent wound in its head, the pain of which rendered it so 
frantic and ungovernable that it was found impossible to per- 
suade the animal to have the part dressed. Whenever any one 
approached, it ran off with fury, and would suffer no person 
to come within several yards of it. The man who had care 
of it at length hit upon a contrivance for securing it. By a 
few words and signs he gave the mother of the animal suffi- 
cient intelligence of what was wanted ; the sensible creature 
immediately seized her young one with her trunk and held 
it firmly down, though groaning with agony, while the sur- 
geon completely dressed the wound; and she continued 
to perform this service until the animal was perfectly 
recovered." When we consider the passionate devotion of 
the female elephant to her young one, and the fury Willi 

490 The American Naturalist. [June, 

which she will defend it from injury or danger, it is almost 
impossible to admire too highly, the reasoning powers, the 
self-control, and the intelligent comprehension of words by 
this mother, under circumstances which would severely try 
all these qualities in a human parent. It is well-known that 
elephants patiently, and even gratefully endure painful opera- 
tions performed on their own persons, such as the cutting 
open and dressing of deep ulcers, and the dropping of nitric 
acid in the eye. Yet the same animal would deeply resent 
the slightest intentional injury, such as the prick of a pin, 
and would lose no opportunity of revenge. 

The account of the extraordinary intelligence shown by 
the trained elephant " Siribeddi " in the capture of wild 
elephants, is too long to be given here but will richly repay 
perusal. [Animal Intelligence, p. 402]. Her comprehension 
of everything required of her; her original ideas of what 
should be done on the spur of the moment ; her intense 
enjoyment of the sport ; her Delilah-like duplicity towards her 
male captives; her extreme care to avoid injuring the 
prisoners ; all show an intelligence not below that of a human 
hunter, whilst in her care to avoid injuring her captives, she 
puts the human hunter to shame. 

In the parrot, low as it is in the psychological scale, com- 
pared to the higher mammals, we have examples of the com- 
prehension of words uttered by the animal itself. Mr. Darwin 
gives an instance of a parrot belonging to the father of 
Admiral Sir J. Sullivan, which invariably called certain 
persons of the household, as well as visitors, by their names. 
He said " good morning " to everyone at breakfast, and " good 
night" to each as they left the room at night, and never 
reversed their salutations. To his master he used to add to 
the " good morning " a short sentence, never repeated after his 
master's death. He scolded a parrot which had got out of its 
cage and was eating apples on the kitchen table, calling it 
" you naughty Polly." Similar instances of the proper appli- 
cation of spoken words could be indefinitely multiplied, but I 
will only quote the account given by Dr. Samuel Wilkes 

1892.] Mental Evolution in Man and Lower Animals. 491 

F. R. S. of his own parrot, which lie carefully observed. 1 Be 
says that when alone this bird used to " utter a long catalogue 
of its sayings, more especially if 'it beard ta l kin g in the dis- 
tance, as if wishing to join in the conversation, but at other 
times a particular word or phrase is only spoken when sug- 
gested by a person or object. Thus, certain friends who have 
addressed this bird frequently by some peculiar expression, 
or the whistling of an air, will always be welcomed by the 
same words or tune, and as regards myself, when I enter the 
house— for my foot-step is recognized— the bird will repeat 
one of my sayings. My coachman coming for orders lias so 
often been told ' half-past two,' that no sooner does he come 
to the door than Poll exclaims 'half past two!' Having 
found her awake at night I have said 'go to sleep " and now 
if I approach the cage after dark the same words are repeated. 
Then as regards objects, if certain words hare been spohn in 
connection with them, these are em after amocM together. 
for example, at dinner time the parrot, having been accus- 
tomed to have savory morsels given to her, I taught her to 
say < give me a bit ' This she now constantly repeats, but 
only and appropriately at dinner time. The bird associates 
the expression with something to eat. Again being very 
fond of cheese, she easily picked up the word, and always 
asks for cheese at the end of the dinner course and at no 
other time. She is also fond of nuts, and when these are on 
the table she utters a peculiar squeak : this she has not been 
taught, but it is Poll's own name for unto for the sound is 
never heard until the fruit is in sight Some noises which 
she utters have been obtained from the objects *"■** 
as that of a corkscrew at the sight of a bottle of winder the 
noise of water poured into a tumbler, on seeing a hottle of 
water. The passage of the servant down the ha 1 to open the 
hall door, suggests a noise of moving hinges, followed by a 
loud whistle for a cab." . . . , . 

No animal hitherto under observat.on in England, ha, 
shown a more remarkable comprehension of spoken words 
than the lately in the Gardens, 

492 The American Naturalist. [Jane, 

London. This ape learned from her keeper so many words 
and phrases, that in this respect she resembled a child shortly 
before it begins to speak. Moreover it was not only particular 
words and phrases which she thus learnt to understand, but, 
to a large extent, " she understands the combination of these 
words and phrases into sentences, so that the keeper is able 
to explain to the animal what it is he expects her to do. 
For example she will push a straw through any particular 
mesh in the net-work of her cage which he indicates by 
such phrases as ' the one nearest your foot : now the one 
next the key -hole ; now the one above the bar/ etc., etc. Of 
course there is no pointing to the places thus verbally desig- 
nated, nor is any order observed in the designation. The 
animal understands what is meant by the words alone, and 
this even when a particular mesh is named by the keeper 
remarking to her the accident of its having a piece of straw 
already attached to it." This Chimpanzee could also count 
correctly as far as five. She was asked for two straws, five 
straws, one straw, etc., no order being observed in the requests. 
If she were asked for four straws she successively picked up 
three straws and put them in her mouth, then she picked up 
the fourth and handed over all the four together; the ape 
having been taught, if more than one straw were asked for, to 
hold the others in her mouth until the sum was completed. 
The Crow is little behind the Chimpanzee in arithmetical 
genius if Monsieur Leroy Ranger at Versailles is to be trusted, 
and as his life-work consisted in watching the wild and tame 
animals of the royal domain, he was hardly likely to be 
deceived. He says " crows will not return to their nests dur- 
day-light, if they see anyone waiting to shoot them. If to 
lull suspicion a hut is made below the rookery, and a man 
conceals himself in it with a gun, he waits in vain if the 
bird has ever before been shot at in a similar manner. She 
knows that fire will issue from the cave into which she saw 
the man enter. To deceive these suspicious birds, the plan 
was hit upon of sending two men into the watch-house, one of 
whom passed on, whilst the other remained. But the crow 
counted and kept her distance. The next day three went, 


and again she perceived that only two retained. In fine it 

was found necessary to send five or six men to the watch- 
house, in order to put her out of lur calculations.' 1 The ape 
and the crow here contrast advantageously with savages wlio 
can only count up to one and two. ami with the Dammaras 
who apparently can count only one. In halving sheep from 
a Dammara one must pay for each sheep separately, for it a 
stick of tobacco is the price agreed on tor a sheep, it would 
sorely puzzle the simple savage to take two sheep and give 
him two sticks. 1 One stick must he paid for each sheep 

Of the intelligence of the special friend of man in the under- 
standing of spoken words innumerable instances could be 
given, and many will, no doubt, recur to the mind of any 
person who has ever owned or watched a dog. Hogg the 
" Ettrick Shepherd " had a collie who understood most things 
his master said to him. On one occasion Hogg observed in 
the most natural tone possible. " I'm thinking the cow's in 
the potatoes." Immediately the dog, which had been lying 
half asleep on the floor, jumped up, ran into the potato field, 
round the house, and up the roof to take a survey ; but find- 
ing no cow in the potatoes, lay down again. Some little time 
afterwards his master said in a tone of conviction : " I'm sure 
the cow's in the potatoes," when the same scene was repeated. 
But on trying it a third time, the dog only wagged its tail. 1 
had a rough terrier named "Butts" which had. like most 
dogs, a horror of a bath. If the fatal words " Butts must he 
washed," or "Butts must have a bath" were uttered in his 
presence, he would like the "Snark" slowly and silently 
vanish away, and would be found— if found at all-cowering 
under the remotest of beds, trembling with apprehension. 

From the comprehension of spoken words, (with their imita- 

:?;'::• J^t'^t; „ ^ *. ,.— - . *, -« 

-Peter." who undonb.edly understands spoken »°«>^ ™' °^^L™ a 

494 The American Naturalist [j un e, 

live use by parrots) we come to the question of the origin of 
language. Did it spring from the human mind, ready 
equipped for all uses, like Minerva from the brain of Jove ? 
Or was its origin as simple and as humble, as evolution has 
shown the early beginnings of other things to be ? 

In studying the evidence for mental evolution supplied by 
language, it is essential to begin with the most primitive 
forms known to us. Instead therefore of having recourse to 
Sanskrit and kindred Aryan languages, the product of the 
mental processes of the highest race of man, we must examine 
the forms of speech of primitive people, and of semi-civilized 
and savage tribes. Here again ontogeny may take us further 
and deeper than phylogeny, and problems which have puzzled 
the learned may find their solution in the nursery. 

The dawning wishes and desires of an infant are expressed 
by indeterminate movements of the legs and arms. A vigorous 
kicking of the legs will express the joy of a healthy baby at 
being taken from a place of which it is tired to a fresh room, 
or out-of-doors. Perhaps the first determinate movement that 
can be noticed is the forward movement of the arms with the 
hope of being taken by father, mother, or nurse, and the next, 
the stretching out of the hands for some coveted object, both 
occurring very early in a healthy baby. The frustration of 
these desires, as most of us know to our cost, is accompanied 
by most piercing vocal demonstrations indicating pain, anger, 
or disappointment. I cannot help regarding these vocal 
demonstrations as survivals from the mode of expressing him- 
self " Homo alalus." And if Miocene man roared and screamed 
as lustily in proportion to his size, as does our modern baby, 
the din must have been truly appalling, and calculated to 
strike terror into the heart of the Mastodon himself. 
(To be continued.) 

Unionidie of Spoon River. 



By W. S. Strode, M. D. 1 

This report or review of the Unionidie of Fulton County, 
Illinois, is based mainly on researches made on Spoon River, a 
tributary of the Illinois and at a point about twenty miles 
from its mouth. It is a sinuous, winding stream, something over 
100 miles long and with a width varying from 100 to 150 feet. 
The valley through which it courses averages about one mile 
in width. In many places cultivated fields come up to the 
very banks of the stream, and then alternate with strips of 
timber, or a fringe four or five rods wide of willow, silver maple 
or elm, is left by the thrifty farmer to protect and hold the 
banks. Occasionally a great white-armed sycamore is still to 
be seen, a veritable giant left standing as a memento of the 
great forest that once filled all this beautiful valley. 

The bed and banks of the stream present a variety of con- 
ditions suitable to the tastes and habits of a large number of 
the Unionidse. 

Deposits of black mud, or of mud and clay, sand-banks, and 
long stretches of rockv or pebbly bottom covered with a suffi- 
cient deposit of mud and sand to afford a burrowing place 
for the molluscs of the river. 

The river is a clear-running spring-fed stream, with but little 
iron, lime or other corroding substances to damage or disfigure 
the shells; consequently they grow to a size and attain a 
beauty of markings and coloration not often excelled in the 
same species found in other water courses. 

My observations have for the most part been confined to a 
part of the stream lying within four or five miles above and 
below the village of Bernadotte, and at such odd times and 
moments as a busy practitioner could spare from a large 
country practice. Provided with a bag or basket, and attired 
in gum boots reaching to the hips, a hurried run would be 

496 The American Naturalist [June, 

made to the beds of mussels a half mile or more above or below 
the mill-dam and in an hour's time a bushel or two of specimens 
would be taken, the collection perhaps representing fifteen to 
twenty species. 
Unio rectus Lamarck. 

Not abundant, and fine young shells not often found ; both 
the white and purple nacre specimens are found. Shells seven 
to seven and a half inches in length are met with. 
U. gibbosus Barnes. 

Adult shells are common at a locality a mile below the 
village. Young uneroded specimens harder to obtain, nacre 
both liver colored and white and occasionally one is found with 
the shadings beautifully intermingled in the central parts, 
and with a marginal band of deep purple. 
U. anodontoides Lea. 

Common ; found everywhere associated in small groups or 
singly. Not a hundred yards of bank can anywhere be found, 
where there is not more or less of the younger shells, which 
have been carried out by the muskrats or minks and from 
which a meal has been obtained from their juicy contents. 

It would be interesting to know why Lea gave this hand- 
some species its peculiar name, for it is as unlike an Anodonta 
as it well could be. The large old specimens are a rich 
horn color, while younger shells are almost white, and some 
beautifully rayed with greenish lines. These three allied 
species maintain characteristics and markings entirely distinct 
from each other. 
Jj. plicata LeSueur. 

Very numerous ; wagon loads of them are taken out every 
season by fishermen to bait trout lines ; bushels of them are 
carried away, and after the epidermis is removed by ashes 
water, they are utilized in the cemeteries for grave decora- 
tions ; they are also much used as an edging to flower beds, 
and walks. A score of years ago, rings made of this shell were 
in considerable demand and some village geniuses worked up 
quite a paying industry in their manufacture. A piece of the 
shell would be worked down by grinding, and the use of drills, 

1892.] TJnionidoz of Spoon River. 497 

round files, etc., a bit of the sky-tinted edge would be worked 
into a set, and this would sometimes be further enriched by the 
addition of a silver moon and stars, making a very pretty and 
unique ornament that would readily bring the maker one or 
two dollars. 
U. multipUcatus Lea. 

This species seems to me to be identical with U. undulatus 
Barnes, and U. heros Say. It is not common in Spoon river, 
but grows to an extraordinary size. Specimens have been 
taken eight and a half inches long, and weighing several 
pounds. It is indeed a hero in size. 
U. ligamentinus Lamarck. 

A numerous species, and growing very large ; nacre always 
a pearly white in this locality. Some shells received from 
Wisconsin show a pink-tinted nacre. From a shell of this 
Unio, I took a year ago, one of the finest pearls that I have 
ever seen, a perfect oval, as large as a small white bean. 
U. oecidens Lea. 

Quite common, and the handsomest Unio in Illinois ; no two 
are alike, there being as great a variety in their markings as 
there are shells. About one in ten is of the rare pink variety, as 
beautiful as any sea-shell. The oecidens like the anodontoides 
is a great traveler, and I have tracked them for hundreds of 
feet in shallow water before coming up to them. 
U. ventricosus Barnes. 

This species is probably a synonym of the preceding, at 
any rate if they are two distinct species they shade so inter- 
minably into each other that I do not know where to draw 
the line separating them. The large U. ventricosus is probably 
the male of oecidens. 
V. capax Green. 

Several specimens that I have sent out as oecidens, have 
been pronounced by competent conchologists as the above 
species. But»as yet I doubt the correctness of their diagnosis 
and do not believe the true capax is to be found in Spoon 

498 The American Naturalist. [June, 

U. luteolus Lamarck. 

This almost universally distributed species, is not without its 
representation in the rivers of Illinois. 
U. tuberculatum Barnes. 

" Very common and fine ; growing to a length of six and a 
half to seven inches. A characteristic species, totally unlike 
any other Unio. Found in many parts of the United States, 
and in all waters and localities maintaining its distinct in- 
dividuality. In northern waters, nacre white. In the far 
south a few specimens are found in which it is purple. 
U. alatus Say. 

Not numerous, but found sparingly all along the river. One 
was found two years ago, nine inches long. 
U. lasvissimus Lea. 

Very plentiful and fine ; a beautiful glossy epidermis and 
purple nacre. 
U. gracilis Barnes. 

Quite common in certain localities ; grows quite large, but 
the older shells show much erosion and are apt to be indented 
or otherwise injured. This Unio and the two preceding it, are 
a family group, and present many characteristics in common. 

, but a few fine large ones are found, always pre- 
senting the peculiar liver colored nacre of this species. The 
young ones I have not yet met with. Have received this shell 
from Iowa under the name of U. graniferus Lea. 
LI pustulosis Lea. 

One of the most numerous of all the unios found in Illinois. 
In Spoon river all sizes from the small young shells to the 
largest adults are easily found. 
U.pustulotus Lea. 

Not so common as the preceding but distinguished from it 
by the lesser number and larger size of the pustule. 
U. lacrymosus Lea. Synonym asperrimus Lea. 

Plentiful, and beautifully marked ; does not grow so large 
in Spoon river, as in the rivers of Indiana; some shells 

1892 .j Unionidce of Spoon River. 

received from White river being fully twice as large a 
found in Illinois. 
V. fragosm Conrad. 

closely allied to U. lacrymosus Lea 
• Rafinesque. 

some localities and i 


U. comutus Barnes. 

A unique species. I know of no locality in Illinois where 
it can be found in abundance. After a season's searching on 
the "Spoon" I am not rewarded with over twelve or fifteen, 
but these present such a variety of coloring of from green to 
red, and so odd in character with their knob or horn-like pro- 
jections that each find is welcomed as a prize. 
U. ebeneus Lea. 

A few found in the Spoon; more common in the Illinois 
near Pekin. 
U. elegans Lea. 

This fine shell does not belie its name ; it is truly an elegant 
Unio; found associated with the next species to which it is 
U. donaciformis Lea. Synonym zigzag Lea. 

Far more common than the elegant. A very handsome 
pink variety is found in Spoon river. 

U 'l7eTy common mollusc found everywhere on ^e Spoon ; 
easily dLinguished by its velvety epidermis and the red 
meat of the animal. 
U. obliquus Lamarck. 

17. orbiculatus Hild. 

A few found. A doubtful species. 
V. parvus Barnes. 

Common above the dam in deep water. 
U. ellipsis Lea. 


500 The American Naturalist. [June, 

U. solidtts Lea. 

U. subovatus Lea. 

Not common. 
U. ivardii Lea. 

Not common. 
Margaritana complanata Barnes. 

Quite common, and the largest Margaritana. 
M. rugosa Barnes. 

Common, large and fine ; salmon colored nacre. 
M. marginata Say. 

A few found in the Spoon. 
M. hildrethiana Lea. 

Have found them only in one locality on the Spoon. A 
half mile below the village of Bernadotte where a great ledge 
of rocks, juts out over the river ; here at low tide the muskrats 
carry them to the flat top of a rock ; and in no other place have 
I been able to find them. 
M. calceola Lea. 

A few in the Spoon, more common in the Illinois. 

Anodonta grandis Say. 

Truly a grand species ; specimens six to seven inches long 
have been taken. More common above the dam in deep 

A. decora Lea. 

More common in the Spoon than the preceding, and much 
more fragile. 
A. plana Lea. 

A fine shell ; groups with the preceding, but much less 

, quite variable in coloration. 

UnionidcB oj Spoon River. 


A. imbetilis Say. 

Common near the " Big Rocks " a half mile down the river. 
Not so large as specimens received from other localities, but 
epidermis a more brilliant green. 
A. corpulenta Cooper. 
A. suborbiculata Say. 

Two characteristic and beautiful Anodons, found in a lake 
near the mouth of Spoon river. The A. mborbmilaia Say, is a 
fine yellow, waxy looking shell, and does not seem to be in any 
way related to any other Anodon. 

I also found in this lake a variety of 17. anodontoides but half 
the size of those found in Spoon river, and differing from it 
somewhat in shape. 

The American Xuturalixt. 


Allen, H. — Descriptio 
remarks on Carollia brevu 
291-298. From the Museum. 

Baur, G.— Notes on Some Little-known American Fossil Tortoises. Ext. Pro- 
ceeds. Phil. Acad., 1891, pp. 411-430. From the author. 

, P. Seal in Chesapeake Bay at Cape Charles 
Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, Pr . 

Boss, L.— A Statement in Respect to tke United States Naval Observatory and its 
Organization. Albany, 1891. From the author. 

Bull. American Association of Conchologists, Oct. 1, 1890. 

Butler, A. W. — Notes on the Range and Habits of the Carolina Parrakeet. Ext. 
Auk., Jan., 1892. From the author. 

Bulletin of the Essex Institute, July, Dec, 1891. 

Chapman, F. A. — Preliminary Study of the Grackles of the sub-genus Quiscalus. 
Ext. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. IV, pp. 1-16. From the Museum. 

Clevenger, S. V.— Softening of the Brain. Ext. the Times and Register, July 4, 
1891. From the author. 

Cragin, F. W.— On a Leaf bearing Terrane in the Loup Fork. 

New Observations of the Genus Trinacromerum. Ext. Am. Geol., Sept., 

1891. From the author. 

Deperet, C— Sur l'Existence d't 

Dixon, S. G.— Possibility of Establishing Tolerance for the Tubercle Bacillus. 
Ext. Med. News, Oct. 19, 1889. From the author. 

Dollo, L.-Premiere Note sur les Mosasauriens de Maestricht. Ext. Bull. Soc. 
Beige de Geol., Tome IV, 1890. From the author. 

Eigenmann, C. H., and R. S. Eigenmann.— A Catalogue of the Fresh Water 
Fishes of South America. Ext. Proceeds. U. S.Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 1-81- 

Evermann, B., and O. P. Jenkins.— Report upon a Collection of Fishes made at 
Guaymas, Sonora, Mex., with descriptions of new species. Ext. Proceeds. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 121-165. From the Museum. 

Flower, W. H.— The Horse. A Study in Natural History. London, 189L 

Forbes, S. A.— On an American Earthworm of the Family Phreoryctidse. 

An American Terrestrial Leech. Ext. Bull. 111. Lab. Nat. Hist., Vol. HI- 

From the author. 

Garman, H.— An Undescribed Larva from Mammoth Cave. Ext. Bull. Ess. 
Inst., Vol. XXIII, 1891. 

On a Singular Gland Possessed by the Male Hadenoecus subterranecus. Ext. 

1892.] Recant Books and Pamphlets. 503 
The Transformations and Habits of Disonycha glabrata. Ext. Agri. Sci., 

Garman, S— On the Species of Chalcinus; On Species of Gasteropelecus ; On 
Species of Cynopotamus ; On the Species of Anostomus. Extrs. Bull. Ess. Insti., 
Vol. XXII, Nos. 1 , 2 and 3, 1890. From the author. 

Gatschet, A. S.— The Karankawa Indians, the Court People of Texas. Arch, 
and Eth. Papers of Peabody Mus., Vol. I, No. 2. From the author. 

Gilbert, C. H.— Description of a New Species of Etheostoma (£. micropenis) 
from Chihuahua, Mex. Ext. Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIII, No. 823. From 
the Museum. 

Gruber, A— Ueber den Werth der Specialising fur die Erforschung und Auf- 
fassung der Natur. Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Vierter Band, 
Viertes Heft. From the author. 

Haeckel, E.— Anthropogenie oder Entwickelungsgeschichte des Menschen 
Keimes- und Stammes-geschichte. 2 Vols. From the author. 

James, J. F.— Studies in Problematic Organisms. The Genus Scolithus. Ext. 
Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 3, 1891. From the author. 

Jordan, D. S.— Relations of Temperature to Vertebrae Among Fishes. Ext. 
Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 107-120. From the Museum. 

to send future publications of the National Museum. Ext. Rep. Nat. Mus., 1888-89, 
pp. 191-277. From the Smith. Inst. 

Lucas, F. A.— Animals Recently Extinct or Threatened with Extermination as 
represented in the collections of the U. S. Nat. Mus. Ext. Report NaL Mus., 1888- 

On the Structure of the Tongue in Humming Birds. Ext. Proceeds. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 169-172, with plate IV. From the Museum. 

MASON, O. T.— Aboriginal Skin Dressing. A study based upon material in the 

Mendenhall, T. C— The Relations of Men of Science to the General Public. 
Address delivered at the meeting A. A. A. S., Aug., 1890. From the author. 

Mus. de la Plata, Tomo I, 1891. From the author. 

Merrill, G. P.— Preliminary Handbook of the Department of Geology in the 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Ext. Report Nat. Mus., 1888-89, appendix pp. 1-50. From the 

Netto, Ladislau.— Le Museum National de Rio de Janeiro et son Influence sur 
les Sciences Naturelles au Bresil. From the author. 

Paquin, P.— The Supreme Passions of Man. From the Little Blue Book Co., 

Porter, R. P.— The Eleventh Census. An address before the Am. Statis. Asso., 
Oct. 16, 1891. From the author. 
Remodino, P. C. — Longevi 

r Collecting Birds. Pt. A, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 

504 The American Naturalist. [June, 

Am. Jour. Science, Vol. XLIII, Feb., 1892. 

Stearns, R. E. C— List of North American Land and Fresh Water Shells 
Received from the U. S. Dipt. Agri., with notes and comments thereon. Ext. Pro- 
ceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 95-106. 

List of Shells Collectef on the West Coast of South Amend 

between Latitudes 7° 30' S. and 80o 49' N. by Dr. W. H, Jones, Surgeon U. S. N. 
Ext. Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV, pp. 307-335. From the author. 

Stejneger, L., and F. C. Test.— Description of a New Genus and Species of 
Tailless Batrachian from Tropical America. Ext. Proceeds. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 
XIV, pp. 167-168. From the Museum. 

Tarr, R. S— The Peruvian of Texas. Ext. Am. Jour. Science. Vol. XLIII, 

Towne, E. C— Electricity and Life; The Electro-Vital Theory of Nature. 
From the author. 

Trotter, S. — Zoology ; Abstract of Lectures. From the author. 

United States Census Bulletin, Dec. 12, 1890. 

Voissin, L.— Nature Worship Among the Burmese. Ext. Jour. Am. Folk-Lore, 

Ward, L. F.— The Plant-bearing Deposits of the American Trias. Ext. Bull. 
Geol. Soc, Am., Vol. Ill, 1891. 

Principles and Methods of Geologic Correlation by Means of Fossil Plants. 

Ext. Am. Geol., Vol. IX, No. 1, 1892. From the author. 

Watkins, J. E.— The Development of the American Rail and Track as Repre- 
sented by the Collection in the U. S. National Museum. Ext. Report of the Nat. 
Mus., 1888-90, pp. 651-708. From the Smithsonian Institution. 

White, C. N.— On the Bear River Formation, a series of Strata Hitherto Known 
as the Bear River Laramie. Ext. Am. Jour. Science, Vol. XLIII, Feb., 1892. 

Wilder, B. G. — The Morphological Importance of the Membranous or other 
Thin Portions of the Parieties of the Encephalic Cavities. Ext. Jour. Comp. Murol., 
1891, pp. 201-203. 

mclature. Ext. Med. Nrtvs, 

The Fundamental Principles of Anatomical J 

)ec, 1891. 

Fissural Diagrams ; American Reports Upon 1 

890. From the author. 

Williston, S. W.— Kansas Mosasaurs. Ext. Sci 

Woodward, A. S. — Note on the Occurrence of th 
ene Deposits of the Thames Valley. Ext. Procee< 


eous of Brazil 

I, discovered by Joseph Mawson, Esq., 

Ext. Science, Dec. 3, 1891. From t 

Mag., Decade III, Vol. VIII, 1891. From the a 

Geology and Paleontology. 

<£weral Notes. 


Fresh- Water Diatomaceous Deposit from Staked Plains, 
Texas.— Some nearly white earth, very light in weight, from Crosby 
County, Texas, and within the Staked Plains region was submitted by 
Prof. E. D. Cope to the first of the undersigned authors for 

In a contribution to the " Vertebrate Paleontology of Texas," page 
123 of the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Prof. 
Cope states that this material is from the Blanco Canon beds as 
named by Mr. Cummins in the first annual report of the Geological 
Survey of Texas, 1890, page 190, and describes it as a "white 
siliceous friable chalk." 

Under the microscope this earth is found to be constituted almost 
entirely of the siliceous skeletal remains of fresh-water diatoms, 
probably 90 per cent, of the body of the earth being made up of these 
minute single celled forms of plant life. The mass was disintegrated 
and the diatoms separated and cleaned by J. A. Shulze after which 
the forms were referred to C. Henry Kain for identification which he 
has done with much care and after consultation with various authori- 
ties, both by personal letter and through the medium of their 

He reports : " This is a fresh-water fossil deposit. The species con- 
tained in it may now be found living in Utah and in the Yellowstone 
Park. Many of the species are also common to fresh water streams 

The following number of species, twenty-seven in number, though 
not exhaustive, is nearly so. 

Amphora ovalis Ehr. ; Amphora xincinatum Ehr. 1 ; Achnanthes ven- 
tricosa Ehr. ; Campy lodiscus clypeus Ehr.* ; Cymbella cistula Hempr. ; 
x T}iis is doubtless the form which Ehrenberg figures as Coeconema undnatum— 
see Proc. Roy. Acad. Berlin, 1870, pi. 1 (II) fig. 9. It is however really an Amphora. 
*In a preliminary list furnished by C. H. Kain, and published by Prof. E. D. Cope 
in the paper before referred to (see page 123) this form is noted as C buo tutu , 
having been wrongly identified before the cleaning of the material rendered the 
markings plainly visible. 

506 The American Naturalist. [June, 

Cymbella lanceolatum Ehr. ; Denticula valida Pediceno ; Epithemia 
gibba (Ehr.), Kutz ; Epithemia gibba var. parallela Grim ; Epithemia 
zebra Ehr., Kutz; Epithemia gibberula (Ehr.), Kutz var. producta 
Grim; Epithemia constricta Breb ; Encyonema ventricosum Kutz; 
Gomphonema elavatum Ehr.; Fragillaria virescens Ralfs. ; Navicula 
major Kutz ; Navicula viridis Kutz ; Navicula rostrata Ehr. forma 
minor; Navicula bohemica Ehr.; Navicula elliptica var. minutissum 
Grim ; Navicula decurrens ; Navicula varians Greg. ; Navicula brebis- 
sonii Kutz; Navicula forma Km/: Xltzschia brebissoiiiaWsm.; Nitz- 
schia spectabilis (Ehr.), Ralfs. ; Surrirella geroltii var.— Lewis Wool- 
man and C. Henry Kain. 

In the paper previously referred to Prof. Cope notes the occurrence 
in this diatomaceous stratum of a " Mastodon of the angustidens 
type " and of a horse allied to the Equus ocidentalis of Leidy, and 
defines the latter as a new species to which he assigns the name Equus 
simplicidens ; and indicates by a comparison of Equus and Mastodon 
fauna that the age of the Blanco Canon beds is probably intermediate 
between that of the Equus beds and the Loup Fork beds or the 
equivalent of the pliocene proper. 

In view of this determination of the age of these beds the close cor- 
respondence of all the specific forms of diatoms above listed becomes 
interesting as showing the wide geological range for the forms of these 

Is Meniscotherium a Member of the Chalicotheriodea ?— 
The description of the complete foot structure of Meniscotherium or 
Hyracops by Marsh 1 tends to confirm the supposition I advanced in 
the Naturalist of October, 1891. At the time, I stated that the 
structure of the skull and teeth of Meniscotherium pointed to a striking 
similarity between this Wahsatch genus and the Miocene Chalico- 
therium, but that the question would turn upon the foot structure of 
the earlier form. 

I reproduce here, side by side, for purposes of comparison, the fore 
and hind feet of Meniscotherium (Hyracops) sociale Marsh, and of 
iitm, from the figures of Gervais. 

It will be seen at once that both are essentially tridactyl types. In 
Meniscotherium the three middle digits are greatly enlarged while the 
outer digits I and V are equally reduced in both the manus and pes, 
indicating that the feet are well established upon the tridactyl basis. 
Marsh describes the ungual phalanges, as intermediate between hoofs 

1892.] Geology and Paleontology. 507 

and claws. "Their extremities are thin, somewhat expanded, and 
more like those of primates than of any other group. They were 
apparently covered by thin nails." There is no displacement but the 

Fore and Hind Fee' tfter Marsh, 

carpals and tarsals are serial and there does not seem to be even any 
metapodial displacement. The inference is that Meniscotherium was, 
unlike Chalicotherium, a semi-plantigrade. 

Many marked differences should also be noted. As I pointed out 
in comparing the limbs of Chalicotherium with those of Palaeosyops, 
the displacement in the former is exactly similar to that in the Peris- 
sodactyla. We also note the extremely short neck of the astragalus 
in Chalicotherium as contrasted with the Jong slender neck of BfenUeo- 
therium. There is also a great transformation in the claws. Most of 

508 The American Naturalist. [June, 

these differences may have been bridged over in the long period inter- 
vening between the Wahsatch and the Miocene. We find cases of a 
similar transformation in other lines both in the reduction of the lateral 
toes and in th*e displacement. The characters which unite and separ- 
ate these forms may be summed up as follows : 

Meniscotherium. Chalicotherium. 

Tridactyl (functionally) Tridactyl (structurally). 

Main axis through third digit Main axis through fourth digit. 

Sub-ungulate Unguiculate. 

Carpals and tarsals serial Carpals and tarsals displaced as in 


Centrale and (tibiale) Wanting. 

A fibulo-calcaneal facet None. 

Anterior portion of dental series 

reduced Same reduced or wanting. 

Superior molar buno-selenodont Superior molars buno-selenodout. 

Metaconid reduplicate Metaconid reduplicate. 

A mesostyle A mesostyle. 

Fore and Hind Feet of Chalicotherium after Gervais. 

!892.] Geology and Paleontology. 509 

No third lobe on last lower molar...No third lobe on last lower molar. 
Hypocone and metaconule united 

Hypocone and metaconule united 

Altogether, the resemblances between these two forms are funda- 
mentaC the differences are mainly such as separate many lower 
Eocene from middle Miocene forms. Although no intermediate forms 
are known, there is a presumption in favor of a genetic relationship. 
At all events Meniscotherium will probably be removed from the 
Condylarthra, where it has always held an anomalous position 
and be placed in the Chalicotheriodea.— Henry F. Osborn, Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History. May 3rd, 1892. 

Geological News.— General.— In a preliminary paper on the 
Ouachita Mountain System in Indian Territory, Mr. Robt. T. Hill 
remarks that these mountains should no longer be omitted from our 
maps, for they constitute the foundation of all later geologic structure 
in the Texas region, differentiating it from the Kanaw-Miasouri 
region in both present and past geologic times back to the earlier 
Mesozoic epochs, and influencing all the main river courses of Indian 
Territory whose great southward bends are an adaptation to the strike 
of this mountain system, the Washita alone having cut through it, 
(Am. Journ. Sci., Aug., 1891). Paleozoic-Mr. M. E. Wads- 
worth announces that the recent observation of the "South Trap Range 
east of Lake Gogebic in Michigan shows that both the lava flows, and 
the eastern sandstone dip at a low angle, are one formation, and are as 
conformable as eruptions of lava can be with a contemporaneous sedi- 
mentary deposit. (Am. Journ. Sci., Nov., 1891). Cenozoic. 

—A new species of Moa from New Zealand is announced by Mr. 
Lydekker, Pachyornis rothchildi. The speciesjs founded on the light 
femur and the two tibio-tarsi and tarso-metatarsi figured and described 

in the Proceeds. London Zool. Soc, Nov., 1891. The bird-bones 

collected by Major Forsyth from the Plistocene beds of Corsica and 
Sardinia have been referred by Mr. Lydekker to the following families: 
Stringes, Aceiptres, Picaria, Passeres, Columbce Galling and Tur- 
binates. (Proceeds. Zool. Soc, London, 1891., P-^ 67 )— JJ^*^ 
Salisbury records 

facts which warrant the conclu 

glaciation extended further southward than the hitherto accepted 
terminal moraine. The character of this extra-moramic drift indicates 
that it is probably the equivalent of the oldest glacial drift of the 
interior. (Bull. Geol. Soc, Am., 1892, p. 173). 

The American Naturalist. 


Quartz and Feldspar Inclusions in Diabase.— Backstrom 2 has 
discovered in several Scandinavian diabases inclusions of quartz and feld- 
spar, and has carefully studied the effects produced by the reactions 
between them and the enclosing rock magma. The diabase consists of 
labradorite, three augites, magnetite and several secondary substances, 
and has a structure that differs slightly from the diabasic structure, in 
that the angles between the plagioclase and the more or less columnar 
augite, are filled with a groundmass of feldspar laths, pyroxene 
needles, magnetite and chlorite. Near the quartz inclusions the quan- 
tity of the groundmass increases and the diabasic structure becomes 
obscure, until it finally disappears, and in its place is seen a porphy- 
ritic aggregate with thick tabular crystals of plagioclase, well formed 
augite prisms and large grains of magnetite in a groundmass that 
occupies a third or a half of the field of view. Very near the quartz 
the plagioclase become smaller, and spherulites of quartz and feld- 
spar more abundant, of which the latter mineral is either orthoclase 
or oligoclase. The feldspathic inclusions in the rock are orthoclase, 
microline and plagioclase. The action of the magma upon the micro- 
line is shown in the existence in it of ' solution-spaces, ' which are 
spaces dissolved from the midst of the mineral and afterwards filled 
with rock magma, from which have crystallized pyrite, magnetite, 
ilmenite, needles of pyroxene, lath-shaped crystals of oligoclase, grains 
of quartz, calcite and masses of chlorite. The orthoclase inclusions 
sometimes become granulated, or filled with long lenticular areas of a 
feldspar whose origin is the same as that of the miner